27,589 results match your criteria cortical surface


Effects on Ridge Dimensions, Bone Density, and Implant Primary Stability with Osseodensification Approach in Implant Osteotomy Preparation.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2021 May-Jun;36(3):474-484

Purpose: To compare the amount of bone expansion, bone density change, and implant primary stability with an osseodensification technique to a conventional drilling protocol.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four bovine rib segments (20 × 25 × 4 mm) with a 1-mm outer layer of cortical bone were randomly divided into two groups: an osseodensification group and a conventional drilling group. Each bone sample received one 4. Read More

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Short-term glucocorticoid excess blunts abaloparatide-induced increase in femoral bone mass and strength in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12258. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biomedicine, Health, Aarhus University, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 3, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Glucocorticoids (GCs), such as prednisolone, are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases. Continuously long-term or high dose treatment with GCs is one of the most common causes of secondary osteoporosis and is associated with sarcopenia and increased risk of debilitating osteoporotic fragility fractures. Abaloparatide (ABL) is a potent parathyroid hormone-related peptide analog, which can increase bone mineral density (aBMD), improve trabecular microarchitecture, and increase bone strength. Read More

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assessment of periapical lesions created in sheep mandibles by using high resolution ultrasonography and cone beam computed tomography.

Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2021 Jun 10:20210048. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Dept of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: Providing ultrasound images of periapical lesions may be problematic depending on the thickness of the overlying cortical bone. Clinically, it is crucial to determine the cut-off value of overlaying bone thickness in terms of interference with ultrasound imaging in conjunction with assessment of changes in periapical jaw bone lesions. Our aim was to determine the minimum amount of overlaying buccal bone thickness of artificial periapical lesions in order to be visible by ultrasound imaging and to compare width, height, depth, surface area and volume measurements of detectable periapical lesions obtained from ultrasound and CBCT images. Read More

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[CME Sonography 99: Kidney Echo Changes].

Authors:
Jan Tuma

Praxis (Bern 1994) 2021 Jun;110(8):461-468

Ultrasound Learning Center (ULC) der European Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB), Klinik Hirslanden, Zürich.

CME Sonography 99: Kidney Echo Changes Normal kidneys have a smooth contour, kidney length 9-12 cm, volume 90-180 ml/1.73 m2 body surface, parenchyma width 13-18 mm and an echogenicity of the cortex which is hypoechoic compared to the liver and spleen, as well as medullary pyramids, which are again hypoechoic compared to the cortex. Digital ultrasound images enable the echogenicity to be measured between 0 (black) and 255 (white). Read More

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Planar polarization of cilia in the zebrafish floor-plate involves Par3-mediated posterior localization of highly motile basal bodies.

Development 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS UMR7622, INSERM U1156, Institut de Biologie Paris Seine (IBPS) - Developmental Biology Unit, 75005, Paris, France.

Epithelial cilia, whether motile or primary, often display an off-centered planar localization within the apical cell surface. This form of planar cell polarity (PCP) involves the asymmetric positioning of the ciliary basal body (BB). Using the mono-ciliated epithelium of the embryonic zebrafish floor-plate, we investigated the dynamics and mechanisms of BB polarization by live-imaging. Read More

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Runx2 is required for bone matrix protein gene expression in committed osteoblasts in mice.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Basic and Translational Research Center for Hard Tissue Disease, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.

Runx2 is an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. However, its functions after the commitment into osteoblasts are controversial and remain to be clarified. We generated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-Cre transgenic mice driven by the 2. Read More

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cAMP Signaling-Mediated Phosphorylation of Diacylglycerol Lipase α Regulates Interaction With Ankyrin-G and Dendritic Spine Morphology.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, and Pharmacology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois; Center for Autism and Neurodevelopment, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα), a major biosynthetic enzyme for endogenous cannabinoid signaling, has emerged as a risk gene in multiple psychiatric disorders. However, its role in the regulation of dendritic spine plasticity is unclear.

Methods: DAGLα wild-type or point mutants were overexpressed in primary cortical neurons or human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Read More

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A Systematic Review of Cognition-Brain Morphology Relationships on the Schizophrenia-Bipolar Disorder Spectrum.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Centre for Mental Health, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, School of Health Sciences, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.

The nature of the relationship between cognition and brain morphology in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) and bipolar disorder (BD) is uncertain. This review aimed to address this, by providing a comprehensive systematic investigation of links between several cognitive domains and brain volume, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area in SSD and BD patients across early and established illness stages. An initial search of PubMed and Scopus databases resulted in 1486 articles, of which 124 met inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. Read More

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Long-Lasting Event-Related Beta Synchronizations of Electroencephalographic Activity in Response to Support-Surface Perturbations During Upright Stance: A Pilot Study Associating Beta Rebound and Active Monitoring in the Intermittent Postural Control.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 21;15:660434. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Mechanical Science and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Movement related beta band cortical oscillations, including beta rebound after execution and/or suppression of movement, have drawn attention in upper extremity motor control literature. However, fewer studies focused on beta band oscillations during postural control in upright stance. In this preliminary study, we examined beta rebound and other components of electroencephalogram (EEG) activity during perturbed upright stance to investigate supraspinal contributions to postural stabilization. Read More

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Surface Electromyography and Electroencephalogram-Based Gait Phase Recognition and Correlations Between Cortical and Locomotor Muscle in the Seven Gait Phases.

Front Neurosci 2021 21;15:607905. Epub 2021 May 21.

The Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design and Rotor-Bearing System, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

The classification of gait phases based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) can be used to the control systems of lower limb exoskeletons for the rehabilitation of patients with lower limb disorders. In this study, the slope sign change (SSC) and mean power frequency (MPF) features of EEG and sEMG were used to recognize the seven gait phases [loading response (LR), mid-stance (MST), terminal stance (TST), pre-swing (PSW), initial swing (ISW), mid-swing (MSW), and terminal swing (TSW)]. Previous researchers have found that the cortex is involved in the regulation of treadmill walking. Read More

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Polygenic Risk Scores for Alcohol Involvement Relate to Brain Structure in Substance-Naïve Children: Results from the ABCD Study.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 Jun 6:e12756. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Psychology & Brain Sciences, Washington University St. Louis, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background And Aims: Brain imaging-derived structural correlates of alcohol involvement have largely been speculated to arise as a consequence of alcohol exposure. However, they may also reflect predispositional risk.

Methods: In substance naïve children of European ancestry who completed the baseline session of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (n=3,013), mixed-effects models estimated whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for Problematic Alcohol Use (PAU-PRS) and Drinks Per Week (DPW-PRS) are associated with magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain structure phenotypes (i. Read More

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Biomechanical evaluation of different implant-abutment connections, retention systems, and restorative materials in the implant-supported single crowns using 3D finite element.

J Oral Implantol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Araçatuba Dental School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista.

This is an in silico study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical influence of different implant-abutment interfaces (external hexagon and Morse taper implants), retention systems (cement- and screw-retained), and restorative crowns (metal-ceramic and monolithic) using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Eight 3D models were simulated for the maxillary first molar area using InVesalius, Rhinoceros, and SolidWorks and processed using the Femap and NEi Nastran softwares. Axial and oblique forces of 200 N and 100 N, respectively, were applied on the occlusal surface of the prostheses. Read More

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Brain changes correlate with neuropathic pain in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 28;53:103048. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Neuropathic pain (NP) is a highly disturbing sensory experience in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). However, the brain changes in NMOSD patients with NP have rarely been studied.

Objective: The aim of the cross-sectional and follow-up longitudinal study was to investigate the brain changes in NMOSD patients with NP. Read More

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PTH improves devitalized allogenic bone graft healing in a murine femoral critical size defect.

Injury 2021 May 23. Epub 2021 May 23.

Research Division, National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Rio de Janeiro 20940-070, Brazil. Electronic address:

The treatment of large segmental defects of long bones resulting from trauma, infection, or bone tumor resections is a major challenge for orthopedic surgeons. The reconstruction of bone defects with acellular allografts can be used as an osteoconductive approach. However, devitalized allografts are associated with high rates of clinical failure as a result of poor intrinsic osteoinduction properties and a lack of further remodeling. Read More

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Regional brain morphology predicts pain relief in trigeminal neuralgia.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 May 25;31:102706. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Brain, Imaging & Behaviour, Krembil Brain Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Neurosurgery, Krembil Neuroscience Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Trigeminal neuralgia, a severe chronic neuropathic pain disorder, is widely believed to be amenable to surgical treatments. Nearly 20% of patients, however, do not have adequate pain relief after surgery. Objective tools for personalized pre-treatment prognostication of pain relief following surgical interventions can minimize unnecessary surgeries and thus are of substantial benefit for patients and clinicians. Read More

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Magnifying Traveling Waves on the Scalp.

Brain Topogr 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Translational Neuroscience Division, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA.

Traveling waves appear in various signals that measure neuronal activity. Some signals measured in animals have singles-cell resolution and directly point to neuronal activity. In those cases, activation of distributed neurons forms a wave front, and the front propagates across the cortical surface. Read More

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Bio-inspired multifunctional collagen/electrospun bioactive glass membranes for bone tissue engineering applications.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 6;126:111856. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, 600 025, Tamil Nadu, India.

Treatment of bone disease and disorders is often challenging due to its complex structure. Each year millions of people needs bone substitution materials with quick recovery from diseases conditions. Synthetic bone substitutes mimicking structural, chemical and biological properties of bone matrix structure will be very obliging and of copious need. Read More

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Geometric deep learning on brain shape predicts sex and age.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 May 27;91:101939. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago IL, United States. Electronic address:

The complex relationship between the shape and function of the human brain remains elusive despite extensive studies of cortical folding over many decades. The analysis of cortical gyrification presents an opportunity to advance our knowledge about this relationship, and better understand the etiology of a variety of pathologies involving diverse degrees of cortical folding abnormalities. Hypothesis-driven surface-based approaches have been shown to be particularly efficient in their ability to accurately describe unique features of the folded sheet topology of the cortical ribbon. Read More

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Cross-Diagnosis Structural Correlates of Autistic-Like Social Communication Differences.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Autism Research Centre, Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4G 1R8, Canada.

Social communication differences are seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but the brain mechanisms contributing to these differences remain largely unknown. To address this gap, we used a data-driven and diagnosis-agnostic approach to discover brain correlates of social communication differences in ASD, ADHD, and OCD, and subgroups of individuals who share similar patterns of brain-behavior associations. A machine learning pipeline (regression clustering) was used to discover the pattern of association between structural brain measures (volume, surface area, and cortical thickness) and social communication abilities. Read More

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Divergent effects of irradiation on brain cortical morphology in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: one-year follow-up study using structural magnetic resonance imaging.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jun;11(6):2307-2320

Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Increasing evidence indicates that radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain cortical deficits may play a critical role in developing radiation encephalopathy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the evolutional processes of RT-induced cortical injury have not been sufficiently investigated. This study investigates RT-induced effects on cortical morphology using longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in NPC patients. Read More

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[Donepezil Reduces Amyloid Precursor Protein Endocytosis by Resulting from Increase in the Expression of Sorting Nexin Protein 33].

Yakugaku Zasshi 2021 ;141(6):851-856

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts.

Donepezil, the most widely used drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and is thought to improve cognition by stimulating cholinergic neurotransmission. However, no correlation has yet been established between the inhibitory role of AChE inhibitors and their therapeutic effects when used in AD patients. The cleavage pathway of amyloid precursor protein (APP) includes amyloidgenic (β, γ-cleavage) and non-amyloidgenic (α-cleavage) pathways. Read More

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January 2021

Simple, Quick, and Safe Dural Incision Technique for Patients with Expected Brain Bulging during Decompressive Craniectomy: "Crank-shaped Dural Incisions".

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tokai University, School of Medicine.

Brain bulging is an unfavorable outcome in patients with brain swelling who require decompressive craniectomy (DC) to control elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Although several previous studies have described methods for reducing the operation time during DC in these patients, few have proposed a technique for controlling brain protrusion. Here we describe an effective and simple method for external reduction of ICP and discuss its suitability for patients at risk of brain bulging during DC. Read More

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Neocortical Age and Fluid Ability: Greater Accelerated Brain Aging for Thickness, but Smaller for Surface Area, in High Cognitive Ability Individuals.

Neuroscience 2021 May 30;467:81-90. Epub 2021 May 30.

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Biological (BA) and chronological (CA) age may or may not fit. The available evidence reveals remarkable individual differences in the overlap/mismatch between BA and CA. Increased mismatch can be interpreted as delayed (BA/CA < 1) or accelerated biological aging (BA/CA > 1). Read More

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function in lipid biosynthesis is required for arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in rice.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Nanjing University, 12581, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;

Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic symbiosis formed between most land plants and Glomeromycotina fungi. During the symbiosis, plants provide organic carbon to fungi in exchange for mineral nutrients. Previous legume studies showed that the () gene is necessary for transferring lipids from plants to AM fungi (AMF) and is also likely to play a 'signaling' role at the root surface. Read More

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Structural brain assessment of temporal lobe epilepsy based on voxel-based and surface-based morphological features.

Neurol Neurochir Pol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to assess the cerebral voxel-based and surface-based morphological abnormalities of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Materials And Methods: A total of 100 healthy adults and 73 patients with TLE were enrolled in this study, and their 3D T1-weighted MRI data were collected. Voxel-based morphology (VBM) and surface-based morphology (SBM) tools were used to compare the morphological differences between healthy adults and patients with TLE. Read More

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Incorporation of an Allogenic Cortical Bone Graft Following Arthrodesis of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint in a Patient with Hallux Rigidus.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 24;11(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

FB Pathology, Osteopathology, VIVANTES Netzwerk für Gesundheit, 13407 Berlin, Germany.

Hallux rigidus is degenerative arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint characterized by pain and stiffness in the joint with limitation of motion and functional impairment. Recently, bone grafts have been introduced in orthopedic procedures, namely osteosynthesis and arthrodesis. Allografts can induce bone formation, provide support for vascular and bone ingrowth and have a low risk of immunological rejection. Read More

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Parental Educational Attainment, the Superior Temporal Cortical Surface Area, and Reading Ability among American Children: A Test of Marginalization-Related Diminished Returns.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 18;8(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, USA.

Background: Recent studies have shown that parental educational attainment is associated with a larger superior temporal cortical surface area associated with higher reading ability in children. Simultaneously, the marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) framework suggests that, due to structural racism and social stratification, returns of parental education are smaller for black and other racial/ethnic minority children compared to their white counterparts.

Purpose: This study used a large national sample of 9-10-year-old American children to investigate associations between parental educational attainment, the right and left superior temporal cortical surface area, and reading ability across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Read More

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Osseointegration Improvement of Co-Cr-Mo Alloy Produced by Additive Manufacturing.

Pharmaceutics 2021 May 14;13(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, Jundiaí 13202-550, São Paulo, Brazil.

Cobalt-base alloys (Co-Cr-Mo) are widely employed in dentistry and orthopedic implants due to their biocompatibility, high mechanical strength and wear resistance. The osseointegration of implants can be improved by surface modification techniques. However, complex geometries obtained by additive manufacturing (AM) limits the efficiency of mechanical-based surface modification techniques. Read More

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Quantitative MRI susceptibility mapping reveals cortical signatures of changes in iron, calcium and zinc in malformations of cortical development in children with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Neuroimage 2021 May 29;238:118102. Epub 2021 May 29.

Developmental Neurosciences, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK; Wellcome EPSRC Centre for Medical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: Malformations of cortical development (MCD), including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), are the most common cause of drug-resistant focal epilepsy in children. Histopathological lesion characterisation demonstrates abnormal cell types and lamination, alterations in myelin (typically co-localised with iron), and sometimes calcification. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an emerging MRI technique that measures tissue magnetic susceptibility (χ) reflecting it's mineral composition. Read More

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Fertilization and development of Arbacia lixula eggs are affected by osmolality conditions.

Biosystems 2021 May 28;206:104448. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Research Infrastructures for Marine Biological Resources, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli, Italy.

The sea urchin Arbacia lixula coexist with Paracentrotus lividus in the Mediterranean, but the two sea urchin species are quite different from each other. Concerning the female gamete, A. lixula eggs are much darker than those of P. Read More

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