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Single-molecule imaging of chromatin remodelers reveals role of ATPase in promoting fast kinetics of target search and dissociation from chromatin.

Elife 2021 Jul 27;10. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States.

Conserved ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers establish and maintain genome-wide chromatin architectures of regulatory DNA during cellular lifespan, but the temporal interactions between remodelers and chromatin targets have been obscure. We performed live-cell single-molecule tracking for RSC, SWI/SNF, CHD1, ISW1, ISW2, and INO80 remodeling complexes in budding yeast and detected hyperkinetic behaviors for chromatin-bound molecules that frequently transition to the free state for all complexes. Chromatin-bound remodelers display notably higher diffusion than nucleosomal histones, and strikingly fast dissociation kinetics with 4-7 s mean residence times. Read More

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A year into the COVID-19 pandemic: Rethinking of wastewater monitoring as a preemptive approach.

J Environ Chem Eng 2021 Oct 16;9(5):106063. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Civil Engineering, Lassonde School of Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada.

Under the current pandemic situation caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, wastewater monitoring has been increasingly investigated as a surveillance tool for community-wide disease prevalence. After a year into the pandemic, this review critically discusses the real progress made in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using wastewater monitoring. The limitations and the key challenges faced in improving the detection methods are highlighted. Read More

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October 2021

Reliability and Validity of Alzheimer's Disease Screening With a Semi-automated Smartphone Application Using Verbal Fluency.

Front Neurol 2021 8;12:684902. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.

This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) screening with a self-administered categorical verbal fluency test using a semi-automated Android application (app; tCVFT). Furthermore, its diagnostic accuracy concerning AD was compared with both that of a conventional categorical verbal fluency test (cCVFT) administered by a health professional and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Participants included 100 community-dwelling patients with early AD, whose Clinical Dementia Rating was either 0. Read More

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A Comparison of Ten Polygenic Score Methods for Psychiatric Disorders Applied Across Multiple Cohorts.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Polygenic scores (PGSs), which assess the genetic risk of individuals for a disease, are calculated as a weighted count of risk alleles identified in genome-wide association studies. PGS methods differ in which DNA variants are included and the weights assigned to them; some require an independent tuning sample to help inform these choices. PGSs are evaluated in independent target cohorts with known disease status. Read More

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Toward the Specificity of Bare Nanomaterial Surfaces for Protein Corona Formation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 16;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padua, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Italy.

Aiming at creating smart nanomaterials for biomedical applications, nanotechnology aspires to develop a new generation of nanomaterials with the ability to recognize different biological components in a complex environment. It is common opinion that nanomaterials must be coated with organic or inorganic layers as a mandatory prerequisite for applications in biological systems. Thus, it is the nanomaterial surface coating that predominantly controls the nanomaterial fate in the biological environment. Read More

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Hydrogel-based hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for detection of urinary exosomal miRNAs as a diagnostic tool of prostate cancer.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jul 16;192:113504. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul, 02792, South Korea; Division of Bio-Medical Science & Technology, KIST School, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Seoul, 02792, South Korea; KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, South Korea. Electronic address:

Although urinary exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as potential biomarkers, clinical applications are still limited due to their low concentration in small volumes of clinical samples. Therefore, the development of a non-invasive, specific diagnostic tool, along with profiling exosomal miRNA markers from urine, remains a significant challenge. Here, we present hydrogel-based hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for multiplex signal amplification to detect urinary exosomal miRNAs from human clinical samples. Read More

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Soil carbon response to long-term biosolids application.

J Environ Qual 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Merced, CA, United States of America.

A study was conducted in three agroecosystems in California (Sacramento, Solano, and Merced counties) that received biosolids applications for twenty-years. Management varied in application rates and frequencies, resulting in average cumulative amount of biosolids applied of 74 (Solano), 105 (Merced), and 359 (Sacramento) Mg biosolids /ha., resulting in the addition of 26 (Solano), 36 (Merced), and 125 (Sacramento) Mg biosolids-C/ha. Read More

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Herpesviruses Serology Distinguishes Different Subgroups of Patients From the United Kingdom Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Biobank.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 5;8:686736. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

CEAUL-Centro de Estatística e Aplicações da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

The evidence of an association between Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and chronic herpesviruses infections remains inconclusive. Two reasons for the lack of consistent evidence are the large heterogeneity of the patients' population with different disease triggers and the use of arbitrary cutoffs for defining seropositivity. In this work we re-analyzed previously published serological data related to 7 herpesvirus antigens. Read More

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Experimental Protocol to Assess Neuromuscular Plasticity Induced by an Exoskeleton Training Session.

Methods Protoc 2021 Jul 13;4(3). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Neurosciences, Section of Rehabilitation, University of Padova, via Belzoni, 160, 35121 Padova, Italy.

Exoskeleton gait rehabilitation is an emerging area of research, with potential applications in the elderly and in people with central nervous system lesions, e.g., stroke, traumatic brain/spinal cord injury. Read More

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Measuring the effects of sleep on epileptogenicity with multifrequency entropy.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jun 11;132(9):2012-2018. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Computational Health Informatics Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA; University of San Francisco, San Francisco, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: We demonstrate that multifrequency entropy gives insight into the relationship between epileptogenicity and sleep, and forms the basis for an improved measure of medical assessment of sleep impairment in epilepsy patients.

Methods: Multifrequency entropy was computed from electroencephalography measurements taken from 31 children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes and 31 non-epileptic controls while awake and during sleep. Values were compared in the epileptic zone and away from the epileptic zone in various sleep stages. Read More

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Stream-Based Visually Lossless Data Compression Applying Variable Bit-Length ADPCM Encoding.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 5;21(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Computer Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan.

Video applications have become one of the major services in the engineering field, which are implemented by server-client systems connected via the Internet, broadcasting services for mobile devices such as smartphones and surveillance cameras for security. Recently, the majority of video encoding mechanisms to reduce the data rate are mainly lossy compression methods such as the MPEG format. However, when we consider special needs for high-speed communication such as display applications and object detection ones with high accuracy from the video stream, we need to address the encoding mechanism without any loss of pixel information, called visually lossless compression. Read More

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Large breathing effect induced by water sorption in a remarkably stable nonporous cyanide-bridged coordination polymer.

Chem Sci 2021 Jul 1;12(26):9176-9188. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University Gronostajowa 2 30-387 Kraków Poland

While metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are at the forefront of cutting-edge porous materials, extraordinary sorption properties can also be observed in Prussian Blue Analogs (PBAs) and related materials comprising extremely short bridging ligands. Herein, we present a bimetallic nonporous cyanide-bridged coordination polymer (CP) {[Mn(imH)][Mo(CN)]} (; imH = imidazole) that can efficiently and reversibly capture and release water molecules over tens of cycles without any fatigue despite being based on one of the shortest bridging ligands known - the cyanide. The sorption performance of {[Mn(imH)][Mo(CN)]} matches or even outperforms MOFs that are typically selected for water harvesting applications with perfect sorption reversibility and very low desorption temperatures. Read More

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Foliar Application of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Suppresses Fusarium Wilt Development on Chrysanthemum.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 United States.

Micronutrients applied as nanoparticles of metal oxides have shown efficacy in vegetable and other crops for improving yield and reducing Fusarium diseases, but their role in ornamental crop management has not been investigated. In 2017, 2018, and 2020, nanoparticles of CuO, MnO, or ZnO were foliarly applied at 500 μg/mL (0.6 mg/plant) to chrysanthemum transplants and planted in potting soil noninfested or infested with f. Read More

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Cytocompatibility of a mussel-inspired poly(lactic acid)-based adhesive.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Davidson School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

Incorporating catechols into polymers can provide strong adhesion even in moist environments, and these polymers show promise for use in several biomedical applications. Surgical adhesives must have strong bonds, be biocompatible, and function in a moist environment. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has a long history as a biocompatible material for hard tissue device fixation. Read More

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Beyond factor H: The impact of genetic-risk variants for age-related macular degeneration on circulating factor-H-like 1 and factor-H-related protein concentrations.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Stoller Biomarker Discovery Centre and Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine, and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9NQ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss; there is strong genetic susceptibility at the complement factor H (CFH) locus. This locus encodes a series of complement regulators: factor H (FH), a splice variant factor-H-like 1 (FHL-1), and five factor-H-related proteins (FHR-1 to FHR-5), all involved in the regulation of complement factor C3b turnover. Little is known about how AMD-associated variants at this locus might influence FHL-1 and FHR protein concentrations. Read More

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A self-powered implantable and bioresorbable electrostimulation device for biofeedback bone fracture healing.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(28)

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706;

Electrostimulation has been recognized as a promising nonpharmacological treatment in orthopedics to promote bone fracture healing. However, clinical applications have been largely limited by the complexity of equipment operation and stimulation implementation. Here, we present a self-powered implantable and bioresorbable bone fracture electrostimulation device, which consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator for electricity generation and a pair of dressing electrodes for applying electrostimulations directly toward the fracture. Read More

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Nomenclatural issues concerning cultured yeasts and other fungi: why it is important to avoid unneeded name changes.

IMA Fungus 2021 Jul 13;12(1):18. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Microbiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2 Chome-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8588, Japan.

The unambiguous application of fungal names is important to communicate scientific findings. Names are critical for (clinical) diagnostics, legal compliance, and regulatory controls, such as biosafety, food security, quarantine regulations, and industrial applications. Consequently, the stability of the taxonomic system and the traceability of nomenclatural changes is crucial for a broad range of users and taxonomists. Read More

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Spin-up conversion, exchange-interactions, and tailored magnetic properties in core-shell La2NiMnO6 of small crystallites.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, Varanasi, 221005, INDIA.

LaNiMnO- a ferromagnetic (FM) insulator offers tunable charge carriers and spins useful to devise its multiple properties and applications. In this view, we studied a core-shell LaNiMnO(2-3 nm shell on 65-80 nm core) of a Ni/Ni(d) to Mn/Mn(d) spin-up conversion - revived a new FM phase-2, raising a spin-density σ= 0.7 s/a over the Ni/Mnspecies (phase-1), σ= 0. Read More

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The Characterisation of the Craniofacial Morphology of Infants Born With Zika Virus; Innovative Approach for Public Health Surveillance and Broad Clinical Applications.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:612596. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Scottish Craniofacial Research Group, Medical Devices Unit, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

This study was carried out in response to the Zika virus epidemic, which constituted a public health emergency, and to the 2019 WHO calling for strengthened surveillance for the early detection of related microcephaly. The main aim of the study was to phenotype the craniofacial morphology of microcephaly using a novel approach and new measurements, and relate the characteristics to brain abnormalities in Zika-infected infants in Brazil to improve clinical surveillance. 3D images of the face and the cranial vault of 44 Zika-infected infants and matched healthy controls were captured using a 3D stereophotogrammetry system. Read More

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White Matter Abnormalities Associated With Prolonged Recovery in Adolescents Following Concussion.

Front Neurol 2021 24;12:681467. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Hospital, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Concussion symptoms in adolescents typically resolve within 4 weeks. However, 20 - 30% of adolescents experience a prolonged recovery. Abnormalities in tracts implicated in visuospatial attention and emotional regulation (i. Read More

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigen-induced upregulation of interleukin-35 expression in patients with MTB infection: In vitro blockade of the effects of interleukin-35 on T lymphocyte subsets.

Pathog Dis 2021 Jul;79(6)

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai DeltaHealth Hospital. No. 109 Xule Road, Xujing Town, Qingpu District, Shanghai 201702, China.

Immunosuppressive interleukin-35 (IL-35) serum concentrations were analyzed in patients with active pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infections (PTB), PTB patients after two months treatment (stable PTB) and healthy controls. IL-35 concentrations were highest in active PTB followed by stable PTB cases and lowest in healthy control participants (all P < 0.01). Read More

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Automated source of squeezed vacuum states driven by finite state machine based software.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 May;92(5):054504

INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy.

In the last few decades, much effort has been made for the production of squeezed vacuum states in order to reduce quantum noise in the audio-frequency band. This technique has been implemented in all running gravitational-wave interferometric detectors and helped to improve their sensitivity. While the detectors are acquiring data for astrophysical observations, they must be kept in the operating condition, also called "science mode," that is, a state that requires the highest possible duty-cycle for all the instrumental parts and controls. Read More

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Dynamic sleep MRI in obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center Honolulu, Honolulu, USA, 1 Jarrett White Road, Hawaii, 96859.

Purpose: The objective of this study is to systematically review the international literature for dynamic sleep magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic tool in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), to perform meta-analysis on the quantitative data from the review, and to discuss its implications in future research and potential clinical applications.

Study Design: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed, followed by a detailed analysis of the relevant data that has been published on the topic.

Methods: Clinical key, Uptodate, Ovid, Ebscohost, Pubmed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Dynamed, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library were systematically searched. Read More

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Radiomic Features at CT Can Distinguish Pancreatic Cancer from Noncancerous Pancreas.

Radiol Imaging Cancer 2021 Jul;3(4):e210010

From the Department of Medical Imaging (P.T.C., K.L.L.) and Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine (M.S.W., W.C.L.), National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10002, Taiwan; Institute of Applied Mathematical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (D.C., W.W.); Graduate Program of Data Science, National Taiwan University and Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (H.Y.); Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (S.Y.H.); NVIDIA, Bethesda, Md (H.R.); and Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (K.L.L.).

Purpose To identify distinguishing CT radiomic features of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and to investigate whether radiomic analysis with machine learning can distinguish between patients who have PDAC and those who do not. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included contrast material-enhanced CT images in 436 patients with PDAC and 479 healthy controls from 2012 to 2018 from Taiwan that were randomly divided for training and testing. Another 100 patients with PDAC (enriched for small PDACs) and 100 controls from Taiwan were identified for testing (from 2004 to 2011). Read More

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Clinical Application of Machine Learning Models for Brain Imaging in Epilepsy: A Review.

Front Neurosci 2021 22;15:684825. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and disabling seizures. An increasing number of clinical and experimental applications of machine learning (ML) methods for epilepsy and other neurological and psychiatric disorders are available. ML methods have the potential to provide a reliable and optimal performance for clinical diagnoses, prediction, and personalized medicine by using mathematical algorithms and computational approaches. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in Targeted Drug Delivery: Literature Review and Exploratory Data on Migrating and Differentiation Capacities of Bone MSCs into Hepatic Progenitor Cells.

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital (Third Hospital of Medical College of Xi'an Jiaotong University), Xi'an 710068, China.

Background And Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), particularly bone MSCs (BMSCs) offer great potentials for targeted therapeutic applications due to their migratory and differentiation capacities. Significant advances have been achieved in the differentiation of hepatocyte or hepatocyte-like cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, there is limited knowledge on the differentiation of BMSCs into bipotential hepatic progenitor cells or cholangiocytes. Read More

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Unleashing the Power of Bond Cleavage Chemistry in Living Systems.

ACS Cent Sci 2021 Jun 30;7(6):929-943. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Synthetic and Functional Biomolecules Center, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Bioorthogonal cleavage chemistry has been rapidly emerging as a powerful tool for manipulation and gain-of-function studies of biomolecules in living systems. While the initial bond formation-centered bioorthogonal reactions have been widely adopted for labeling, tracing, and capturing biomolecules, the newly developed bond cleavage-enabled bioorthogonal reactions have opened new possibilities for rescuing small molecules as well as biomacromolecules in living systems, allowing multidimensional controls over biological processes and . In this Outlook, we first summarized the development and applications of bioorthogonal cleavage reactions (BCRs) that restore the functions of chemical structures as well as more complex networks, including the liberation of prodrugs, release of bioconjugates, and reactivation of intracellular proteins. Read More

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Circular L-RNA aptamer promotes target recognition and controls gene activity.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 07;49(13):7280-7291

Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Rational design of aptamers to incorporate unnatural nucleotides and special chemical moieties can expand their functional complexity and diversity. Spiegelmer (L-RNA aptamer) is a unique class of aptamer that is composed of unnatural L-RNA nucleotides, and so far there are limited L-RNA aptamer candidates and applications being reported. Moreover, the target binding properties of current L-RNA aptamers require significant improvement. Read More

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Self-Healable Fluorinated Copolymers Governed by Dipolar Interactions.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 6:e2101399. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, USA.

Although dipolar forces between copolymer chains are relatively weak, they result in ubiquitous inter- and/or intramolecular interactions which are particularly critical in achieving the mechanical integrity of polymeric materials. In this study, a route is developed to obtain self-healable properties in thermoplastic copolymers that rely on noncovalent dipolar interactions present in essentially all macromolecules and particularly fluorine-containing copolymers. The combination of dipolar interactions between C─F and C═O bonds as well as CH /CH entities facilitates self-healing without external intervention. Read More

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[Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics study of the efficacy of Chinese medicine asthma-relieving decoction on respiratory syncytial virus infection].

Se Pu 2021 Mar;39(3):281-290

Dalian Children' s Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116012, China.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchiolitis in infants. In China, traditional asthma-relieving medicine has numerous clinical applications in the treatment of RSV infections. However, due to the complexity of the traditional Chinese medicine system, its therapeutic mechanism and main pharmacological components remain unclear. Read More

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