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Psychological Effects of Heart Rate and Physical Vibration on the Operation of Construction Machines: Experimental Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Sep 15;9(9):e31637. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Graduate School of Technology Management, Ritsumeikan University, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: A construction method has emerged in which a camera is installed around a construction machine, and the operator remotely controls the machine while synchronizing the vibration of the machine with the images seen from the operator's seat using virtual reality (VR) technology. Indices related to changes in heart rate (HR) and physical vibration, such as heart rate variability (HRV) and multiscale entropy (MSE), can then be measured among the operators. As these indices are quantitative measures of autonomic regulation in the cardiovascular system, they can provide a useful means of assessing operational stress. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Health Shocks on Poverty Status in South Korea: Exploring the Mechanism of Medical Impoverishment.

Authors:
Chang-O Kim

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Visiting Doctors Program of Medical Home, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: South Korea has the highest out-of-pocket burden for medical expenses among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and has no formal sickness benefit system, along with United States and Switzerland, greatly increasing the risk of poverty due to a sudden illness.

Methods: We identify the causal effect of health shocks on poverty status and explore the mechanisms of medical impoverishment by analyzing longitudinal data from 13 670 households that participated in the representative Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) from 2007 to 2016. In this study, we define a as a case in which no household members were hospitalized in the previous year, but together they had more than 30 days of hospitalization in this year. Read More

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September 2021

Spatial modeling of epidermal nerve fiber patterns.

Stat Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Peripheral neuropathy is a condition associated with poor nerve functionality. Epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) counts per epidermal surface are dramatically reduced and the two-dimensional (2D) spatial structure of ENFs tends to become more clustered as neuropathy progresses. Therefore, studying the spatial structure of ENFs is essential to fully understand the mechanisms that guide those morphological changes. Read More

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September 2021

Genetically predicted high circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 increase the risks of soft tissue sarcoma.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(8):3980-3989. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, Texas, USA.

Insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays important roles in carcinogenesis. Previous studies have linked circulating IGF-1 and its main binding protein, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), to cancer risks. However, no study has been conducted in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Read More

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Impacts of the COVID-19 economic slowdown on ozone pollution in the U.S.

Atmos Environ (1994) 2021 Nov 4;264:118713. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Harvard University, Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cambridge, MA, USA.

In this work, we use observations and experimental emissions in a version of NOAA's National Air Quality Forecasting Capability to show that the COVID-19 economic slowdown led to disproportionate impacts on near-surface ozone concentrations across the contiguous U.S. (CONUS). Read More

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November 2021

Plasma Metabolomic Profiles in Recovered COVID-19 Patients without Previous Underlying Diseases 3 Months After Discharge.

J Inflamm Res 2021 7;14:4485-4501. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, NHC Key Laboratory of Pulmonary Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430022, People's Republic of China.

Background: It remains unclear whether discharged COVID-19 patients have fully recovered from severe complications, including the differences in the post-infection metabolomic profiles of patients with different disease severities.

Methods: COVID-19-recovered patients, who had no previous underlying diseases and were discharged from Wuhan Union Hospital for 3 months, and matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in this prospective cohort study. We examined the blood biochemical indicators, cytokines, lung computed tomography scans, including 39 HCs, 18 recovered asymptomatic (RAs), 34 recovered moderate (RMs), and 44 recovered severe/ critical patients (RCs). Read More

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September 2021

Childhood head trauma and the risk of childhood brain tumours: a case-control study in Ontario, Canada.

Int J Cancer 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Prosserman Centre for Population Health Research, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Head trauma in early childhood has been hypothesized as a potential risk factor for childhood brain tumours (CBTs). However, head trauma has not been extensively studied in the context of CBTs and existing studies have yielded conflicting results. A population- and hospital-based case-control study of children 0-15 years with newly diagnosed CBTs from 1997-2003 recruited across Ontario through pediatric oncology centres was conducted. Read More

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September 2021

Deciphering the low abundance microbiota of presumed aseptic hip and knee implants.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(9):e0257471. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Surgery, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from clinically uninfected hip and knee implant samples has revealed polymicrobial populations. However, previous studies assessed 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a technique for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections, leaving the microbiota of presumed aseptic hip and knee implants largely unstudied. These communities of microorganisms might play important roles in aspects of host health, such as aseptic loosening. Read More

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September 2021

Urinary androgens excretion pattern and prostate cancer in Mexican men.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

M Figueroa, Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, Mexico.

Epidemiological studies related to androgens and prostate cancer have focused on serum determination of testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone, with inconsistent results. Herein, we hypothesized that differences in androgen biosynthetic and metabolic pathways, rather than differences in specific androgen concentrations, are associated with prostatic carcinogenesis. Therefore, spot urine samples from 111 incident prostate cancer cases with Gleason score at diagnosis and 227 healthy population controls, were analyzed. Read More

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September 2021

Switch to SGLT2 Inhibitors and Improved Endothelial Function in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Purpose: The use of sodium-glucose-cotransporter-type-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) was associated in previous studies with an improved vascular function in non-human experimental models. We therefore sought to evaluate possible changes in endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), switching from other oral hypoglycemic agents to SGLT2i in an observational study.

Methods: Twenty-two consecutive outpatients with CHF and T2DM were enrolled after switching to SGLT2i therapy, and compared with 23 consecutive controls from the same registry comparable for principal clinical characteristics. Read More

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September 2021

Coordination variability during running in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism 2021 Sep 14:13623613211044395. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Old Dominion University, USA.

Lay Abstract: Walking and running are popular forms of physical activity that involve the whole body (pelvis/legs and arms/torso) and are coordinated by the neuromuscular system, generally without much conscious effort. However, autistic persons tend not to engage in sufficient amounts of these activities to enjoy their health benefits. Recent reports indicate that autistic individuals tend to experience altered coordination patterns and increased variability during walking tasks when compared to non-autistic controls. Read More

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September 2021

Exploration of dynamic text presentations in bilateral central vision loss.

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose: Dynamic text presentation methods may improve reading ability in patients with central vision loss (CVL) by eliminating the need for accurate eye movements. We compared rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) and horizontal scrolling text presentation (scrolling) on reading rate and reading acuity in CVL observers and normally-sighted controls with simulated CVL (simCVL).

Methods: CVL observers' (n = 11) central scotomas and preferred retinal loci (PRL) for each eye were determined with MAIA microperimetry and fixation analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of selective breeding for voluntary exercise, chronic exercise, and their interaction on muscle attachment site morphology in house mice.

J Anat 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California, USA.

Skeletal muscles attach to bone at their origins and insertions, and the interface where tendon meets bone is termed the attachment site or enthesis. Mechanical stresses at the muscle/tendon-bone interface are proportional to the surface area of the bony attachment sites, such that a larger attachment site will distribute loads over a wider area. Muscles that are frequently active and/or are of larger size should cause attachment sites to hypertrophy (training effect); however, experimental studies of animals subjected to exercise have provided mixed results. Read More

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September 2021

Cortical morphology and illness insight in patients with schizophrenia.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of General Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Heidelberg University, Vosstrasse 4, 69115, Heidelberg, Germany.

Insight into illness in schizophrenia (SZ) patients has a major impact on treatment adherence and outcome. Previous studies have linked distinct deviations of brain structure to illness insight, specifically in frontoparietal and subcortical regions. Some of these abnormalities are thought to reflect aberrant cortical development. Read More

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September 2021

Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine against malaria in infants in western Kenya: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial.

Nat Med 2021 Sep 13;27(9):1636-1645. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) vaccine provides protection against P. falciparum infection in malaria-naïve adults. Preclinical studies show that T cell-mediated immunity is required for protection and is readily induced in humans after vaccination. Read More

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September 2021

Plasma N-glycome shows continuous deterioration as the diagnosis of insulin resistance approaches.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 Sep;9(1)

University of Zagreb Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Zagreb, Croatia

Introduction: Prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its preceding factors, such as insulin resistance (IR), is of great importance as it may allow delay or prevention of onset of the disease. Plasma protein N-glycome has emerged as a promising predictive biomarker. In a prospective longitudinal study, we included patients with a first diagnosis of impaired glucose metabolism (IR or T2DM) to investigate the N-glycosylation's predictive value years before diabetes development. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of the Liver and Blood Micronucleus, and Comet Assay Endpoints in a 14-Day Repeated Dose Study with Methyl Carbamate and 1, 3-Propane Sultone.

Mutagenesis 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Shanghai InnoStar Bio-Tech Co. Ltd/National Shanghai Center for New Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, China.

The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay is a novel method for detecting genotoxic chemicals. Two carcinogens methyl carbamate (MC) and 1, 3-propane sultone (PS) were evaluated for the liver micronucleus in a 14-day repeated-dose study with Sprague Dawley rats. Additionally, micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) in peripheral blood and DNA damage (alkaline comet assay) in the liver were also assessed in the same animals. Read More

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September 2021

Getting a grip on the impact of incidental feedback from body-powered and myoelectric prostheses.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 Sep 13;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Sensory feedback from body-powered and myoelectric prostheses are limited, but in different ways. Currently, there are no empirical studies on how incidental feedback differs between body-powered and myoelectric prostheses, or how these differences impact grasping. Thus, the purpose of this study was to quantify differences in grasping performance between body-powered and myoelectric prosthesis users when presented with different forms of feedback. Read More

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September 2021

Isoflurane not at the expense of postoperative nausea and vomiting in cardiac anesthesia - an observational study.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Medical Faculty of Ruhr-University Bochum, BG-Universitätsklinikum Bergmannsheil gGmbH Bochum, Bürkle-de-la-Camp Platz 1, 44789 Bochum, Germany.

Objectives: Inhalative anesthesia is of common use, but is generally known to potentiate postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). With an internal change of anesthesia regimen from total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) to isoflurane (in terms of myocardial protection) in cardiac anesthesia a higher incidence of PONV was to be expected. Therefore, we evaluated the incidence of PONV after the simultaneous implementation of PONV prophylaxis. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of Ethnicities and Skin Color Variations in Different Populations: A Review.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Adam-Vital Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Background: In the world scientific tradition, skin color is the primary physical characteristic used to divide humans into groups. Human skin has a wide range of tones and colors, which can be seen in a wide range of demographic populations. Many factors influence the color of people's skin, but the pigment melanin is by far the most important. Read More

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Downregulation of Arntl mRNA Expression in Women with Hypertension: A Case-Control Study.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 Sep 3:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, and Institute of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China.

Background: Previous studies have reported that disturbance of endogenous circadian rhythms enhances the chance of hypertension and suggested that circadian clock genes could have a crucial function in the onset of the disease. This case-control study was aimed to investigate the association of the mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator like (Arntl), clock circadian regulator (Clock), and period circadian regulators 1 and 2 (Per1 and Per2) with hypertension and blood pressure levels.

Methods: A total of 172 subjects were recruited in this study, including 86 hypertension and 86 nonhypertension controls. Read More

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September 2021

C1q/TNF-related protein-9 suppresses inflammation in synovial cells from patients with osteoarthritis.

Scand J Rheumatol 2021 Sep 13:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, P.R. China.

Synovial inflammation contributes to cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis (OA) development. Targeting the inflammation process may provide a promising strategy for OA treatment. It has been demonstrated that C1q/tumour necrosis factor-related protein-9 (CTRP9) has immunosuppression capabilities. Read More

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September 2021

Mechanistic analysis and significance of sphingomyelinase-mediated decreases in transepithelial CFTR currents in nHBEs.

Physiol Rep 2021 Sep;9(17):e15023

Molecular and Systems Pharmacology PhD Program, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Loss of function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) causes cystic fibrosis (CF). In the lungs, this manifests as immune cell infiltration and bacterial infections, leading to tissue destruction. Previous work has determined that acute bacterial sphingomyelinase (SMase) decreases CFTR function in bronchial epithelial cells from individuals without CF (nHBEs) and with CF (cfHBEs, homozygous ΔF508-CFTR mutation). Read More

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September 2021

Humoral and cellular responses to mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with a history of CD20 B-cell-depleting therapy (RituxiVac): an investigator-initiated, single-centre, open-label study.

Lancet Rheumatol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: B-cell-depleting therapies increase the risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Evidence-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategies for patients on B-cell-depleting therapies are scarce. We aimed to investigate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines in patients receiving CD20-targeted B-cell-depleting agents for autoimmune disease, malignancy, or transplantation. Read More

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September 2021

Functional network topology in drug resistant and well-controlled idiopathic generalized epilepsy: a resting state functional MRI study.

Brain Commun 2021 26;3(3):fcab196. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Despite an increasing number of drug treatment options for people with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), drug resistance remains a significant issue and the mechanisms underlying it remain poorly understood. Previous studies have largely focused on potential cellular or genetic explanations for drug resistance. However, epilepsy is understood to be a network disorder and there is a growing body of literature suggesting altered topology of large-scale resting networks in people with epilepsy compared with controls. Read More

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The Use of Maximum Entropy to Enhance Wave Intensity Analysis: An Application to Coronary Arteries in Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 27;8:701267. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

Wave intensity analysis is useful for analyzing coronary hemodynamics. Much of its clinical application involves the identification of waves indicated by peaks in the wave intensity and relating their presence or absence to different cardiovascular events. However, the analysis of wave intensity peaks can be problematic because of the associated noise in the measurements. Read More

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A Genetic Variant of PPP1CB Influences Risk of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Han Chinese: A Pathway Based Analysis.

J Hepatocell Carcinoma 2021 2;8:1055-1064. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Viral Hepatitis Research, Guangdong Institute of Liver Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology Unit, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Activation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling is an important stage preceding cancer cell metastasis. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated risk loci. However, limited sample size or strict significance threshold of GWAS may cause HBV-related HCC risk-associated genetic loci to be undetected. Read More

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September 2021

Increased Homotopic Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex Modulated by Olanzapine Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy in Patients with Schizophrenia.

Neural Plast 2021 1;2021:9954547. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders and Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410011 Hunan, China.

Background: Previous studies have revealed the abnormalities in homotopic connectivity in schizophrenia. However, the relationship of these deficits to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia remains unclear. This study explored the effects of antipsychotic therapy on brain homotopic connectivity and whether the homotopic connectivity of these regions might predict individual treatment response in schizophrenic patients. Read More

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September 2021

Age-Influenced Receptors of Advanced Glycation End Product Overexpression Associated With Osteogenic Differentiation Impairment in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:726182. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Thailand Excellence Center for Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Preclinical studies have found impaired osteogenic differentiation to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which is related to skeletal accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Our previous study also showed impaired osteogenic differentiation in peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from patients with long-standing T2DM, which is conceivably due to the overexpression of receptor of advance glycation end products (RAGE) and the enhancement of cellular apoptosis. However, the existence of RAGE overexpression in earlier stages of diabetes remains unclear, as do the factors influencing that RAGE overexpression. Read More

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Analysis of Predictive Risk Factors in Aquaporin-4-IgG Positive Highly Active Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:731835. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are inflammatory diseases with a high risk of recurrence and progressive disability, and it is crucial to find sensitive and reliable biomarkers for prognosis and the early prediction of relapse. Highly active NMOSD is defined as two or more clinical relapses within a 12-month period. In this study, we analyzed independent risk factors among patients with aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG positive highly active NMOSD. Read More

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