5,117 results match your criteria cortical reactivity

Astrocyte Ca Waves and Subsequent Non-Synchronized Ca Oscillations Coincide with Arteriole Diameter Changes in Response to Spreading Depolarization.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 26;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Korányi fasor 9, 6720 Szeged, Hungary.

Spreading depolarization (SD) is a wave of mass depolarization that causes profound perfusion changes in acute cerebrovascular diseases. Although the astrocyte response is secondary to the neuronal depolarization with SD, it remains to be explored how glial activity is altered after the passage of SD. Here, we describe post-SD high frequency astrocyte Ca oscillations in the mouse somatosensory cortex. Read More

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Multimodal Long-Term Predictors of Outcome in Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Treated with Targeted Temperature Management at 36 °C.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 23;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

: Early prediction of long-term outcomes in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest (CA) is still challenging. Guidelines suggested a multimodal approach combining multiple predictors. We evaluated whether the combination of the electroencephalography (EEG) reactivity, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) cortical complex and Gray to White matter ratio (GWR) on brain computed tomography (CT) at different temperatures could predict survival and good outcome at hospital discharge and six months after the event. Read More

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Pharmacodynamic Effects of Standard versus High Caffeine Doses in the Developing Brain of Neonatal Rats Exposed to Intermittent Hypoxia.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 27;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.

(1) Background: Caffeine citrate, at standard doses, is effective for reducing the incidence of apnea of prematurity (AOP) and may confer neuroprotection and decrease neonatal morbidities in extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGANs) requiring oxygen therapy. We tested the hypothesis that high-dose caffeine (HiC) has no adverse effects on the neonatal brain. (2) Methods: Newborn rat pups were randomized to room air (RA), hyperoxia (Hx) or neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH), from birth (P0) to P14 during which they received intraperitoneal injections of LoC (20 mg/kg on P0; 5 mg/kg/day on P1-P14), HiC (80 mg/kg; 20 mg/kg), or equivalent volume saline. Read More

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Tactile cortical responses and association with tactile reactivity in young children on the autism spectrum.

Mol Autism 2021 04 1;12(1):26. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada.

Background: Unusual behavioral reactions to sensory stimuli are frequently reported in individuals on the autism spectrum (AS). Despite the early emergence of sensory features (< age 3) and their potential impact on development and quality of life, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying sensory reactivity in early childhood autism.

Methods: Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate tactile cortical processing in young children aged 3-6 years with autism and in neurotypical (NT) children. Read More

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Poly (I:C)-induced maternal immune activation modifies ventral hippocampal regulation of stress reactivity: prevention by environmental enrichment.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Arts & Sciences, Health Psychology Program, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Boston, MA 02115, United States. Electronic address:

Environmental enrichment (EE) has been successfully implemented in human rehabilitation settings. However, the mechanisms underlying its success are not understood. Incorporating components of EE protocols into our animal models allows for the exploration of these mechanisms and their role in mitigation. Read More

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Perfusion-weighted MRI in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related transient focal neurological episodes.

Neurol Sci 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Neurology Unit, Ospedale del Mare, ASL Napoli 1 Centro, Via Enrico Russo, 80147, Napoli, Italy.

Introduction: Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common age-related cerebral small vessel disease characterized by progressive ß-amyloid deposition in the walls of small cortical arteries, arterioles, and capillaries in the cerebral cortex and overlying leptomeninges. CAA-related transient focal neurological episodes (CAA-TFNEs) represent a challenging clinical feature interesting from a pathophysiological point of view.

Case Report: Here we present two cases of CAA-TFNEs in which we performed functional imaging with perfusion-weighted imaging MR and brain 18 F-FDG PET. Read More

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A systemic immune challenge to model hospital-acquired infections independently regulates immune responses after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Mar 17;18(1):72. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Level 6, The Alfred Centre, 99 Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability in young children, yet the factors contributing to poor outcomes in this population are not well understood. TBI patients are highly susceptible to nosocomial infections, which are mostly acquired within the first week of hospitalization, and such infections may modify TBI pathobiology and recovery. In this study, we hypothesized that a peripheral immune challenge such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mimicking a hospital-acquired infection-would worsen outcomes after experimental pediatric TBI, by perpetuating the inflammatory immune response. Read More

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Prefrontal cortex PACAP signaling: organization and role in stress regulation.

Stress 2021 Mar 17;24(2):196-205. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Systems Physiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an excitatory neuromodulatory peptide strongly implicated in nervous stress processing. Human polymorphism of the primary PACAP receptor (PAC1) is linked to psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prefrontal cortex PACAP signaling is associated with processing of traumatic stress and fear learning, suggesting a potential role in PTSD-related deficits. Read More

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Neurobiological mechanisms of early life adversity, blunted stress reactivity and risk for addiction.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Mar 10;188:108519. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and VA Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Blunted stress reactivity resulting from early exposure to stress during childhood and adolescence may increase vulnerability to addiction. Early life adversity (ELA) affects brain structure and function and results in blunted stress axis reactivity. In this review, we focus on the underlying neurobiological mechanisms associated with a blunted response to stress, ELA, and risk for addictive disorders. Read More

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T Cells Actively Infiltrate the White Matter of the Aging Monkey Brain in Relation to Increased Microglial Reactivity and Cognitive Decline.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:607691. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Laboratory for Cognitive Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.

Normal aging is characterized by declines in processing speed, learning, memory, and executive function even in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In normal aging monkeys and humans, neuronal loss does not account for cognitive impairment. Instead, loss of white matter volume and an accumulation of myelin sheath pathology begins in middle age and is associated with cognitive decline. Read More

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February 2021

Examining and Modulating Neural Circuits in Psychiatric Disorders With Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electroencephalography: Present Practices and Future Developments.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 Mar 3:appiajp202020071050. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique uniquely equipped to both examine and modulate neural systems and related cognitive and behavioral functions in humans. As an examination tool, TMS can be used in combination with EEG (TMS-EEG) to elucidate directly, objectively, and noninvasively the intrinsic properties of a specific cortical region, including excitation, inhibition, reactivity, and oscillatory activity, irrespective of the individual's conscious effort. Additionally, when applied in repetitive patterns, TMS has been shown to modulate brain networks in healthy individuals, as well as ameliorate symptoms in individuals with psychiatric disorders. Read More

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Molecular characterization of the stress network in individuals at risk for schizophrenia.

Neurobiol Stress 2021 May 10;14:100307. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Leiden Computational Biology Center, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA, Leiden, the Netherlands.

The biological mechanisms underlying inter-individual differences in human stress reactivity remain poorly understood. We aimed to identify the molecular underpinning of aberrant neural stress sensitivity in individuals at risk for schizophrenia. Linking mRNA expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to task-based fMRI revealed 201 differentially expressed genes in cortex-specific brain regions differentially activated by stress in individuals with low (healthy siblings of schizophrenia patients) or high (healthy controls) stress sensitivity. Read More

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Experimental cerebral palsy causes microstructural brain damage in areas associated to motor deficits but no spatial memory impairments in the developing rat.

Brain Res 2021 Feb 24;1761:147389. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Child Development and Growth, Department of Pediatrics, Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the major cause of motor and cognitive impairments during childhood. CP can result from direct or indirect structural injury to the developing brain. In this study, we aimed to describe brain damage and behavioural alterations during early adult life in a CP model using the combination of maternal inflammation, perinatal anoxia and postnatal sensorimotor restriction. Read More

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February 2021

Melatonin suppresses the brain injury after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in hyperglycaemic rats.

Res Pharm Sci 2020 Oct 19;15(5):418-428. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Pharmacology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Background And Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is a disorder accompanied by oxidative and inflammatory responses, that might exacerbate vascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin (MLN) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion (MCAO/Re).

Experimental Approach: Diabetes was induced in rats by a single injection of STZ (55 mg/kg; i. Read More

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October 2020

Brain structure and parasympathetic function during rest and stress in young adult women.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 May 22;226(4):1195-1207. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, USA.

Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important biomarker for parasympathetic function and future health outcomes. The present study examined how the structure of regions in a neural network thought to maintain top-down control of parasympathetic function is associated with HRV during both rest and social stress. Participants were 127 young women (90 Black American), who completed a structural MRI scan and the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), during which heart rate was recorded. Read More

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Uncertainty potentiates neural and cardiac responses to visual stimuli in anxiety disorders.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 53719.

Intolerance of uncertainty and worry about future events are cardinal features of anxiety. However, the neurobiological and physiological mechanisms underlying these characteristics of anxiety remain to be fully elucidated. Individuals with diagnosed anxiety disorders (n=29, 22 female) and age-matched comparison subjects (n=28, 17 female) completed a task in which pictures (aversive or neutral content) were preceded by cues indicating certainty or uncertainty about the emotional valence of the subsequent pictures. Read More

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February 2021

Cerebrovascular damage after midlife transient hypertension in non-transgenic and Alzheimer's disease rats.

Brain Res 2021 May 12;1758:147369. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Biological Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. Electronic address:

Hypertension, including transient events, is a major risk factor for developing late-onset dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anti-hypertensive drugs facilitate restoration of normotension without amelioration of increased dementia risk suggesting that transient hypertensive insults cause irreversible damage. This study characterized the contribution of transient hypertension to sustained brain damage as a function of normal aging and AD. Read More

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Acute, but not longer-term, exposure to environmental enrichment attenuates Pavlovian cue-evoked conditioned approach and Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex in mice.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Sussex Neuroscience, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, UK.

Exposure to environmental enrichment can modify the impact of motivationally relevant stimuli. For instance, previous studies in rats have found that even a brief, acute (~1 day), but not chronic, exposure to environmentally enriched (EE) housing attenuates instrumental lever pressing for sucrose-associated cues in a conditioned reinforcement setup. Moreover, acute EE reduces corticoaccumbens activity, as measured by decreases in expression of the neuronal activity marker "Fos. Read More

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February 2021

Role of Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid-Induced Maternal Immune Activation and Subsequent Immune Challenge in the Behaviour and Microglial Cell Trajectory in Adult Offspring: A Study of the Neurodevelopmental Model of Schizophrenia.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 4;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Laboratory of Immunoendocrinology, Department of Experimental Neuroendocrinology, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smętna St., 31-343 Kraków, Poland.

Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of maternal immune activation (MIA) in the occurrence of the schizophrenia-like disturbances in offspring. While in the brain the homeostatic role of neuron-microglia protein systems is well documented, the participation of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 and CD200-CD200R dyads in the adverse impact of MIA often goes under-recognized. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of MIA induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) on the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 and CD200-CD200R axes, microglial trajectory (, , , , , , , , and ), and schizophrenia-like behaviour in adult male offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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February 2021

Relationship Between Age and Cerebral Hemodynamic Response to Breath Holding: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

Brain Topogr 2021 Mar 5;34(2):154-166. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Fenster Hall 607, 323 Dr.MLK Jr. Blvd, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA.

Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is routinely measured as a predictor of stroke in people with a high risk of ischemic attack. Neuroimaging techniques such as emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial doppler are frequently used to measure CVR even though each technique has its limitations. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), also based on the principle of neurovascular coupling, is relatively inexpensive, portable, and allows for the quantification of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes at a high temporal resolution. Read More

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Simultaneous Application of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation during Virtual Reality Exposure.

J Vis Exp 2021 01 18(167). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

VA RR&D Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology, Providence VA Medical Healthcare System; Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Brown Medical School; COBRE Center for Neuromodulation, Butler Hospital.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation that changes the likelihood of neuronal firing through modulation of neural resting membranes. Compared to other techniques, tDCS is relatively safe, cost-effective, and can be administered while individuals are engaged in controlled, specific cognitive processes. This latter point is important as tDCS may predominantly affect intrinsically active neural regions. Read More

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January 2021

Pinging the brain with transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals cortical reactivity in time and space.

Brain Stimul 2021 Mar-Apr;14(2):304-315. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Carolina Center for Neurostimulation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA; Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA; Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) elicits an evoked electroencephalography (EEG) potential (TMS-evoked potential, TEP), which is interpreted as direct evidence of cortical reactivity to TMS. Thus, combining TMS with EEG can be used to investigate the mechanism underlying brain network engagement in TMS treatment paradigms. However, controversy remains regarding whether TEP is a genuine marker of TMS-induced cortical reactivity or if it is confounded by responses to peripheral somatosensory and auditory inputs. Read More

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January 2021

Cerebral Vasoreactivity as an Indirect MRI Marker of White Matter Tracts Alterations in Multiple Sclerosis.

Brain Topogr 2021 Mar 23;34(2):245-255. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Center, I2FH, Institut d'Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, 80 Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Cedex 5, Montpellier, France.

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) show a diffuse cerebral perfusion decrease, presumably related to multiple metabolism and vascular alterations. It is assumed that white matter fiber alterations cause a localized cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR) disruption through astrocytes metabolism alteration, leading to hypoperfusion. We proposed to (1) evaluate the CVR disruptions in MS, (2) in relation to white matter lesions and (3) compare CVR disruptions maps with standard imaging biomarkers. Read More

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A case of hemichorea in RNF213-related vasculopathy.

BMC Neurol 2021 Jan 22;21(1):32. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Neurology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 6-1 Kishibe-Shimmachi, Suita, Osaka, 564-8565, Japan.

Background: Internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis has been recently reported to cause hemichorea, mainly in East Asia. The East Asian-specific p.R4810K variant of RNF213, a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease (MMD), accounts for up to 25% of sporadic ischemic stroke with ICA stenosis cases in East Asia. Read More

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January 2021

Changes in the renal function after acute mercuric chloride exposure in the rat are associated with renal vascular endothelial dysfunction and proximal tubule NHE3 inhibition.

Toxicol Lett 2021 May 18;341:23-32. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, Brazil. Electronic address:

Mercury is an environmental pollutant and a threat to human health. Mercuric chloride (HgCl)-induced acute renal failure has been described by several reports, but the mechanisms of renal dysfunction remain elusive. This study tested the hypothesis that HgCl directly impairs renal vascular reactivity. Read More

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Differential effects of chronic immunosuppression on behavioral, epigenetic, and Alzheimer's disease-associated markers in 3xTg-AD mice.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 01 20;13(1):30. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada.

Background: Circulating autoantibodies and sex-dependent discrepancy in prevalence are unexplained phenomena of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using the 3xTg-AD mouse model, we reported that adult males show early manifestations of systemic autoimmunity, increased emotional reactivity, enhanced expression of the histone variant macroH2A1 in the cerebral cortex, and loss of plaque/tangle pathology. Conversely, adult females display less severe autoimmunity and retain their AD-like phenotype. Read More

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January 2021

Tropism of SARS-CoV-2 for Developing Human Cortical Astrocytes.

bioRxiv 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) readily infects a variety of cell types impacting the function of vital organ systems, with particularly severe impact on respiratory function. It proves fatal for one percent of those infected. Neurological symptoms, which range in severity, accompany a significant proportion of COVID-19 cases, indicating a potential vulnerability of neural cell types. Read More

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January 2021

Maternal Undernutrition Modulates Neonatal Rat Cerebrovascular Structure, Function, and Vulnerability to Mild Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury via Corticosteroid-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 12;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Center for Perinatal Biology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.

The present study explored the hypothesis that an adverse intrauterine environment caused by maternal undernutrition (MUN) acted through corticosteroid-dependent and -independent mechanisms to program lasting functional changes in the neonatal cerebrovasculature and vulnerability to mild hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. From day 10 of gestation until term, MUN and MUN-metyrapone (MUN-MET) group rats consumed a diet restricted to 50% of calories consumed by a pair-fed control; and on gestational day 11 through term, MUN-MET groups received drinking water containing MET (0.5 mg/mL), a corticosteroid synthesis inhibitor. Read More

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January 2021

Impact of bifrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on decision-making and stress reactivity. A pilot study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 03 31;135:15-19. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Medical School, Université Laval, CERVO Brain Research Center, Centre Intégré Universitaire en Santé et Services Sociaux de La Capitale-Nationale, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Stress is an adaptive response with repercussions on the human health. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to be involved in stress regulation by contributing to limit its biological and behavioral pejorative consequences. Here, to investigate the contribution of the DLPFC in stress response, we applied transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the DLPFC during acute stress exposure in healthy participants. Read More

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