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Microinfarcts in the Deep Gray Matter on 7T MRI: Risk Factors, MRI Correlates, and Relation to Cognitive Functioning-The SMART-MR Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care (R.G., I.R., M.I.G.)

Background And Purpose: The clinical relevance of cortical microinfarcts has recently been established; however, studies on microinfarcts in the deep gray matter are lacking. We examined the risk factors and MR imaging correlates of microinfarcts in the deep gray matter on 7T MR imaging and their relation to cognitive functioning.

Materials And Methods: Within the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study, 213 patients (mean age, 68 [SD, 8] years) had a risk-factor assessment, 7T and 1. Read More

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A preliminary report of one session treatment with cranioplasty and STA-MCA bypass for hemorrhagic MMD patients with skull defect.

World Neurosurg 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of neurosurgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To conduct a retrospective analysis of the safety and efficacy of one session treatment with cranioplasty and STA-MCA bypass after decompressive craniectomy (DC)in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.

Methods: From March 2019 to August 2021, five patients with hemorrhagic MMD after DC were admitted in nan fang hospital. All patients received digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to exclude any spontaneous revascularization between the cortex and temporal muscle and the preservation of STA. Read More

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Hormone sensitive lipase ablation promotes bone regeneration.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2022 May 23:166449. Epub 2022 May 23.

Division of Endocrinology, Gerontology, and Metabolism, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; Stanford Diabetes Research Center, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

There is an inverse relationship between the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) along either an adipocyte or osteoblast lineage, with lineage differentiation known to be mediated by transcription factors PPARγ and Runx2, respectively. Endogenous ligands for PPARγ are generated during the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols to fatty acids through the actions of lipases such as hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). To examine whether reduced production of endogenous PPARγ ligands would influence bone regeneration, we examined the effects of HSL knockout on fracture repair in mice using a tibial mono-cortical defect as a model. Read More

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Cortical excitatory and inhibitory correlates of the fronto-limbic circuit in major depression and differential effects of left frontal brain stimulation in a randomized sham-controlled trial.

J Affect Disord 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Epworth Centre for Innovation in Mental Health, Epworth HealthCare and Department of Psychiatry, Monash University, Camberwell, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD), particularly treatment-resistant ones, is associated with abnormal fronto-limbic glucose metabolism. 10-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left prefrontal cortex (PFC) is believed to normalize the abnormal metabolism to treat depression. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the mood circuit of depressed brains and whether brain stimulation techniques regulate the underlying molecules remain elusive. Read More

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Sexual Dimorphism in Renal Heme Oxygenase-1 and Arachidonic Acid Metabolizing Enzymes in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats versus Normotensive Wistar Kyoto Rats.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2022 May 23:106650. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Oral Biology & Diagnostic Sciences, Augusta University, Augusta, GA. 30912; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Egypt. Electronic address:

Numerous studies have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure (BP) control in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), however the mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. Based on the established role of arachidonic acid metabolites and heme oxygenase (HO) in BP control, we hypothesize that higher BP in male SHR is associated with differential expression in renal HO and arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes vs. female SHR. Read More

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Evaluating Interhemispheric Synchronization and Cortical Activity in Acute Stroke Patients Using Optical Hemodynamic Oscillations.

J Neural Eng 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101, ROC, Tainan, 70101, TAIWAN.

Objective: An understanding of functional interhemispheric asymmetry in ischemic stroke patients is a crucial factor in the designs of efficient programs for post-stroke rehabilitation. This study evaluates interhemispheric synchronization and cortical activities in acute stroke patients with various degrees of severity and at different post-stroke stages.

Approach: Twenty-three patients were recruited to participate in the experiments, including resting-state and speed finger-tapping tasks at week-1 and week-3 post-stroke. Read More

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A biodegradable 3D woven magnesium-based scaffold for orthopedic implants.

Biofabrication 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA, Baltimore, Maryland, 21218-2625, UNITED STATES.

Porous Magnesium (Mg) is a promising biodegradable scaffold for treating critical-size bone defects, and as an essential element for human metabolism, Mg has shown sufficient biocompatibility. Its elastic moduli and yield strengths are closer to those of cortical bone than common, inert metallic implants, effectively reducing stress concentrations around host tissue as well as stress shielding. More importantly, Mg can degrade and be absorbed in the human body in a safe and controlled manner, thereby reducing the need for second surgeries to remove implants. Read More

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Cognitive control, motivation and fatigue: A cognitive neuroscience perspective.

Authors:
Albert Kok

Brain Cogn 2022 May 23;160:105880. Epub 2022 May 23.

Emeritus Professor Physiological Psychology, Brain and Cognition Group, Psychology Department, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The present article provides a unified systematic account of the role of cognitive control, motivation and dopamine pathways in relation to the development of fatigue. Since cognitive fatigue is considered to be one aspect of the general control system that manages goal activity in the service of motivational requirements (Hockey, 2011), our focus is also broader than fatigue itself. The paper shall therefore first focus on the motivation-control interactions at the level of networks of the brain. Read More

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News and Views on Polysialic Acid: From Tumor Progression and Brain Development to Psychiatric Disorders, Neurodegeneration, Myelin Repair and Immunomodulation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 4;10:871757. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Polysialic acid (polySia) is a sugar homopolymer consisting of at least eight glycosidically linked sialic acid units. It is a posttranslational modification of a limited number of proteins with the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM being the most prominent. As extensively reviewed before, polySia-NCAM is crucial for brain development and synaptic plasticity but also modulates tumor growth and malignancy. Read More

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Covariations between pupil diameter and supplementary eye field activity suggest a role in cognitive effort implementation.

PLoS Biol 2022 May 26;20(5):e3001654. Epub 2022 May 26.

Institut du Cerveau, INSERM 1127, CNRS 7225 Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

In both human and nonhuman primates (NHP), the medial prefrontal region, defined as the supplementary eye field (SEF), can indirectly influence behavior selection through modulation of the primary selection process in the oculomotor structures. To perform this oculomotor control, SEF integrates multiple cognitive signals such as attention, memory, reward, and error. As changes in pupil responses can assess these cognitive efforts, a better understanding of the precise dynamics by which pupil diameter and medial prefrontal cortex activity interact requires thorough investigations before, during, and after changes in pupil diameter. Read More

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Reduced macular vessel density and inner retinal thickness correlate with the severity of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL).

PLoS One 2022 26;17(5):e0268572. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), caused by mutations in NOTCH3, is the most common cause of hereditary cerebral small vessel disease. Whether it will involve systemic vasculopathy such as retinal vessel remains unknown. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a noninvasive technique for visualising retinal blood flow. Read More

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Cortical adaptation to sound reverberation.

Elife 2022 May 26;11. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

In almost every natural environment, sounds are reflected by nearby objects, producing many delayed and distorted copies of the original sound, known as reverberation. Our brains usually cope well with reverberation, allowing us to recognize sound sources regardless of their environments. In contrast, reverberation can cause severe difficulties for speech recognition algorithms and hearing-impaired people. Read More

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Assessment and comparison of image quality between two real-time sequences for dynamic MRI of distal joints at 3.0 Tesla.

Acta Radiol 2022 May 26:2841851221101889. Epub 2022 May 26.

Laboratory of Medical Information Processing (LATIM), INSERM-UMR 1101, Brest, France.

Background: Real-time sequences allow functional evaluation of various joint structures during a continuous motion and help understand the pathomechanics of underlying musculoskeletal diseases.

Purpose: To assess and compare the image quality of the two most frequently used real-time sequences for joint dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquired during finger and ankle joint motion.

Material And Methods: A real-time dynamic acquisition protocol, including radiofrequency (RF)-spoiled and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequences, optimized for temporal resolution with similar spatial resolution, was performed using a 3. Read More

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Brain partial volume correction with point spreading function reconstruction in high-resolution digital PET: comparison with an MR-based method in FDG imaging.

Ann Nucl Med 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, 6-10 Senshu-Kubota Machi, Akita, 010-0874, Japan.

Objective: In quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) of the brain, partial volume effect due mainly to the finite spatial resolution of the PET scanner (> 3 mm full width at half maximum [FWHM]) is a primary source of error in the measurement of tracer uptake, especially in small structures such as the cerebral cortex (typically < 3 mm thickness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the partial volume correction (PVC) performance of point spread function-incorporated reconstruction (PSF reconstruction) in combination with the latest digital PET scanner. This evaluation was performed through direct comparisons with magnetic resonance imaging (MR)-based PVC (used as a reference method) in a human brain study. Read More

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Zero-TE MRI: Principles and applications in the head and neck.

Br J Radiol 2022 May 26:20220059. Epub 2022 May 26.

Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

Zero echo-time (ZTE) MRI is a novel imaging technique that utilizes ultrafast readouts to capture signal from short-T2 tissues. Additional sequence advantages include rapid imaging times, silent scanning, and artefact resistance. A robust application of this technology is imaging of cortical bone without the use of ionizing radiation, thus representing a viable alternative to CT for both rapid screening and "one-stop-shop" MRI. Read More

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Spontaneous neuronal oscillations in the human insula are hierarchically organized traveling waves.

Elife 2022 May 26;11. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, United States.

The insula plays a fundamental role in a wide range of adaptive human behaviors, but its electrophysiological dynamics are poorly understood. Here we used human intracranial electroencephalographic recordings to investigate the electrophysiological properties and hierarchical organization of spontaneous neuronal oscillations within the insula. We analyzed the neuronal oscillations of the insula directly and found that rhythms in the theta and beta frequency oscillations are widespread and spontaneously present. Read More

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[Effect of electroacupuncture invention on activities of PGC-1α/Irisin (FNDC5)/BDNF signaling in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and muscles in focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2022 May;47(5):428-34

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040.

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture(EA) on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivators-1-alpha (PGC-1α), Irisin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the ischemic peripheral cortex, hippocampus and local skeletal muscle in rats with focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury (CI/RI), so as to explore its underlying mechanism of improving of CI/RI.

Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operation, model and EA (11 rats in each group). The focal CI/RI model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Read More

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Automated counting of cerebral penetrating vessels using optical coherence tomography images of a mouse brain in vivo.

Med Phys 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Convergence Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Seoul, 05505, Korea.

Rationale And Objectives: Penetrating blood vessels emanating from cortical surface vasculature and lying deep in the cortex are essential vascular conduits for the shuttling of blood from superficial pial vessels to the capillary beds in parenchyma for the nourishment of neuronal brain tissues. Locating and counting the penetrating vessels is beneficial for the quantification of a course of ischemia in blood occlusive events such as stroke. This paper seeks to demonstrate and validate a method for automated penetrating vessel counting that uses optical coherence tomography (OCT). Read More

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Inquiring the librarian about the location of memory.

Cogn Neurosci 2022 May 26:1-3. Epub 2022 May 26.

Laboratory of Neuroepigenetics, Brain Mind Institute, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale Lausanne (EPFL-EPFL-SV-BMI-UPGRAEFF), Station 19, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Where memories are stored in the brain is an age-old question in psychology and neuroscience alike. In particular, whether hippocampus-encoded memories are transferred to the cortex or remain hippocampus-dependent over time has not been definitely answered. New evidence from fMRI studies in humans suggest that while hippocampo-cortical connections lose weight during declarative memory consolidation, the hippocampus - alongside corticocortical connections - stays equally engaged between recent and remote memory recall. Read More

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Subdural Hematoma-Induced Cortical Perforator Thrombosis Causing Ischemic Strokes.

Stroke 2022 May 26:101161STROKEAHA122039482. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, ON, Canada. (D.M.).

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Infant Visual Brain Development and Inherited Genetic Liability in Autism.

Am J Psychiatry 2022 May 26:appiajp21101002. Epub 2022 May 26.

Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities (Girault, Forsen, Shen, Hazlett, Piven), Department of Psychiatry (Girault, Shen, Kim, Hazlett, Styner, Piven), Department of Biostatistics (Donovan, Truong), and ; Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences (Hawks) and Department of Psychiatry (Talovic, Nishino, Davis, Botteron, Todorov, Pruett, Constantino), Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis; Institute of Child Development (Elison) and Department of Psychology, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Tex. (Swanson); Department of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis (Snyder, McKinstry); Department of Speech and Hearing Science, University of Washington, Seattle (Estes, St. John); Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle (Dager); Tandon School of Engineering, New York University, New York (Gerig); Center for Autism Research, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (Pandey, Schultz); Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (Zwaigenbaum).

Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is heritable, and younger siblings of ASD probands are at higher likelihood of developing ASD themselves. Prospective MRI studies of siblings report that atypical brain development precedes ASD diagnosis, although the link between brain maturation and genetic factors is unclear. Given that familial recurrence of ASD is predicted by higher levels of ASD traits in the proband, the authors investigated associations between proband ASD traits and brain development among younger siblings. Read More

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Early Cerebral Blood Flow Changes, Cerebrovascular Reactivity and Cortical Spreading Depolarizations in Experimental Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Model.

Turk Neurosurg 2022 ;32(3):488-499

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: To investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of early cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), and vascular responses to cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) in an experimental mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) model with laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique.

Material And Methods: The weight-drop model was used to induce blunt head trauma. The mice were divided into two groups as mild TBI (n=12), and sham (n=6). Read More

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January 2022

The Mesencephalic Locomotor Region: Beyond Locomotor Control.

Front Neural Circuits 2022 9;16:884785. Epub 2022 May 9.

Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) was discovered several decades ago in the cat. It was functionally defined based on the ability of low threshold electrical stimuli within a region comprising the cuneiform and pedunculopontine nucleus to evoke locomotion. Since then, similar regions have been found in diverse vertebrate species, including the lamprey, skate, rodent, pig, monkey, and human. Read More

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Alterations of Static and Dynamic Functional Connectivity of the Nucleus Accumbens in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2022 9;13:877417. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with dysfunction of the reward system. As an important node in the reward system, the resting-state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is related to the etiology of MDD. However, an increasing number of recent studies propose that brain activity is dynamic over time, no study to date has examined whether the NAc dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) is changed in patients with MDD. Read More

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Electrophysiological Markers of Fairness and Selfishness Revealed by a Combination of Dictator and Ultimatum Games.

Front Syst Neurosci 2022 9;16:765720. Epub 2022 May 9.

NeuroHeuristic Research Group, HEC-Lausanne, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Individual behavior during financial decision making is motivated by fairness, but an unanswered question from previous studies is whether particular patterns of brain activity correspond to different profiles of fairness. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 39 participants who played the role of allocators in a Dictator Game (DG) and responders in an Ultimatum Game (UG). Two very homogeneous groups were formed by fair and selfish individuals. Read More

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Cerebral Perfusion Patterns of Anxiety State in Patients With Pulmonary Nodules: A Study of Cerebral Blood Flow Based on Arterial Spin Labeling.

Front Neurosci 2022 9;16:912665. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background And Purpose: The proportion of patients with somatic diseases associated with anxiety is increasing each year, and pulmonary nodules have become a non-negligible cause of anxiety, the mechanism of which is unclear. The study focus on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) of anxiety in patients with pulmonary nodules to explore the cerebral perfusion pattern of anxiety associated with pulmonary nodules, blood perfusion status and mode of pulmonary nodule induced anxiety state.

Materials And Methods: Patients with unconfirmed pulmonary nodules were evaluated by Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). Read More

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Deletion of Trp53 and Rb1 in Ctsk-expressing cells drives osteosarcoma progression by activating glucose metabolism and YAP signaling.

MedComm (2020) 2022 Jun 22;3(2):e131. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Basic & Translational Sciences School of Dental Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia Pennsylvania USA.

Glucose metabolism reprogramming is a critical factor in the progression of multiple cancers and is directly regulated by many tumor suppressors. However, how glucose metabolism regulates osteosarcoma development and progression is largely unknown. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) has been reported to express in chondroprogenitor cells and stem cells besides osteoclasts. Read More

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Endothelial β-Catenin Deficiency Causes Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown Enhancing the Paracellular and Transcellular Permeability.

Front Mol Neurosci 2022 9;15:895429. Epub 2022 May 9.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Materials and Cellular Immunomodulation, Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) causes or contributes to neuronal dysfunction and several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for maintaining the integrity of the adult BBB in physiological and pathological conditions, including stroke. However, how the impairment of the endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling results in BBB breakdown remains unclear. Read More

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Regulation of glutamate transport and neuroinflammation in a term newborn rat model of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2022 Jan-Dec;6:23982128221097568. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Neonatal Neurology, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

In the newborn brain, moderate-severe hypoxia-ischaemia induces glutamate excitotoxicity and inflammation, possibly via dysregulation of candidate astrocytic glutamate transporter () and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. , , ). Read More

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Atypical Case of VV1 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Subtype: Case Report.

Front Neurol 2022 9;13:875370. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Glennan Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, United States.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare form of rapidly progressive, neurodegenerative disease that results from the misfolding and accumulation of an aberrant, disease-associated prion protein (PrPD). CJD affects 1-1.5 cases per million per year with the sporadic-type accounting for an estimated 85% of these cases. Read More

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