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Cardiac complications of cancer therapies.

Adv Cancer Res 2022 20;155:167-214. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Pauley Heart Center, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

The quest of defeating cancer and improving prognosis in survivors has generated remarkable strides forward in research and have advanced the development of new antineoplastic therapies. These achievements, combined with rapid screening and early detection, have considerably extended the life expectancy of patients surviving multiple types of malignancies. Consequently, chemotherapy-related toxicity in several organ systems, especially the cardiovascular system, has surfaced as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. Read More

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An overview of chemotoxicity and radiation toxicity in cancer therapy.

Adv Cancer Res 2022 30;155:1-27. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, United States. Electronic address:

While immunotherapy and targeted therapies represent major advances against different types of malignancies, the mainstay of cancer therapy continues to be radiation and surgery for localized disease, and chemotherapy for systemic disease, with the preponderance of chemotherapeutic agents (such as anthracyclines, alkylating agents, and antimetabolites) having been developed decades ago. Combination chemotherapy regimens have changed the natural history of once deadly diseases such as breast and prostate cancer and led to curative regimens in advanced hematological malignancies and testicular cancer. However, while oncologists maintain their focus on disease suppression, and where feasible, disease eradication, obstacles to achieving cure remain, such as tumor dormancy and ultimately disease recurrence, as well as both intrinsic and acquired resistance. Read More

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Anetta Wronska

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2022 Jul 2. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Clyde and Helen Wu Center for Molecular Cardiology, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, United States

Since their discovery in 1993, microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) have emerged as important regulators of many crucial cellular processes and their dysregulation have been shown to contribute to multiple pathological conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). miRNAs have been found to regulate the expression of various genes involved in cardiac development and function, and in the development and progression of CVD. Many miRNAs are master regulators fine-tuning the expression of multiple, often interrelated, genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, senescence, and other processes crucial for the development of different forms of CVD. Read More

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The epoxy fatty acid pathway enhances cAMP in mammalian cells through multiple mechanisms.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2022 Jun 29:106662. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Entomology and Nematology, and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California - Davis, Davis CA, USA. Electronic address:

The cellular mechanism by which epoxy fatty acids (EpFA) improves disease status is not well characterized. Previous studies suggest the involvement of cellular receptors and cyclic AMP (cAMP). Herein, the action of EpFAs derived from linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (ARA), and docosahexaenoic acid on cAMP levels was studied in multiple cell types to elucidate relationships between EpFAs, receptors and cells' origin. Read More

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Participation of ecto-5'-nucleotidase in the inflammatory response in an adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) model.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Jun 29:109402. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Laboratório de Neuroquímica e Psicofarmacologia, Escola de Ciências da Saúde e da Vida, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Avenida Ipiranga, 6681, Caixa Postal 1429, 90619-900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

The ecto-5'-nucleotidase is an important source of adenosine in the extracellular medium. Adenosine modulation appears early in evolution and performs several biological functions, including a role as an anti-inflammatory molecule. Here, we evaluate the activity and mRNA expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using zebrafish as a model. Read More

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Positive Regulation of Endothelial Tom70 by Metformin as a New Mechanism Against Cardiac Microvascular Injury in Diabetes.

Mitochondrion 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiology, The General Hospital of Western Theater Command, Chengdu, 610083, China. Electronic address:

Microvascular protection is the main mechanism of metformin against diabetic complications. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) are the basic component of cardiac microvessels, and they suffer from oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction under type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane 70 (Tom70) improves mitochondrial dysfunction, but its role in the hearts of T2DM patients remains unclear. Read More

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Antiviral effect of an extract from Kaempferia galanga L. rhizome in mice infected with pseudorabies virus.

J Virol Methods 2022 Jun 29:114573. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Natural Medicine Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Pseudorabies virus (PrV) is one of the most important herpesviruses which can cause severe diseases in many mammals and some avian species. In recent years, repeated outbreaks of pseudorabies worldwide indicated an urgent need for new control measures. The results described in this study demonstrated that an extract prepared from the rhizome of Kaempferia galanga L (Kge), which consisted of flavonoids (2. Read More

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The cardiometabolic depression subtype and its association with clinical characteristics: The Maastricht Study.

J Affect Disord 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Alzheimer Centrum Limburg, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Maastricht, the Netherlands; School of Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNs), Faculty of Health, Medicine & Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Individuals with depression often show an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile and might represent a distinct depression subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a cardiometabolic depression subtype could be identified and to investigate its association with demographics and clinical characteristics (severity, symptomatology, anti-depressant use, persistence and cognitive functioning).

Methods: We used data from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort in the southern part of The Netherlands. Read More

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Colchicine alleviates inflammation and improves diastolic dysfunction in heart failure rats with preserved ejection fraction.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 Jun 29:175126. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210008, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Several studies have reported that colchicine attenuates cardiac inflammation and improves cardiac function in myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation. However, no study has investigated its effect on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Hence, this study aimed to assess its efficacy in a high salt diet (HSD)-induced HFpEF rat model. Read More

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Kidney targeting of formoterol containing polymeric nanoparticles improves recovery from ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in mice.

Kidney Int 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

The University of Arizona R. Ken Coit College of Pharmacy, Skaggs Pharmaceutical Sciences Center, 1703 E. Mabel St. 85721, Tucson, AZ. USA; The University of Arizona College of Medicine, 501 N Campbell Ave. 85724, Tucson, AZ. USA; The University of Arizona, BIO5 Institute, 1657 E Helen St. 85719, Tucson, AZ. USA; Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, USA. Electronic address:

The β adrenergic receptor agonist, formoterol, is an inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis and restorer of mitochondrial and kidney function in acute and chronic models of kidney injury. Unfortunately, systemic administration of formoterol has the potential for adverse cardiovascular effects, increased heart rate, and decreased blood pressure. To minimize these effects, we developed biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles containing formoterol that target the kidney, thereby decreasing the effective dose, and lessen cardiovascular effects while restoring kidney function after injury. Read More

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Aortic Valve Repair in Pediatric Patients - 30 Years Single Center Experience.

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Valve repair is the procedure of choice for congenital aortic valve disease. With increasing experience, the surgical armamentarium broadened from simple commissurotomy to more complex techniques. We report our 30-year experience with pediatric aortic valve repair. Read More

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Impact of Hospital Volume on Outcomes of Septal Myectomy for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is common among symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), yet septal reduction by surgical myectomy (SM) is performed infrequently in many centers. We examined the possible relationship between institutional case volume and early outcomes of septal myectomy.

Methods: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (ACSD) was queried for patients with HCM undergoing septal myectomy from January 2012 to December 2019. Read More

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Risk Factors for Post-Repair Elevated Mitral Gradient: A Post-Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Trial.

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Pre-discharge elevated mean mitral gradients (>5mmHg) may occur after repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation. We sought to identify risk factors associated with elevated gradients as well as to evaluate its impact on functional outcomes at 12 months in this sub-analysis of the Canadian Mitral Research Alliance (CAMRA) CardioLink-2 trial.

Methods: 104 degenerative mitral regurgitation patients undergoing mitral repair were randomized to either a leaflet resection or preservation strategy. Read More

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Significance of Effective Height and Mechanism of Regurgitation in Tricuspid Aortic Valve Repair.

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Saarland University Medical Center, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Isolated repair of the regurgitant tricuspid aortic valve has become an increasingly practiced alternative to replacement, even though durability data are scarce. We analyzed the mid-term results of tricuspid aortic valve repair to determine whether mechanism of regurgitation or operative technique influence the results.

Methods: Between 12/1997 and 08/2014, 264 patients underwent isolated TAV repair in our institution. Read More

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Anticoagulation after Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Replacement: Are We Following the Guidelines?

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Guideline-directed medication adherence is considered an important quality measure following cardiac surgery. We evaluated compliance with ACC/AHA guidelines regarding warfarin use after surgical aortic valve replacement (sAVR) using bioprostheses and examined potential variations in anticoagulation practice over time.

Methods: Using the OptumLabs Data Warehouse®, we investigated adult patients having bioprosthetic sAVR with or without coronary artery bypass (2007-2019). Read More

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The entrance route: oral, mucous, cutaneous, or systemic has a marked influence on the outcome of Trypanosoma cruzi experimental infection.

Acta Trop 2022 Jun 29:106581. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Universitário, Morro do Cruzeiro - Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

In recent decades, the oral infection of Trypanosoma cruzi has gathered increased attention due to frequent outbreaks that can lead to more severe clinical signs than those usually found in the areas of vector transmission. This study addresses the main routes of infection using metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT) and blood trypomastigotes (BT). Herein, BALB/c mice were infected with the Colombian (TcI) strain via intraperitoneal (IP), oral, intragastric (IG), ocular (OC) and cutaneous (CT) routes with 10 culture-derived MT or BT. Read More

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Deploying a Novel Custom Mobile Application for STEMI Activation and Transfer in a Large Healthcare System to Improve Cross-Team Workflow. STEMIcathAID Implementation Project.

Am Heart J 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a high-risk patient medical emergency. We developed a secure mobile application, STEMIcathAID, to optimize care for STEMI patients by providing a digital platform for communication between the STEMI care team members, EKG transmission, cardiac catherization laboratory (cath lab) activation and ambulance tracking. The aim of this report is to describe the implementation of the app into the current STEMI workflow in preparation for a pilot project employing the app for inter-hospital STEMI transfer. Read More

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Thromboprophylactic low-molecular-weight heparin versus standard of care in unvaccinated, at-risk outpatients with COVID-19 (ETHIC): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3b trial.

Lancet Haematol 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 is associated with inflammation and an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Prophylactic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin have been used in hospitalised and non-critically ill patients with COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) versus standard of care (no enoxaparin) in at-risk outpatients with COVID-19. Read More

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Antithrombotic prophylaxis for symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19: less is consistently more.

Lancet Haematol 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Hematology Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

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Enoxaparin for primary thromboprophylaxis in symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 (OVID): a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: COVID-19 is a viral prothrombotic respiratory infection. Heparins exert antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects, and might have antiviral properties. We aimed to investigate whether thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin would prevent untoward hospitalisation and death in symptomatic, but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Read More

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Intravenous tenecteplase compared with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke in Canada (AcT): a pragmatic, multicentre, open-label, registry-linked, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Centre de recherche du CHUS, Centre intégré Universitaire de Santé et des Services Sociaux de l'Estrie, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

Background: Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase bolus followed by infusion is a global standard of care for patients with acute ischaemic stroke. We aimed to determine whether tenecteplase given as a single bolus might increase reperfusion compared with this standard of care.

Methods: In this multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, registry-linked, randomised, controlled trial (AcT), patients were enrolled from 22 primary and comprehensive stroke centres across Canada. Read More

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Effect of comprehensive smoke-free legislation on neonatal mortality and infant mortality across 106 middle-income countries: a synthetic control study.

Lancet Public Health 2022 Jul;7(7):e616-e625

Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Erasmus MC Sophia Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Centre for Medical Informatics, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Background: There are few quantitative studies into the effect of comprehensive smoke-free legislation on neonatal and infant mortality in middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the effects of implementing comprehensive smoke-free legislation on neonatal mortality and infant mortality across all middle-income countries.

Methods: We applied the synthetic control method using 1990-2018 country-level panel data for 106 middle-income countries from the WHO, World Bank, and Penn World datasets. Read More

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Re-evaluating low-carbohydrate diets and mortality.

Lancet Public Health 2022 Jul;7(7):e581

German University of Prevention and Health Management, Saarbrücken, Germany.

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Altered composition of the mitochondrial Cauniporter in the failing human heart.

Cell Calcium 2022 Jun 22;105:102618. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

MitoCare Center, Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, United States of America. Electronic address:

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. Yet, there is still limited knowledge on the underlying molecular mechanisms, because human tissue for research is scarce, and data obtained in animal models is not directly applicable to humans. Thus, studies of human heart specimen are of particular relevance. Read More

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Psychological distress is independently related to new coronary events at 8 years' follow-up in elderly primary care patients with hypertension.

J Psychosom Res 2022 Jun 25;160:110980. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, the Netherlands.

Objective: Occurrence of psychological distress in hypertensive patients could have a negative synergistic effect on future cardiovascular events (CVEs). The aim of this study was to determine the association between anxiety or depressive symptoms in elderly hypertensive primary care patients and the development of new CVEs and all-cause mortality.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in five Dutch general practices between June 2010 and January 2012. Read More

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Preoperative sedation in children with congenital heart disease: 50% and 95% effective doses, hemodynamic effects, and safety of intranasal dexmedetomidine.

J Clin Anesth 2022 Jun 29;81:110908. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Children's Cardiac Center, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Department of Children's Cardiac Center of Central China Fuwai Hospital, Central China Fu Wai Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450003, China.

Study Objective: To determine the 50% and 95% effective doses (ED50 and ED95, respectively), hemodynamic effects, and safety of intranasal dexmedetomidine for preoperative sedation in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) with a left-to-right shunt.

Design: Double-blind sequential allocation trial.

Setting: Pediatric preoperative waiting area. Read More

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Tetrahydrocurcumin improves lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial dysfunction by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation via JNK/ERK signaling pathway regulation.

Phytomedicine 2022 Jun 18;104:154283. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, The Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China. Electronic address:

Background: Acute myocardial dysfunction in patients with sepsis is attributed to oxidative stress, inflammation, and cardiomyocyte loss; however, specific drugs for its prevention are still lacking. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) has been proven to contribute to the prevention of various cardiovascular diseases by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation. This study was performed to investigate the functions and mechanism of action of THC in septic cardiomyopathy. Read More

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Catheter Ablation for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure: Insights from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry.

Eur J Heart Fail 2022 Jul 2. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

Heart and Vascular Theme, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: To investigate the association between catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality as well as hospitalization for heart failure (HF) in patients with HF across the ejection fraction (EF) spectrum.

Methods: Patients with first-time catheter ablation for AF (ablation group) compared to only medical treated AF patients (no ablation group) were identified from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry between 2005 and 2019. The primary outcome (all-cause mortality/first HF hospitalization) was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:2 propensity score (PS) matched cohort and pre-specified EF subgroups (preserved EF [HFpEF] [EF≥50%], mildly reduced EF [HFmrEF] [EF 40% to 49%], reduced EF [HFrEF] [EF<40%]) of this cohort. Read More

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Elevated blood pressure is associated with advanced brain aging in mid-life: A 30-year follow-up of The CARDIA Study.

Alzheimers Dement 2022 Jul 2. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for late-life brain health; however, the association of elevated BP with brain health in mid-life is unclear.

Methods: We identified 661 participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (age 18-30 at baseline) with 30 years of follow-up and brain magnetic resonance imaging at year 30. Cumulative exposure of BP was estimated by time-weighted averages (TWA). Read More

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Progression of echocardiographic parameters and prognosis in ATTR cardiac amyloidosis.

Eur J Heart Fail 2022 Jul 2. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

National Amyloidosis Centre, Division of Medicine, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK.

Aims: Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is an increasingly diagnosed disease. Echocardiography is widely utilized, but studies to confirm the value of echocardiography for tracking changes over time are not available. We sought to describe: (1) changes in multiple echocardiographic parameters; (2) differences in rate of progression of three predominant genotypes; and (3) the ability of changes in echocardiographic parameters to predict prognosis. Read More

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