3,136 results match your criteria controlling timing


A descriptive analysis of the impact of public health and social measures on COVID-19: How the U.S. compares to other countries.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, US.

Background: The United States of America (US) has the highest global number of COVID-19 cases and deaths, which may be due in part to delays and inconsistencies in implementing public health and social measures (PHSMs).

Objective: In this descriptive analysis, we analyzed the epidemiological evidence for PHSM impact on COVID-19 transmission in the US compared to that in ten other countries of varying income levels, population sizes, and geographies.

Methods: We compared PHSM implementation timing and stringency against COVID-19 daily case counts in the US to that in Canada, China, Ethiopia, Japan, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe from January 1 to November 25, 2020. Read More

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Progressive COVID-19-Associated Coagulopathy Despite Treatment with Therapeutic Anticoagulation and Thrombolysis.

Am J Case Rep 2021 May 10;22:e930667. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University/Udayana University Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.

BACKGROUND Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with a hypercoagulability state. Clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic to severe illness and mortality. Thrombotic complications in COVID-19 have been associated with mortality. Read More

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Cannabis alters epigenetic integrity and endocannabinoid signalling in the human follicular niche.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

CReATe Fertility Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Study Question: Do phytocannabinoids (PCs) affect follicular endocannabinoid signalling and the epigenome in the surrounding granulosa cells (GCs)?

Summary Answer: Exposure to PCs increases the expression of endocannabinoid receptors and reduces DNA methylation enzyme expression and global DNA methylation in naïve GCs.

What Is Known Already: Cannabis plant derivatives, known as PCs, are used for medicinal and recreational purposes. The main PC, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is the third most commonly used substance by women of childbearing age, hence knowledge of the effect it has on reproduction is of utmost importance. Read More

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Delayed embolization associated with increased mortality in pelvic fracture with hemodynamic stability at hospital arrival.

World J Emerg Surg 2021 May 3;16(1):21. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.

Background: Embolization is widely used for controlling arterial hemorrhage associated with pelvic fracture. However, the effect of a delay in embolization among hemodynamically stable patients at hospital arrival with a pelvic fracture is unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the association between the time to embolization and mortality in hemodynamically stable patients at hospital arrival with a pelvic fracture. Read More

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A Computational Framework for Controlling the Self-Restorative Brain Based on the Free Energy and Degeneracy Principles.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 14;15:590019. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Center for Systems and Translational Brain Science, Institute of Human Complexity and Systems Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.

The brain is a non-linear dynamical system with a self-restoration process, which protects itself from external damage but is often a bottleneck for clinical treatment. To treat the brain to induce the desired functionality, formulation of a self-restoration process is necessary for optimal brain control. This study proposes a computational model for the brain's self-restoration process following the free-energy and degeneracy principles. Read More

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Mating Disruption for Managing the Honeydew Moth, (Millière), in Mediterranean Vineyards.

Insects 2021 Apr 28;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

The demand for a reduced use of pesticides in agriculture requires the development of specific strategies for managing arthropod pests. Among eco-friendly pest control tools, pheromone-based mating disruption (MD) is promising for controlling several key insect pests of economic importance, including many lepidopteran species. In our study, we evaluated an MD approach for managing the honeydew moth (HM), , an emerging threat for the grapevine in the Mediterranean basin. Read More

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Subjective Wellbeing in Rural China: How Social Environments Influence the Diurnal Rhythms of Affect.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 14;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Social Statistics, Manchester Institute for Collaborative Research on Ageing (MICRA), The University of Manchester, HBS Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

Although the diurnal rhythms of affect influence people's health and behavior, there is a lack of evidence from rural China, where the types and timing of social activities may differ from Western contexts. In this study, a total of 2847 Chinese rural residents from three provinces of China are interviewed using the abbreviated Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) questionnaire. Diurnal rhythms of three affective subjective wellbeing (SWB) indicators-positive affect (PoA), negative affect (NeA), and net affect are analyzed by multilevel models. Read More

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Identifying dominant environmental predictors of freshwater wetland methane fluxes across diurnal to seasonal time scales.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Earth System Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

While wetlands are the largest natural source of methane (CH ) to the atmosphere, they represent a large source of uncertainty in the global CH budget due to the complex biogeochemical controls on CH dynamics. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first multi-site synthesis of how predictors of freshwater wetland CH fluxes (FCH4) vary across wetland types at diel, multiday (synoptic), and seasonal time scales. We used several statistical approaches (correlation analysis, generalized additive modeling, mutual information, random forests) in a wavelet-based multiresolution framework to assess the importance of environmental predictors, nonlinearities and lags on FCH4 across 23 eddy covariance sites. Read More

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Pharmacology of A-Type K Channels.

Authors:
Jamie Johnston

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Transient outward potassium currents were first described nearly 60 years ago, since then major strides have been made in understanding their molecular basis and physiological roles. From the large family of voltage-gated potassium channels members of 3 subfamilies can produce such fast-inactivating A-type potassium currents. Each subfamily gives rise to currents with distinct biophysical properties and pharmacological profiles and a simple workflow is provided to aid the identification of channels mediating A-type currents in native cells. Read More

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Challenges in the Triage Care of Low-Risk Laboring Patients: A Comparison of 2 Models of Practice.

J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2021 Apr-Jun 01;35(2):123-131

University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore (Dr Breman and Mr Barr); Vanderbilt School of Nursing, Nashville, Tennessee (Dr Phillippi); School of Nursing and School of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (Dr Tilden); Perinatal Behavioral Health Clinic, Weymouth, Massachusetts (Dr Paul); and Emory University School of Nursing, Atlanta, Georgia (Dr Carlson).

Triage and the timing of admission of low-risk pregnant women can affect the use of augmentation, epidural, and cesarean. The purpose of this analysis was to explore these outcomes in a community hospital by the type of provider staffing triage. This was a retrospective cohort study of low-risk nulliparous women with a term, vertex fetus laboring in a community hospital. Read More

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Age-Appropriate Wisdom? : Ethnobiological Knowledge Ontogeny in Pastoralist Mexican Choyeros.

Hum Nat 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

We investigate whether age profiles of ethnobiological knowledge development are consistent with predictions derived from life history theory about the timing of productivity and reproduction. Life history models predict complementary knowledge profiles developing across the lifespan for women and men as they experience changes in embodied capital and the needs of dependent offspring. We evaluate these predictions using an ethnobiological knowledge assessment tool developed for an off-grid pastoralist population known as Choyeros, from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Read More

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The Neural Circuitry Underlying the "Rhythm Effect" in Stuttering.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 Apr 22:1-22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Speech, Language & Hearing Sciences, Boston University, MA.

Purpose Stuttering is characterized by intermittent speech disfluencies, which are dramatically reduced when speakers synchronize their speech with a steady beat. The goal of this study was to characterize the neural underpinnings of this phenomenon using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Method Data were collected from 16 adults who stutter and 17 adults who do not stutter while they read sentences aloud either in a normal, self-paced fashion or paced by the beat of a series of isochronous tones ("rhythmic"). Read More

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Stability of hippocampal subfield volumes after trauma and relationship to development of PTSD symptoms.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 18;236:118076. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Psychology, Department of Psychology, 334 Garland Hall, 2441 E. Hartford Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53211, United States.

Background: The hippocampus plays a central role in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pathogenesis, and the majority of neuroimaging research on PTSD has studied the hippocampus in its entirety. Although extensive literature demonstrates changes in hippocampal volume are associated with PTSD, fewer studies have probed the relationship between symptoms and the hippocampus' functionally and structurally distinct subfields. We utilized data from a longitudinal study examining post-trauma outcomes to determine whether hippocampal subfield volumes change post-trauma and whether specific subfields are significantly associated with, or prospectively related to, PTSD symptom severity. Read More

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Emergent salvage surgery for massive hemoptysis after proton beam therapy for lung cancer: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 20;7(1):98. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Kansai Medical University, 2-3-1 Shinmachi Hirakata-shi, Osaka, 573-1191, Japan.

Background: Salvage surgery is an effective therapeutic option for patients experiencing relapses after chemoradiotherapy for advanced-stage lung cancer or after high-dose radiotherapy for early-stage lung cancer. We report a case involving an emergent salvage surgery for a patient with massive hemoptysis who developed lung cancer recurrence after undergoing proton beam therapy 7 years prior to presentation.

Case Presentation: A 70-year-old male patient was emergently admitted due to massive hemoptysis. Read More

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Using fast visual rhythmic stimulation to control inter-hemispheric phase offsets in visual areas.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Apr 16:107863. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK; Centre for Human Brain Health, University of Birmingham, UK; Institute for Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:

Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is believed to be important for neural communication and plasticity in human episodic memory, but causal evidence is lacking due to technical challenges. Rhythmic sensory stimulation that has been used to investigate causal relations between oscillations and cognition may be able to address this question. The challenge, however, is that the frequency corresponding to the critical time window for STDP is gamma (∼40 Hz), yet the application of rhythmic sensory stimulation has been limited primarily to lower frequencies (<30 Hz). Read More

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Dispositional Negative Emotionality in Childhood and Adolescence Predicts Structural Variation in the Amygdala and Caudal Anterior Cingulate During Early Adulthood: Theoretically and Empirically Based Tests.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Substantial evidence implicates the amygdala and related structures in the processing of negative emotions. Furthermore, neuroimaging evidence suggests that variations in amygdala volumes are related to trait-like individual differences in neuroticism/negative emotionality, although many questions remain about the nature of such associations. We conducted planned tests of the directional prediction that dispositional negative emotionality measured at 10-17 years using parent and youth ratings on the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale (CADS) would predict larger volumes of the amygdala in adulthood and conducted exploratory tests of associations with other regions implicated in emotion processing. Read More

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Role of synergy and antagonism in designing multidrug adaptive chemotherapy schedules.

Authors:
Y Ma P K Newton

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032408

Department of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering, Mathematics, and The Ellison Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1191, USA.

Chemotherapeutic resistance via the mechanism of competitive release of resistant tumor cell subpopulations is a major problem associated with cancer treatments and one of the main causes of tumor recurrence. Often, chemoresistance is mitigated by using multidrug schedules (two or more combination therapies) that can act synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on the heterogeneous population of cells as they evolve. In this paper, we develop a three-component evolutionary game theory model to design two-drug adaptive schedules that mitigate chemoresistance and delay tumor recurrence in an evolving collection of tumor cells with two resistant subpopulations and one chemosensitive population that has a higher baseline fitness but is not resistant to either drug. Read More

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Behavioral changes before lockdown and decreased retail and recreation mobility during lockdown contributed most to controlling COVID-19 in Western countries.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 6;21(1):654. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a lockdown in many countries to control the exponential spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, hereby reducing the time-varying basic reproduction number (R) to below one. Governments are looking for evidence to balance the demand of their citizens to ease some of the restriction, against the fear of a new peak in infections. In this study, we wanted to quantify the relative contribution of mobility restrictions, and that of behavioral changes that occurred already before the lockdowns, on the reduction of transmission during lockdowns in Western countries in early 2020. Read More

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Cullin-RING Ubiquitin Ligase Regulatory Circuits: a Quarter Century Beyond the F-box Hypothesis.

Annu Rev Biochem 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Molecular Machines and Signaling, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, 82152, Germany; email:

Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are dynamic modular platforms that regulate myriad biological processes through target-specific ubiquitylation. Our knowledge of this system emerged from the F-box hypothesis, posited a quarter century ago: Numerous interchangeable F-box proteins confer specific substrate recognition for a core CUL1-based RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. This paradigm has been expanded through the evolution of a superfamily of analogous modular CRLs, with five major families and over 200 different substrate-binding receptors in humans. Read More

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A Microfluidics Approach for the Functional Investigation of Signaling Oscillations Governing Somitogenesis.

J Vis Exp 2021 03 19(169). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Hubrecht Institute-KNAW (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences) and University Medical Center Utrecht;

Periodic segmentation of the presomitic mesoderm of a developing mouse embryo is controlled by a network of signaling pathways. Signaling oscillations and gradients are thought to control the timing and spacing of segment formation, respectively. While the involved signaling pathways have been studied extensively over the last decades, direct evidence for the function of signaling oscillations in controlling somitogenesis has been lacking. Read More

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The impact of two-dose varicella vaccination on varicella and herpes zoster incidence in South Korea using a mathematical model with changing population demographics.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 1;39(18):2575-2583. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: In South Korea, one-dose varicella vaccination was introduced to the National Immunization Program in 2005, but varicella outbreaks have continued to occur. Therefore, a two-dose vaccination strategy is considered.

Methods: We developed an age-structured deterministic compartment model using Korean population projection data. Read More

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Aging and Interferons: Impacts on Inflammation and Viral Disease Outcomes.

Cells 2021 03 23;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada.

As highlighted by the COVID-19 global pandemic, elderly individuals comprise the majority of cases of severe viral infection outcomes and death. A combined inability to control viral replication and exacerbated inflammatory immune activation in elderly patients causes irreparable immune-mediated tissue pathology in response to infection. Key to these responses are type I, II, and III interferons (IFNs), which are involved in inducing an antiviral response, as well as controlling and suppressing inflammation and immunopathology. Read More

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Traffic Signal Control Using Hybrid Action Space Deep Reinforcement Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;21(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

École de Technologie Supérieure, University of Quebec, Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada.

Recent research works on intelligent traffic signal control (TSC) have been mainly focused on leveraging deep reinforcement learning (DRL) due to its proven capability and performance. DRL-based traffic signal control frameworks belong to either discrete or continuous controls. In discrete control, the DRL agent selects the appropriate traffic light phase from a finite set of phases. Read More

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A New Approach to Obtaining Nano-Sized Graphene Oxide for Biomedical Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Physicochemistry of Carbon Materials Research Group, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.

Graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most exciting and widely used materials. A new method of nanographene oxide (n-GO) formation is presented. The described unique sequence of ultrasonication in dimethyl sulfoxide solution allows us to obtain different sizes of n-GO sheets by controlling the timing of the cutting and re-aggregation processes. Read More

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Flow Rectification in Loopy Network Models of Bird Lungs.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(11):114501

Applied Math Lab, Courant Institute, New York University, New York, New York 10012, USA.

We demonstrate flow rectification, valveless pumping, or alternating to direct current (AC-to-DC) conversion in macroscale fluidic networks with loops. Inspired by the unique anatomy of bird lungs and the phenomenon of directed airflow throughout the respiration cycle, we hypothesize, test, and validate that multiloop networks exhibit persistent circulation or DC flows when subject to oscillatory or AC forcing at high Reynolds numbers. Experiments reveal that disproportionately stronger circulation is generated for higher frequencies and amplitudes of the imposed oscillations, and this nonlinear response is corroborated by numerical simulations. Read More

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Prescreening and treatment of aortic dissection through an analysis of infinite-dimension data.

BioData Min 2021 Apr 1;14(1):24. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Aortic dissection (AD) is one of the most catastrophic aortic diseases associated with a high mortality rate. In contrast to the advances in most cardiovascular diseases, both the incidence and in-hospital mortality rate of AD have experienced deviant increases over the past 20 years, highlighting the need for fresh prospects on the prescreening and in-hospital treatment strategies.

Methods: Through two cross-sectional studies, we adopt image recognition techniques to identify pre-disease aortic morphology for prior diagnoses; assuming that AD has occurred, we employ functional data analysis to determine the optimal timing for BP and HR interventions to offer the highest possible survival rate. Read More

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Depressive-Symptom Trajectories From End-of-Life Caregiving Through the First 2 Bereavement Years for Family Caregivers of Advanced Cancer Patients.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, ROC; School of Nursing, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Background: Family caregivers' distinct depressive-symptom trajectories are understudied and have been examined independently during end-of-life (EOL) caregiving or bereavement, making it difficult to validate two competing hypotheses (wear-and-tear vs. relief) of caregiving effects on bereavement. Existing studies may also miss short-term heterogeneity in depressive symptoms during the immediate postloss period due to lengthy delays in the first postloss assessment. Read More

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Modulations in irradiance directed at melanopsin, but not cone photoreceptors, reliably alter electrophysiological activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and circadian behaviour in mice.

J Pineal Res 2021 May;70(4):e12735

Centre for Biological Timing, Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells convey intrinsic, melanopsin-based, photoreceptive signals alongside those produced by rods and cones to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock. To date, experimental data suggest that melanopsin plays a more significant role in measuring ambient light intensity than cone photoreception. Such studies have overwhelmingly used diffuse light stimuli, whereas light intensity in the world around us varies across space and time. Read More

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The Impact of Vaccination to Control COVID-19 Burden in the United States: A Simulation Modeling Approach.

medRxiv 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Introduction: Vaccination programs aim to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the relative impacts of vaccine coverage, effectiveness, and capacity in the context of nonpharmaceutical interventions such as mask use and physical distancing on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 are unclear. Our objective was to examine the impact of vaccination on the control of SARS-CoV-2 using our previously developed agent-based simulation model. Read More

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Melatonin and osmoregulation in fish: A focus on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smoltification.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 Mar;33(3):e12955

Biologie des Organismes et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques (BOREA), MNHN, CNRS 7208, SU, IRD 207, UCN, UA, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

Part of the life cycle of several fish species includes important salinity changes, as is the case for the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) or the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Salmo salar juveniles migrate downstream from their spawning sites to reach seawater, where they grow and become sexually mature. The process of preparation enabling juveniles to migrate downstream and physiologically adapt to seawater is called smoltification. Read More

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