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Social and Educational Outcomes in Patients with Biliary Atresia: A Systematic Review.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Paediatric Liver, GI and Nutrition Centre and Mowatlabs, Kings College Hospital, London, UK William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK University College London Medical School, University College London, London, UK Northwick Park Hospital, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.

Objectives: To systematically review the social outcomes of patients with biliary atresia (BA), including educational, employment and family outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, Global Health, Maternity and Infant Care Database, supplemented by reference searching. NHLBI scoring was conducted for quality assessment. Read More

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September 2021

Risk factor analysis for Salmonella contamination of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) hatcheries in Great Britain.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Sep 13;196:105492. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Bacteriology, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA - Weybridge), Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, KT15 3NB, UK.

Salmonellosis is the second most commonly reported zoonosis in the European Union and contaminated meat from broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) is an important source of human infection. In Great Britain (GB), prevalence of Salmonella enterica in broiler flocks is low, having declined considerably since the introduction of the Salmonella National Control Programme in 2010. However, this decreasing trend has stabilised in recent years and serovars with known ability to persistently colonise hatcheries have been isolated from broiler flocks with increasing frequency, indicating that further controls on hatchery contamination are required. Read More

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September 2021

Deregulated Rac1 Activity in Neural Crest Controls Cell Proliferation, Migration and Differentiation During Midbrain Development.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:704769. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Mutations in allele are implicated in multiple brain tumors, indicating a rigorous control of Rac1 activity is required for neural tissue normal development and homeostasis. To understand how elevated Rac1 activity affects neural crest cells (NCCs) development, we have generated mice, in which a constitutively active Rac1 mutant is expressed specifically in NCCs derivatives. Our results revealed that augmented Rac1 activity leads to enlarged midbrain and altered cell density, accompanied by increased NCCs proliferation rate and misrouted cell migration. Read More

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September 2021

Phagocytes produce prostaglandin E2 in response to cytosolic Listeria monocytogenes.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 23;17(9):e1009493. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.

Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterium that elicits robust CD8+ T-cell responses. Despite the ongoing development of L. monocytogenes-based platforms as cancer vaccines, our understanding of how L. Read More

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September 2021

Plasma levels of adiponectin and chemerin are associated with early stage of atherosclerosis in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Aging Med (Milton) 2019 Dec 30;2(4):198-206. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Geriatrics The Second Xiang-Ya Hospital Institute of Aging and Geriatric Research Central South University Changsha China.

Objective: Adipokines, such as adiponectin and chemerin, regulate fat metabolism and are critical for the development of atherosclerosis. Investigating the correlations of adiponectin and chemerin with atherosclerosis in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) will shed light on the search for new markers for early diagnosis of diabetic atherosclerosis.

Methods: A total of 120 older T2DM patients and nine healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Read More

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December 2019

Temporal lobe activation during episodic memory encoding following traumatic brain injury.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 22;11(1):18830. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.

The temporal lobes are critical for encoding and retrieving episodic memories. The temporal lobes are preferentially disrupted following a traumatic brain injury (TBI), likely contributing to the difficulties observed in episodic memory. However, the underlying neural changes that precipitate or maintain these difficulties in individuals with TBI remains poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Heterozygous Mutation of Reduces Renal Lymphatics Without Renal Dysfunction.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

D Marciano, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States

Lymphatic abnormalities are observed in several types of kidney disease, but the relationship between the renal lymphatic system and renal function is unclear. The discovery of lymphatic-specific proteins, advances in microscopy, and available genetic mouse models provide the tools to help elucidate the role of renal lymphatics in physiology and disease. We utilized a mouse model containing a missense mutation in 3 (dubbed ) that abrogates its kinase ability. Read More

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September 2021

Subjective Sleep Quality and Sleep Architecture in Patients With Migraine: A Meta-analysis.

Neurology 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Objectives: Sleep disturbance is often associated with migraine. However, there is a paucity of research investigating objective and subjective measures of sleep in migraine patients. This meta-analysis aims to determine whether there are differences in subjective sleep quality measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and objective sleep architecture measured using polysomnography between adult and pediatric patients, and healthy controls. Read More

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September 2021

Changes in synaptic density in the subacute phase after ischemic stroke: A C-UCB-J PET/MR study.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Sep 22:271678X211047759. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Functional alterations after ischemic stroke have been described with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and perfusion Positron Emission Tomography (PET), but no data on synaptic changes exist. Recently, imaging of synaptic density became available by targeting synaptic vesicle protein 2 A, a protein ubiquitously expressed in all presynaptic nerve terminals. We hypothesized that in subacute ischemic stroke loss of synaptic density can be evaluated with C-UCB-J PET in the ischemic tissue and that alterations in synaptic density can be present in brain regions beyond the ischemic core. Read More

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September 2021

The role of abnormal subaortic morphometry as a substrate for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction following atrioventricular septal defect repair.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Objectives: Although left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is a recognized risk after atrioventricular (AV) septal defect (AVSD) repair, quantitative assessments to define the substrate of the obstruction are lacking.

Methods: Morphometric analyses were based on measurements from early 2-dimensional echocardiographic scans (within 3 months postoperatively) for 117 patients (82 CAVVO = common AV valve; 35 SAVVO = separate AV valve orifices), which were compared to 50 age/weight matched controls (atrial septal defect/ventricular septal defect). Late echocardiographic analyses were performed in 57 patients with AVSD (follow-up range, 1. Read More

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September 2021

Reversal of direct oral anticoagulants in adult hip fracture patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Injury 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Professor and Consultant Anaesthetist, Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, UK Department of Anaesthesia, Nottingham University Hospitals, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Increasing numbers of patients are taking Direct Oral Anticoagulants at the time of hip fracture. Evidence is limited on how and if the effects of DOAC's should be reversed before surgical fixation. Wide variations in practice exist. Read More

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September 2021

Is the myonuclear domain ceiling hypothesis dead?

Singapore Med J 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Muscle fibres are multinuclear cells, and the cytoplasmic territory where a single myonucleus controls transcriptional activity is called the myonuclear domain (MND). MND size shows flexibility during muscle hypertrophy. The MND ceiling hypothesis states that hypertrophy results in the expansion of MND size to an upper limit or MND ceiling, beyond which additional myonuclei via activation of satellite cells are required to support further growth. Read More

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September 2021

Adipocyte-specific mTORC2 deficiency impairs BAT and iWAT thermogenic capacity without affecting glucose uptake and energy expenditure in cold-acclimated mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, grid.11899.38Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Deletion of mTORC2 essential component Rictor by a Cre recombinase under control of the broad, non-adipocyte specific aP2/FABP4 promoter impairs thermoregulation and brown adipose tissue (BAT) glucose uptake upon acute cold exposure. We investigated herein whether adipocyte-specific mTORC2 deficiency affects BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) signaling, metabolism and thermogenesis in cold-acclimated mice. For this, 8-weeks old male mice bearing Rictor deletion and therefore mTORC2 deficiency in adipocytes (adiponectin-Cre) and littermates controls were either kept at thermoneutrality (30 ± 1ºC) or cold-acclimated (10 ± 1ºC) for 14 days and evaluated for BAT and iWAT signaling, metabolism and thermogenesis. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Nebulized Amphotericin B in Critically ill Patients With Respiratory spp. De-colonization: A Retrospective Analysis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 3;8:723904. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The potential relationship among airway spp. de-colonization, nebulized amphotericin B (NAB), and occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients who are critically ill has not been fully investigated, especially concerning effects on survival. In this observational, retrospective, cohort study in a 22-bed central intensive care unit, we included patients aged >18 years who required mechanical ventilation (MV) for >48 h, with at least two consecutive positive spp. Read More

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September 2021

Circulating Placental Vesicles Carry HLA-DR in Pre-Eclampsia: A New Potential Marker of the Syndrome.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:717879. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Milan, Italy.

Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a common disorder of pregnancy that usually presents with hypertension and proteinuria. The clinical presentation arises from soluble factors released into the maternal circulation from the placenta owing to the stress of syncytiotrophoblast, consequence of defective placentation occurring in the first half of pregnancy. Reduced tolerance of the semiallogeneic fetus by the maternal immune system has been proposed as first trigger leading to poor placentation. Read More

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September 2021

Potential markers for sample size estimations in hereditary spastic paraplegia type 5.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Sep 19;16(1):391. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology of First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Neuroscience, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350005, China.

Background: Aim to identify potential biomarkers to assess therapeutic efficacy for hereditary spastic paraplegias type 5 (SPG5) by investigating the clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study to compare SPG5 patients with age- and sex-matched healthy controls who underwent conventional and quantitative MRI techniques of spinal cord (C1-T9) and brain. SPG5 patients also underwent assessment for clinical status and CSF biomarkers (27-hydroxycholesterol, neurofilament light). Read More

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September 2021

A dopamine gradient controls access to distributed working memory in the large-scale monkey cortex.

Neuron 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Electronic address:

Dopamine is required for working memory, but how it modulates the large-scale cortex is unknown. Here, we report that dopamine receptor density per neuron, measured by autoradiography, displays a macroscopic gradient along the macaque cortical hierarchy. This gradient is incorporated in a connectome-based large-scale cortex model endowed with multiple neuron types. Read More

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September 2021

Shared medical appointments for weight loss: a systematic review.

Fam Pract 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.

Purpose: Shared medical appointments (SMAs) may help mitigate some of the barriers for managing obesity in primary care. The primary aim of this systematic review was to measure the effect of weight loss SMAs.

Methods: Systematic searches using keywords and Medical Subject Headings for overweight, obesity, and SMAs were conducted in the CENTRAL, Medline Complete, PsycINFO, Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases with no date limits. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of thyroid function in the preterm and/or very low birth weight newborn.

An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Sección de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain.

The screening program or early detection of congenital hypothyroidism is one of the greatest advances achieved in Pediatrics. Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development and maturation, which continue into the neonatal stage. Alterations in thyroid function in premature and underweight children in the first months of life causes irreversible damage to the central nervous system and is one of the most frequent and avoidable causes of mental retardation. Read More

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September 2021

Kinematic analysis of movement impaired by generalization of fear of movement-related pain in workers with low back pain.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0257231. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Neurorehabilitation, Graduate School of Health Science, Kio University, Kitakatsuragi-gun, Japan.

Purpose: To identify impaired trunk movement during work-related activity in individuals with low back pain (LBP) and investigate whether abnormalities were caused by generalized fear of movement-related pain.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a hospital in Japan. We recruited 35 participants with LBP (LBP group; 26 males, 9 females) and 20 healthy controls (HC group) via posters at our hospital. Read More

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September 2021

Coagulation profiles and viscoelastic testing in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Sep 17:e29355. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objective: To characterize viscoelastic testing profiles of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).

Methods: This single-center retrospective review included 30 patients diagnosed with MIS-C from March 1 to September 1, 2020. Thromboelastography (TEG) with platelet mapping was performed in 19 (63%) patients and compared to age- and sex-matched controls prior to cardiac surgery. Read More

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September 2021

[National Health control in ports and airports of the Balearic Islands. SARS-CoV-2 Containment (March-June 2020).]

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2021 Sep 17;95. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Dirección General de Salud Pública y Participación. Islas Baleares. España.

During the state of alert declared in the national territory in March 2020 due to the health crisis caused by SARS-CoV-2, the free movement of the population was restricted in order to prevent the spread of the virus. In the Balearic Islands, access by air and sea was limited and, in addition, health controls were established at the entry points of the islands aimed to detect people with COVID-19. The health check is understood as a Public Health surveillance procedure through which all persons authorised to travel at that time were tested. Read More

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September 2021

Nose-to-Brain Delivery of Dexamethasone: Biodistribution Studies in Mice.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 Sep 16;378(3):244-250. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, (I.N.P.O, A.E., M.G.V., P.P., B.B., G.F., E.L.S.C.), Facultad de Químicas (H.J.-C.), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Research Group Immunophysiology, Division of Neurophysiology, Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Philipps Universität, Marburg, Germany (H.B.); and Departament of Parasitology, Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos, Secretaría de Salud, Mexico City, Mexico (G.M.)

Neuroinflammation (NI) is an important physiologic process which promotes the tissue repair and homeostatic maintenance in the central nervous system after different types of insults. However, when it is exacerbated and sustained in time, NI plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of different neurologic diseases. The high systemic doses required for brain-specific targeting lead to severe undesirable effects. Read More

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September 2021

Creating a novel petal regeneration system for function identification of colour gene of grape hyacinth.

Plant Methods 2021 Sep 16;17(1):94. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

College of Landscape Architecture and Arts, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

Background: Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp.) is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants. However, its lengthy juvenile period and time-consuming transformation approaches under the available protocols impedes the functional characterisation of its genes in flower tissues. Read More

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September 2021

Treating Cells as Reagents to Design Reproducible Assays.

SLAS Discov 2021 Sep 16:24725552211039754. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Promega Corporation, Fitchburg, WI, USA.

The reproducibility of high-throughput cell-based assays is dependent on having a consistent source of cells for each experiment. Developing an understanding of the nature of cells growing in vitro and factors that influence their responsiveness to test compounds will contribute to the development of reproducible cell-based assays. Using good cell culture practices and establishing standard operating procedures (SOPs) for handling cultures can eliminate several potential contributors to variability in the responsiveness and performance of cells. Read More

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September 2021

Who Needs Surgical Stabilization for Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis? Retrospective Analysis of Non-Surgically Treated Patients.

Global Spine J 2021 Sep 16:21925682211039498. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective case series analysis.

Objective: To identify relevant clinical and radiographic markers for patients presenting with infectious spondylo-discitis associated with spinal instability directly related to the infectious process.

Methods: We evaluated patients presenting with de-novo intervertebral discitis or vertebral osteomyelitis /discitis (VOD) who initiated non-surgical treatment. Read More

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September 2021

The Evaluation of Breast Findings Detected Through Different Visualisation Techniques in Acromegaly Patients- A Retrospective Study.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Background/aim: It is known that the increased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have mitogenic and antiapoptotic properties in breast cells in acromegaly. Our study aims to evaluate breast findings in patients with acromegaly by comparing them to the control group.

Materials And Methods: Sixty-one patients followed with acromegaly diagnosis and 180 healthy controls were included in our study. Read More

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September 2021

Decreasing Nitrogen Assimilation under Drought Stress by Suppressing DST-Mediated Activation of Nitrate Reductase 1.2 in Rice.

Mol Plant 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, CAS Centre for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development, and plays vital roles for crop yield. Assimilation of nitrogen is thus fine-tuned in response to heterogeneous environments. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying this essential process remains largely unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Early platelet dysfunction in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is associated with mortality.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, University Heart Center Freiburg - Bad Krozingen, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for patients with cardiopulmonary failure and is associated with severe bleeding and poor outcome. Platelet dysfunction may be a contributing factor. The aim of this prospective observational study was to characterize platelet dysfunction and its relation to outcome in ECMO patients. Read More

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September 2021

Neuroanatomical Correlates of Impulsive Choices and Risky Decision Making in Young Chronic Tobacco Smokers: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 30;12:708925. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Division of Population and Behavioral Science, University of St. Andrews School of Medicine, St. Andrews, United Kingdom.

Impairments in the multifaceted neuropsychological construct of cognitive impulsivity are a main feature of chronic tobacco smokers. According to the literature, these cognitive impairments are relevant for the initiation and maintenance of the smoking behavior. However, the neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive impulsivity in chronic smokers remain under-investigated. Read More

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