27,826 results match your criteria cortex striatum

Early Sensory Deprivation Leads to Differential Inhibitory Changes in the Striatum During Learning.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 28;15:670858. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, United States.

The corticostriatal circuit has been identified as a vital pathway for associative learning. However, how learning is implemented when the sensory striatum is permanently impaired remains unclear. Using chemogenetic techniques to suppress layer five auditory cortex (AC) input to the auditory striatum, learning of a sound discrimination task was significantly impacted in freely moving Mongolian gerbils, in particular when this suppression occurs early on during learning. Read More

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A mosaic of cost-benefit control over cortico-striatal circuitry.

Trends Cogn Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Dopamine contributes to cognitive control through well-established effects in both the striatum and cortex. Although earlier work suggests that dopamine affects cognitive control capacity, more recent work suggests that striatal dopamine may also impact on cognitive motivation. We consider the emerging perspective that striatal dopamine boosts control by making people more sensitive to the benefits versus the costs of cognitive effort, and we discuss how this sensitivity shapes competition between controlled and prepotent actions. Read More

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Altered effective connectivity of the reward network during an incentive processing task in adults with alcohol use disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.

Background: Abnormalities of reward sensitivity and impulsivity are known to be correlated with each other and alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk, but the underlying aberrant neural circuitry involved is not clearly defined. We sought to extend the current knowledge of AUD pathophysiology by studying incentive processing in persons with AUD using functional neuroimaging data.

Methods: We utilized functional MRI data from the Human Connectome Project Database (HCP) obtained during performance of a number-guessing incentive processing task with win, loss, and neutral feedback conditions in N=78 participants with either DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence (combined as the AUD group) and N=78 age and sex-matched control (CON) participants. Read More

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The Endocannabinoidome in Neuropsychiatry: Opportunities and Potential Risks.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 10:105729. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Deakin University, IMPACT - the Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation, School of Medicine, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia; Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, CAMH, 33 Ursula Franklin Street, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises two cognate endocannabinoid receptors referred to as CB1R and CB2R ECS dysregulation is apparent in neurodegenerative/neuro-psychiatric disorders including but not limited to schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and potentially bipolar disorder. The aim of this paper is to review mechanisms whereby both receptors may interact with neuro-immune and neuro-oxidative pathways, which play a pathophysiological role in these disorders. CB1R is located in the presynaptic terminals of GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons where it regulates the retrograde suppression of neurotransmission. Read More

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Cell-specific effects of Dyt1 knock-out on sensory processing, network-level connectivity, and motor deficits.

Exp Neurol 2021 Jun 10:113783. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

DYT1 dystonia is a debilitating movement disorder characterized by repetitive, unintentional movements and postures. The disorder has been linked to mutation of the TOR1A/DYT1 gene encoding torsinA. Convergent evidence from studies in humans and animal models suggest that striatal medium spiny neurons and cholinergic neurons are important in DYT1 dystonia. Read More

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Roles of the ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex in spatial reversal learning and attentional set-shifting.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2021 Jun 8:107477. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Laboratory of the Neurophysiology of Memory, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Science, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Neural components enabling flexible cognition and behavior are well-established, and depend mostly on proper intercommunication within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. However, dense projections from the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) alter the functioning of the medial PFC (mPFC). Dysfunctional hippocampo-prefrontal connectivity negatively affects the integrity of flexible cognition, especially in patients with schizophrenia. Read More

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Multi-Atlas MRI-Based Striatum Segmentation for I-FP-CIT SPECT (DAT-SPECT) Compared With the Bolt Method and SPECT-Atlas-Based Segmentation Method Toward the Accurate Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease/Syndrome.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 25;8:662233. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

This study aimed to analyze the performance of multi-atlas MRI-based parcellation for I-FP-CIT SPECT (DAT-SPECT) in healthy volunteers. The proposed method was compared with the SPECT-atlas-based and Bolt methods. F-FE-PE2I-PET (DAT-PET) was used as a reference. Read More

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Injection with Toxoplasma gondii protein affects neuron health and survival.

Elife 2021 Jun 9;10. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Neurology; Immunobiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, United States.

is an intracellular parasite that causes a long-term latent infection of neurons. Using a custom MATLAB-based mapping program in combination with a mouse model that allows us to permanently mark neurons injected with parasite proteins, we found that -injected neurons (TINs) are heterogeneously distributed in the brain, primarily localizing to the cortex followed by the striatum. In addition, we determined that cortical TINs are commonly (>50%) excitatory neurons (FoxP2) and that striatal TINs are often (>65%) medium spiny neurons (MSNs) (FoxP2). Read More

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Anticipating control over aversive stimuli is mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex: An fMRI study with healthy adults.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The anticipation of control over aversive events in life is relevant for our mental health. Insights on the underlying neural mechanisms remain limited. We developed a new functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task that uses auditory stimuli to explore the neural correlates of (1) the anticipation of control over aversion and (2) the processing of aversion. Read More

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High Mobility Group Box 1/Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling Increases Expression in Alcohol Exposure.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 1;17:1725-1732. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatal neurotransmitter homeostasis is affected by alcohol dependence. In this study, the microarray dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were downloaded. The prefrontal and striatum data were cross-analyzed to reveal the co-effects of alcohol dependence on the two brain regions of mice. Read More

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Neural underpinnings of valence-action interactions triggered by cues and targets in a rewarded approach/avoidance task.

Cortex 2021 May 10;141:240-261. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Belgium.

Incentive-valence signals have a large impact on our actions in everyday life. While it is intuitive (and most often beneficial) to approach positive and avoid negative stimuli, these prepotent response tendencies can also be maladaptive, as exemplified by clinical conditions such as overeating or pathological gambling. We have recently shown that targets associated with monetary incentives can trigger such valence-action biases (target condition), and that these are absent when valence and action information are provided by advance cues (cue condition). Read More

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Distinct outcome processing in deterministic and probabilistic reversal learning.

Cortex 2021 May 11;141:224-239. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratory of Cognitive Neurorehabilitation, Division of Neurorehabilitation, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Division of Neurorehabilitation, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Anticipations that fail to happen are important drivers of behavioral adaptation. Their processing appears to depend on the context. In a deterministic environment, where a stimulus unequivocally predicts the outcome, processing of absent outcomes involves the posterior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Read More

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[Zbtb33 Gene Knockout Changes Transcription of the Fgf9, Fgfr3, с-Мус and FoxG1 Genes in the Developing Mouse Brain].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2021 May-Jun;55(3):422-430

Institute of Cytology and Genetics Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia.

The transcription factor KAISO is important for proper development of animal embryos. In the cell, KAISO regulates cell division and apoptosis. KAISO is abundant in the central nervous system. Read More

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Distribution of the Alpha-Synuclein in the Brain and the Primary Organs of the Rhesus Monkey.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, China.

Previous studies have shown that abnormal aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) protein is a major trigger of neurodegenerative diseases. The expression level of α-syn in different brain regions and the disease-susceptible regions varies with the development of the disease. The expression pattern of the α-syn protein in mouse brain has been precisely described in the literature. Read More

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Prodromal neuroinflammatory, cholinergic and metabolite dysfunction detected by PET and MRS in the TgF344-AD transgenic rat model of AD: a collaborative multi-modal study.

Theranostics 2021 3;11(14):6644-6667. Epub 2021 May 3.

Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are valuable but do not fully recapitulate human AD pathology, such as spontaneous Tau fibril accumulation and neuronal loss, necessitating the development of new AD models. The transgenic (TG) TgF344-AD rat has been reported to develop age-dependent AD features including neuronal loss and neurofibrillary tangles, despite only expressing and mutations, suggesting an improved modelling of AD hallmarks. Alterations in neuronal networks as well as learning performance and cognition tasks have been reported in this model, but none have combined a longitudinal, multimodal approach across multiple centres, which mimics the approaches commonly taken in clinical studies. Read More

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Altered Resting-State Brain Activity in Schizophrenia and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Compared With Non-psychiatric Controls: Commonalities and Distinctions Across Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2021 21;12:681701. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Mental Health, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Beijing, China.

Schizophrenia (SCZ) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are classified as two chronic psychiatric disorders with high comorbidity rate and shared clinical symptoms. Abnormal spontaneous brain activity within the cortical-striatal neural circuits has been observed in both disorders. However, it is unclear if the common or distinct neural abnormalities underlie the neurobiological substrates in the resting state. Read More

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An Examination of Mobile Spinal Cord Stimulators on Treating Parkinson Disease.

Brain Circ 2021 Jan-Mar;7(1):8-12. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.

In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD), spinal cord stimulation (SCS) exhibits neuroprotective effects. Recent advancements in SCS technology, most importantly mobile stimulators, allow for the conventional limitations of SCS such as limited stimulation time and restricted animal movements to be bypassed, offering potential avenues for improved clinical translation to PD patients. Small devices that could deliver continuous SCS to freely moving parkinsonian rats were shown to significantly improve behavior, preserve neurons and fibers in the substantia Nigra/striatum, reduce microglia infiltration, and increase laminin-positive area of the cerebral cortex. Read More

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Understanding Emotions: Origins and Roles of the Amygdala.

Biomolecules 2021 May 31;11(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Nash Family Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 07305, USA.

Emotions arise from activations of specialized neuronal populations in several parts of the cerebral cortex, notably the anterior cingulate, insula, ventromedial prefrontal, and subcortical structures, such as the amygdala, ventral striatum, putamen, caudate nucleus, and ventral tegmental area. Feelings are conscious, emotional experiences of these activations that contribute to neuronal networks mediating thoughts, language, and behavior, thus enhancing the ability to predict, learn, and reappraise stimuli and situations in the environment based on previous experiences. Contemporary theories of emotion converge around the key role of the amygdala as the central subcortical emotional brain structure that constantly evaluates and integrates a variety of sensory information from the surroundings and assigns them appropriate values of emotional dimensions, such as valence, intensity, and approachability. Read More

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When Good Kinases Go Rogue: GSK3, p38 MAPK and CDKs as Therapeutic Targets for Alzheimer's and Huntington's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Neugeneron, Dallas, TX 75243, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a mostly sporadic brain disorder characterized by cognitive decline resulting from selective neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex whereas Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic inherited disorder characterized by motor abnormalities and psychiatric disturbances resulting from selective neurodegeneration in the striatum. Although there have been numerous clinical trials for these diseases, they have been unsuccessful. Research conducted over the past three decades by a large number of laboratories has demonstrated that abnormal actions of common kinases play a key role in the pathogenesis of both AD and HD as well as several other neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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TSPO Expression Modulatory Effect of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor in the Ischemic Stroke Rat Model.

Cells 2021 May 29;10(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 13620, Korea.

We performed in vivo PET imaging with 3-[F]F-CP118,954 () for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and [F]fluoromethyl-PBR28- () for translocator protein 18-kDa (TSPO) to investigate the inflammatory brain response after stroke. Imaging studies were performed in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) Sprague-Dawley rat model for a period of three weeks. The percentage injected dose per tissue weight (%ID/g) of striatum of , and cortex of were obtained, respectively. Read More

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Involvement of the Protein Ras Homolog Enriched in the Striatum, Rhes, in Dopaminergic Neurons' Degeneration: Link to Parkinson's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 18;22(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Ceinge Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples, Italy.

is one of the most interesting genes regulated by thyroid hormones that, through the inhibition of the striatal cAMP/PKA pathway, acts as a modulator of dopamine neurotransmission. is expressed at high levels in the dorsal striatum, with a medial-to-lateral expression gradient reflecting that of both dopamine D and adenosine A receptors. transcript is also present in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, olfactory tubercle and bulb, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area of the rodent brain. Read More

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From Desire to Dread-A Neurocircuitry Based Model for Food Avoidance in Anorexia Nervosa.

Guido K W Frank

J Clin Med 2021 May 21;10(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA.

Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric illness associated with food avoidance. Animal models from Berridge et al. over the past decade showed that environmental ambience, pleasant or fear inducing, can trigger either appetitive (desire) or avoidance (dread) behaviors in animals via frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, and hypothalamus. Read More

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Comprehensive expression pattern of kin of irregular chiasm-like 3 in the adult mouse brain.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 29;563:66-72. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

Kin of irregular chiasm-like 3 (Kirrel3), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in the central nervous system during development and in adulthood. It has been reported that Kirrel3 is involved in the axonal fasciculation in the olfactory bulb, the neuronal migration in the pontine nucleus, and the synapse formation in the hippocampal neurons in mice. Although KIRREL3 mutations have been implicated in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability in humans, the comprehensive expression pattern of Kirrel3 in the adult brain is not fully understood. Read More

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Striatum and language processing: Where do we stand?

Cognition 2021 May 29:104785. Epub 2021 May 29.

Département d'Etudes Cognitives, École normale supérieure, PSL University, 75005 Paris, France; Inserm U955, Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale, Equipe E01 NeuroPsychologie Interventionnelle, 94000 Créteil, France; Université Paris-Est Créteil, Faculté de médecine, 94000 Créteil, France; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, National Reference Center for Huntington's Disease, Neurology Department, Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier Hospital, Créteil, France. Electronic address:

More than a century ago, Broca (1861), Wernicke (1874) and Lichteim (1885) laid the foundations for the first anatomo-functional model of language, secondarily enriched by Geschwind (1967), leading to the Broca-Wernicke-Lichteim-Geschwind model. This model included the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices as well as a subcortical structure, which could be the striatum, whose nature and role have remained unclear. Although the emergence of language deficits in patients with striatal injury has challenged the cortical language models developed over the past 30 years, the integration of the striatum into language processing models remains rare. Read More

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The transcriptional repressor Rev-erbα regulates circadian expression of the astrocyte Fabp7 mRNA.

Curr Res Neurobiol 2021 23;2. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, Washington State University, Spokane, WA. 99202, USA.

The astrocyte brain-type fatty-acid binding protein (Fabp7) circadian gene expression is synchronized in the same temporal phase throughout mammalian brain. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to this coordinated expression are not completely understood, but likely involve the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα (NR1D1), a transcriptional repressor. We performed ChIP-seq on ventral tegmental area (VTA) and identified gene targets of Rev-erbα, including . Read More

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Evaluation of Effect of Ninjin'yoeito on Regional Brain Glucose Metabolism by F-FDG Autoradiography With Insulin Loading in Aged Mice.

Front Nutr 2021 12;8:657663. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Bioregulation and Pharmacological Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.

A recent clinical study revealed that Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) may potentially improve cognitive outcome. However, the mechanism by which NYT exerts its effect on elderly patients remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ninjin'yoeito on regional brain glucose metabolism by F-FDG autoradiography with insulin loading in aged wild-type mice. Read More

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Motor Symptom Lateralization Influences Cortico-Striatal Functional Connectivity in Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:619631. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neurology, Research Institute of Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disease, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

The striatum is unevenly impaired bilaterally in Parkinson's disease (PD). Because the striatum plays a key role in cortico-striatal circuits, we assume that lateralization affects cortico-striatal functional connectivity in PD. The present study sought to evaluate the effect of lateralization on various cortico-striatal circuits through resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Read More

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Developmental Characterization of Schizophrenia-Associated Gene Zswim6 in Mouse Forebrain.

Front Neuroanat 2021 13;15:669631. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Neuroscience, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disease with a globally 1% life-long prevalence. Clinical studies have linked mutations to developmental and neurological diseases, including schizophrenia. 's function remains largely unknown. Read More

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Early or Late Gestational Exposure to Maternal Immune Activation Alters Neurodevelopmental Trajectories in Mice: An Integrated Neuroimaging, Behavioral, and Transcriptional Study.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Biological and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Computational Brain Imaging Lab, Cerebral Imaging Center, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) in utero is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders later in life. The impact of the gestational timing of MIA exposure on downstream development remains unclear.

Methods: We characterized neurodevelopmental trajectories of mice exposed to the viral mimetic poly I:C (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) either on gestational day 9 (early) or on day 17 (late) using longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging from weaning to adulthood. Read More

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