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A rise in Proteobacteria is an indicator of gut-liver axis-mediated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fructose-fed adult mice.

Nutr Res 2021 May 21;91:26-35. Epub 2021 May 21.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake results in gut dysbiosis, leading to endotoxemia and NAFLD onset. Thus, the hypothesis of the study was that an enhanced Proteobacteria proportion in the cecal microbiota could be the most prominent trigger of NAFLD through enhanced endotoxin (LPS) in adult high-fructose-fed C57BL/6 mice. Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (n = 10, C: 76% of energy as carbohydrates, 0% as fructose) or high-fructose diet (n = 10, HFRU: 76% of energy as carbohydrate, 50% as fructose) for 12 weeks. Read More

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Highly efficient nano-Fe/Cu bimetal-loaded mesoporous silica Fe/Cu-MCM-41 for the removal of Cr(VI): Kinetics, mechanism and performance.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 8;418:126344. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Shaanxi provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xian 710054, China. Electronic address:

Zero valent iron (Fe) can reduce Cr(VI) in water, where Fe and Fe(Ⅱ) are possible electron donors, but passivation and aggregation easily occur to Fe. To improve the performance of Fe, a new hybridization strategy of Fe/Cu bimetal and silica-based mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 for the removal of Cr(VI) from water has been proposed. The results show that the two-dimensional mesoporous structure of MCM-41 can provide skeleton support for Fe, improve the mass transfer rate, and overcome the aggregation bottleneck of Fe. Read More

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Glutamine addiction in virus-infected mammalian cells: A target of the innate immune system?

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jun 2;153:110620. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Life and Health Sciences, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus. Electronic address:

Control of core cell metabolism is a key aspect of the evolutionary conflict between viruses and the host's defence mechanisms. From their side, the invading viruses press the accelerator on their host cell's glycolysis, fatty acid, and glutaminolytic metabolic processes among others. It is also well established that activation of innate immune system responses modulates facets of metabolism such as that of polyamine, cholesterol, tryptophan and many more. Read More

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Global Reach 2018: nitric oxide-mediated cutaneous vasodilation is reduced in chronic, but not acute, hypoxia independently of enzymatic superoxide formation.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA. Electronic address:

We tested the hypotheses that 1) cutaneous microvascular function is impaired by acute normobaric and chronic hypobaric hypoxia and 2) that the superoxide free radical (via NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase) contributes to this impairment via nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. Local heating-induced cutaneous hyperemia (39°C) was measured in the forearm of 11 male lowlanders at sea level (SL) and following 14-18 days at high altitude (HA; 4340 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru), and compared to 11 highlanders residing permanently at this elevation. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure) was not different during 39°C [control site: 73 (19) vs. Read More

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Interactive regulation of laryngeal cancer and neuroscience.

Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021 Jun 12:188580. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pathology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin 150081, China. Electronic address:

Nerve fibres are distributed throughout the body along with blood and lymphatic vessels. The intrinsic morphological characteristics of nerves and the general characteristics of secretions in the tumour microenvironment provide a solid theoretical basis for exploring how neuronal tissue can influence the progression of laryngeal cancer (LC). The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) jointly control many aspects of cancer and have attracted widespread attention in the study of the progression, invasion and metastasis of tumour tissue banks. Read More

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Possible involvement of agmatine in neuropharmacological actions of metformin in diabetic mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 12:174255. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology, Shrimati Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur, M.S, India, 441 002. Electronic address:

The risk of psychiatric and neurological disorders is significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to depression, anxiety and memory impairment as compared with non-diabetic individuals. Metformin, a biguanide used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), promotes neurogenesis, enhances spatial memory function and protects the brain against oxidative imbalance beyond its effect on glucose metabolism. Read More

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Immune control of M. tuberculosis is dependent on both soluble TNFRp55 and soluble TNFRp75.

Immunology 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Tuberculosis presents a global health challenge and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is required for host immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TNF receptor shedding however compromises effective immunity by reducing bioactive TNF through the formation of inactive complexes. In this study, we first compared the effect of total soluble TNF receptors using a transgenic p55 /p75  murine strain on host protection during a low-dose aerosol Mtb H37Rv challenge. Read More

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ALS-linked mutations impair UBQLN2 stress-induced biomolecular condensate assembly in cells.

J Neurochem 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 13244, USA.

Mutations in Ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), a ubiquitin-binding shuttle protein involved in several protein quality control processes, can lead to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We previously found that wild-type UBQLN2 forms dynamic, membraneless biomolecular condensates upon cellular stress, and undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation in vitro. However, the impact of ALS-linked mutations on UBQLN2 condensate formation in cells is unknown. Read More

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Spatial-temporal dynamics and influencing factors of archaeal communities in the sediments of Lancang River cascade reservoirs (LRCR), China.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253233. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China.

The spatial and temporal distribution of the archaeal community and its driving factors in the sediments of large-scale regulated rivers, especially in rivers with cascade hydropower development rivers, remain poorly understood. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA archaeal gene were used to comprehensively investigate the spatiotemporal diversity and structure of archaeal community in the sediments of the Lancang River cascade reservoirs (LRCR). The archaeal abundance ranged from 5. Read More

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End-users' involvement in the development of serious games for healthcare professions education: a systematic descriptive review.

JMIR Serious Games 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Faculty of Nursing, Université de Montréal, Montreal, CA.

Background: Based on ethical and methodological arguments, numerous calls have been made to increase end-users' involvement in serious game (SG) development. Involving end-users is considered a way to give them power and control over an educational software designed for them. It can also help identify areas for improvement in SG design and improve its efficacy on targeted learning outcomes. Read More

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Randomness in Cancer Breakpoint Prediction.

J Comput Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Faculty of Computer Science, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.

Cancer genomes are susceptible to multiple rearrangements by deleting, inserting, and translocating genomic regions. Recently, the problem of finding determinants of breakpoint formations was approached with machine learning methods; however, unlike cancer point mutations, breakpoint prediction appeared to be a more difficult task, and various machine learning models did not achieve high prediction power often slightly exceeding the threshold of random guessing. This raised the question of whether the breakpoints are random noise in cancer mutagenesis or there exist determinants in structural mutagenesis. Read More

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Strengthening Pathology Capacity to Deliver Quality Cancer Care in Cities in LMICs.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Jun;7:917-924

American Society for Clinical Pathology, Chicago, IL.

Diagnostic pathology services for oncology health systems are essential; yet, surveys, observations, and hard data from across low- and middle-income countries have revealed that these services are almost always lacking adequate quality and often missing completely. The City Cancer Challenge Foundation (C/Can), the American Society for Clinical Pathology, and C/Can partner cities undertook intense analysis of their existing pathology services as part of a year-long assessment process including the specific formation of a pathology-focused team. Internal and external expert assessments identified sustainable solutions adapted to the local context and level of resources and created specific local implementation projects. Read More

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Cardiolipin Remodeling Defects Impair Mitochondrial Architecture and Function in a Murine Model of Barth Syndrome Cardiomyopathy.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e008289. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Medicine (S.Z., Z.C., M.Z., S.S., C.T., Y.G., A.N., W.F., S.M.E., X.F.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.

Background: Cardiomyopathy is a major clinical feature in Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked mitochondrial lipid disorder caused by mutations in (), encoding a mitochondrial acyltransferase required for cardiolipin remodeling. Despite recent description of a mouse model of BTHS cardiomyopathy, an in-depth analysis of specific lipid abnormalities and mitochondrial form and function in an in vivo BTHS cardiomyopathy model is lacking.

Methods: We performed in-depth assessment of cardiac function, cardiolipin species profiles, and mitochondrial structure and function in our newly generated cardiomyocyte-specific knockout mice and Cre-negative control mice (n≥3 per group). Read More

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Comparative transcriptome analysis provides insights into steviol glycoside synthesis in stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaves under nitrogen deficiency.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for the Research and Utilization of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Qianhuhoucun Village, Zhongshan Gate, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Key Message: Transcriptome analysis revealed the potential mechanism of nitrogen regulating steviol glycosides synthesis via shifting of leaf carbon metabolic flux or inducing certain transcription factors. Nitrogen (N) plays key regulatory roles in both stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) growth and the synthesis of its functional metabolite steviol glycosides (SGs), but the mechanism by which this nutrient regulates SGs synthesis remains to be elucidated. To address this question, a pot experiment was performed in a greenhouse where stevia plants fertilized with N (the control as CK plants) and compared with plants without the supply of N. Read More

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Phenotypic spectrum and mechanism analysis of Schaff Yang syndrome: A case report on new mutation of MAGEL2 gene.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26309

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong First Medical University.

Rationale: The Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is an autosomal dominant multi-system genetic disease caused by melanoma antigen L2 (MAGEL2) gene mutations imprinted by mothers and expressed by fathers on the 15q11-15q13 chromosomes in the critical region of Prader-Willi. MAGEL2 is a single exon gene and one of the protein-coding genes of the Prader-Willi domain. MAGEL2 is a matrilineal imprinted gene (i. Read More

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Upregulation of antigen presentation function and inflammation in chondrocytes by induction of proteoglycan aggrecan peptides (P16-31 and P263-280).

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Immunology Division, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, and Skeletal Disorders Research Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objectives: A central hallmark of osteoarthritis (OA) is cartilage destruction. Chondrocytes not only control cartilage metabolism, but are capable of immunogenic responses. The role of chondrocytes in the pathogenesis of OA is still unclear. Read More

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Regioselective Radical Arene Amination for the Concise Synthesis of -Phenylenediamines.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Yusuf Hamied Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, U.K.

The formation of arene C-N bonds directly from C-H bonds is of great importance and there has been rapid recent development of methods for achieving this through radical mechanisms, often involving reactive -centered radicals. A major challenge associated with these advances is that of regiocontrol, with mixtures of regioisomeric products obtained in most protocols, limiting broader utility. We have designed a system that utilizes attractive noncovalent interactions between an anionic substrate and an incoming radical cation in order to guide the latter to the arene position. Read More

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Multi-omics analysis of kernel development in response to short-term heat stress at the grain formation stage in waxy maize.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology/Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, P.R.China.

Understanding the adaptive changes in maize kernel under high temperature stress (HTS) during grain formation, is critical for developing strategies to alleviate the negative effects of HTS on grain yield and quality. This study performed four temperature treatments on waxy maize, namely, normal day/normal night (control), hot day/normal night, normal day/hot night, and hot day/hot night, from 1 to 15 days after pollination (DAP). Compared to the control, the three HTS treatments inhibited kernel development and starch deposition. Read More

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Fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of allergic diseases in the offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although several studies have reported the beneficial effects of maternal fish consumption on allergy diseases in the offspring, the findings are conflicting. We summarized earlier data on the association between maternal fish intake and risk of allergy diseases in the offspring through a meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of relevant reports published in Medline/PubMed, ISI web of Science, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Google Scholar prior to February 2020 was conducted. Read More

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Renin-angiotensin system in intestinal inflammation - Angiotensin inhibitors to treat inflammatory bowel diseases?

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, which manifest in recurring gastrointestinal inflammation. The current treatment options of IBD are not curative and are lacking in aspects like prevention of fibrosis. New treatment options are needed to fulfil the unmet needs and provide alternatives to drugs with resistances and side effects. Read More

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Designer Nanomaterials through Programmable Assembly.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Brookhaven National Laboratory, CFN, UNITED STATES.

Nanoparticles have long been recognized for their unique properties arising from their nanoscale morphology. While these phenomena offer exciting potential applications across optics, electronics, magnetism, and catalysis, these specific functions often require a designed organization of particles. This organizational control includes the type of order as well as placement and orientation of particles of the same or different kinds relative to each other. Read More

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Haplotypes of the genes (GCK and G6PC2) underlying the glucose/glucose-6-phosphate cycle are associated with pancreatic beta cell glucose sensitivity in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes from the VNDS study (VNDS 11).

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Piazzale Stefani 1, 37126, Verona, Italy.

Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose has been associated with increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The balance between glucokinase (GCK) and glucose-6-phosphate catalytic subunit 2 (G6PC2) activity are involved in glucose homeostasis through glycolytic flux, and subsequent insulin secretion.

Aim: In this study, we evaluated the association between the genetic variability of G6PC2 and GCK genes and T2D-related quantitative traits. Read More

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The ER membrane protein complex subunit Emc3 controls angiogenesis via the FZD4/WNT signaling axis.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory for Human Disease Gene Study, Department of Medical Genetics, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610072, China.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex (EMC) regulates the synthesis and quality control of membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains. One of the membrane spanning subunits, EMC3, is a core member of the EMC complex that provides essential hydrophilic vestibule for substrate insertion. Here, we show that the EMC subunit Emc3 plays critical roles in the retinal vascular angiogenesis by regulating Norrin/Wnt signaling. Read More

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Biosynthesis pathways and strategies for improving 3-hydroxypropionic acid production in bacteria.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 15;37(7):117. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China.

3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) represents an economically important platform compound from which a panel of bulk chemicals can be derived. Compared with petroleum-dependent chemical synthesis, bioproduction of 3-HP has attracted more attention due to utilization of renewable biomass. This review outlines bacterial production of 3-HP, covering aspects of host strains (e. Read More

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Thermoresponsive properties of polymer hydrogels induced by copolymerization of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers: comprehensive study of monomer sequence and water affinity.

Soft Matter 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533, Japan.

In order to raise the possibility of the practical use of thermoresponsive hydrogels in various fields, it is imperative to achieve on-demand control of responsive behavior especially by using a simple synthetic method with common monomers. To this end, we synthesized various hydrophilic/hydrophobic copolymer hydrogels from common acrylamide derivatives and acrylate monomers via free radical copolymerization, and examined the correlation between the structure and the swelling properties of the obtained gels, specifically from the viewpoint of the monomer sequence in the network chains and the affinity to water molecules. The obtained gels with a hydrophobic acrylamide monomer were shown to exhibit a sharp volume change in water upon heating at suitable monomer compositions. Read More

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RNAi of a Putative Grapevine Susceptibility Gene as a Possible Downy Mildew Control Strategy.

Front Plant Sci 2021 28;12:667319. Epub 2021 May 28.

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete , is one of the diseases causing the most severe economic losses to grapevine () production. To date, the application of fungicides is the most efficient method to control the pathogen and the implementation of novel and sustainable disease control methods is a major challenge. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a novel biotechnological tool with a great potential for controlling fungal pathogens. Read More

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Liver Proteome Profile of Growth Restricted and Appropriately Grown Newborn Wistar Rats Associated With Maternal Undernutrition.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 28;12:684220. Epub 2021 May 28.

Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and epigenetic modifications that impact gene expression leading to permanent changes of fetal metabolic pathways and thereby influence development of disease in childhood and adult life. In this study, we investigated the result of maternal food restriction on liver protein expression in Wistar male newborn pups.

Materials & Methods: Ten (n = 10) timed pregnant Wistar rats on their 14th day of gestation were randomly assigned to either control (n = 4) or food restricted group (n = 6). Read More

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Fine-mapping, trans-ancestral and genomic analyses identify causal variants, cells, genes and drug targets for type 1 diabetes.

Nat Genet 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

We report the largest and most diverse genetic study of type 1 diabetes (T1D) to date (61,427 participants), yielding 78 genome-wide-significant (P < 5 × 10) regions, including 36 that are new. We define credible sets of T1D-associated variants and show that they are enriched in immune-cell accessible chromatin, particularly CD4 effector T cells. Using chromatin-accessibility profiling of CD4 T cells from 115 individuals, we map chromatin-accessibility quantitative trait loci and identify five regions where T1D risk variants co-localize with chromatin-accessibility quantitative trait loci. Read More

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PPAR control of metabolism and cardiovascular functions.

Nat Rev Cardiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1011-EGID, Lille, France.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), PPARδ and PPARγ are transcription factors that regulate gene expression following ligand activation. PPARα increases cellular fatty acid uptake, esterification and trafficking, and regulates lipoprotein metabolism genes. PPARδ stimulates lipid and glucose utilization by increasing mitochondrial function and fatty acid desaturation pathways. Read More

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Jejunal mucosa proteomics unravel metabolic adaptive processes to mild chronic heat stress in dairy cows.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12484. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196, Dummerstorf, Germany.

Climate change affects the duration and intensity of heat waves during summer months and jeopardizes animal health and welfare. High ambient temperatures cause heat stress in dairy cows resulting in a reduction of milk yield, feed intake, and alterations in gut barrier function. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mucosal amino acid, glucose and lactate metabolism, as well as the proteomic response of the small intestine in heat stressed (HS) Holstein dairy cows. Read More

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