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Muscarinic Acetylcholine M Receptors Regulate Lateral Habenula Neuron Activity and Control Cocaine Seeking Behavior.

J Neurosci 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program Computational and Systems Neuroscience Branch, Electrophysiology Research Section, Baltimore, MD 21224.

The lateral habenula (LHb) balances reward and aversion by opposing activation of brain reward nuclei and is involved the inhibition of responding for cocaine in a model of impulsive behavior. Previously, we reported that the suppression of cocaine seeking was prevented by LHb inactivation or nonselective antagonism of LHb mAChRs. Here, we investigate mAChR subtypes mediating the effects of endogenous acetylcholine in this model of impulsive drug seeking and define cellular mechanisms in which mAChRs alter LHb neuron activity. Read More

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Dual leucine zipper kinase regulates Dscam expression through a non-canonical function of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein.

J Neurosci 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA

Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) plays a pivotal role in the development, degeneration, and regeneration of neurons. DLK can regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The DLK, Wallenda (Wnd) regulates the expression of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) to control presynaptic arbor growth. Read More

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Therapeutic efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates targeting GD2-positive tumors.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 Jun;10(6)

Department of Immunology, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Background: Both ganglioside GD2-targeted immunotherapy and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have demonstrated clinical success as solid tumor therapies in recent years, yet no research has been carried out to develop anti-GD2 ADCs against solid tumors. This is the first study to analyze cytotoxic activity of clinically relevant anti-GD2 ADCs in a wide panel of cell lines with varying GD2 expression and their effects in mouse models of GD2-positive solid cancer.

Methods: Anti-GD2 ADCs were generated based on the GD2-specific antibody ch14. Read More

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Estimating population-based incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and acute otitis media in children and adults in Ontario and British Columbia using health administrative data, 2005-2018: a Canadian Immunisation Research Network (CIRN) study.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2022 Jun;9(1)

Centre for Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Background: There is a paucity of data on the burden of the full spectrum of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) from outpatient and inpatient settings across the age spectrum.

Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective study in Ontario and British Columbia (BC), Canada, to estimate the incidence rate of CAP and AOM in children and adults over a 14-year period using health administrative databases. CAP and AOM cases were identified from outpatient physician consultation and hospitalisation data in both provinces, and from emergency department visit data in Ontario. Read More

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Influenza activity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) in 2020-2021 amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

BMJ Glob Health 2022 Jun;7(Suppl 4)

Infectious Hazard Prevention and Preparedness, World Health Organization- Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, Cairo, Egypt

Introduction: A global reduction in influenza virus activity during the COVID-19 pandemic has been observed, including in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). However, these changes have not been thoroughly evaluated scientifically in the EMR.

Objective: We aim to present data on seasonal influenza activity during the pre-pandemic period (2016-2019) and compare it to the pandemic period (2020-2021) in EM countries. Read More

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Rotation of the Tibial Plateau Segment to Control Arterial Haemorrhage during Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy: A Cadaveric Experimental Study and Nine Clinical Cases.

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Vets Now Referrals, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Objective:  The aim of this study was to describe a simple and effective method to control severe haemorrhage from intraoperative trauma to the cranial tibial artery (CTA) during tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) and to report long-term outcomes.

Study Design:  Cadaveric descriptive study and retrospective case series. A TPLO was performed in eight cadaveric limbs, followed by intentional laceration of the CTA under fluoroscopic guidance. Read More

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Community, Risk Assessment, Prevention and Control: Black American College Student's Information Seeking on COVID-19.

Health Info Libr J 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

School of Library & Information Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA.

Background: Despite the disproportionate impact of the novel coronavirus on Black Americans, there is little research that centres Black college students' information behaviours during the pandemic.

Objective: The objective of this study is to identify information needs, resources and use regarding the novel coronavirus pandemic among Black American college students.

Methods: This is a quantitative study among 389 college students in the USA. Read More

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Methanosarcina thermophila bioaugmentation and its synergy with biochar growth support particles versus polypropylene microplastics in thermophilic food waste anaerobic digestion.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jun 25:127531. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Energy and Environmental Sustainability for Megacities (E2S2) Phase II, Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE), 1 Create Way, Singapore 138602, Singapore; Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, NUS, Singapore. Electronic address:

Both biochar supplementation as well as bioaugmentation have been shown in literature to improve the methane yield of anaerobic digestion. In this study, the combination of both are evaluated by growing Methanosarcina thermophila on biochar support particles prior to augmentation of thermophilic food waste anaerobic digestion. Biochar stand alone, bioaugmentation solely, a combination of both added separately or grown together, and utilizing polypropylene (PP) microplastics as growth support instead were all tested when starting up a thermophilic process from mesophilic inoculum. Read More

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Nivolumab + low-dose ipilimumab in previously treated patients with microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer: 4-year follow-up from CheckMate 142.

Ann Oncol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: In the phase II multicohort CheckMate 142 study, nivolumab plus low-dose (1 mg/kg) ipilimumab provided robust and durable clinical benefit with a manageable safety profile in previously treated patients with microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) at 13.4- and 25.4-month median follow-up (Overman M et al. Read More

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Synthesis of manganese-incorporated polycaplactone-poly (glyceryl methacrylate) theranostic smart hybrid polymersomes for efficient colon adenocarcinoma treatment.

Int J Pharm 2022 Jun 25:121963. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

In the current study, a multifunctional nanoscale vesicular system (polymersome) with the ability to accumulate in the site of action, control drug release and integrate diagnostic and therapeutic functions was developed. The theranostic polymersome was engineered as a promising dual-functional nanoplatform, which can be used for tumor therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this regard, the amphiphilic diblock copolymer of poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(glyceryl methacrylate)[(PCL-b-PGMA)] was synthesized by combined ring-opening polymerization (ROP), and reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization techniques followed by hydrolysis of the pendant oxiran rings to hydroxyl groups. Read More

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A role of prefrontal cortico-hypothalamic projections in wake promotion.

Cereb Cortex 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Institute of Neuropsychiatric Diseases, Qingdao University, No. 308, Ning-Xia Road, Qingdao, 266071, China.

Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) processes many critical brain functions, such as decision-making, value-coding, thinking, and emotional arousal/recognition, but whether vmPFC plays a role in sleep-wake promotion circuitry is still unclear. Here, we find that photoactivation of dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH)-projecting vmPFC neurons, their terminals, or their postsynaptic DMH neurons rapidly switches non-rapid eye movement (NREM) but not rapid eye movement sleep to wakefulness, which is blocked by photoinhibition of DMH outputs in lateral hypothalamus (LHs). Chemoactivation of DMH glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons innervated by vmPFC promotes wakefulness and suppresses NREM sleep, whereas chemoinhibition of vmPFC projections in DMH produces opposite effects. Read More

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Polymer selection impacts the pharmaceutical profile of site-specifically conjugated Interferon-α2a.

J Control Release 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Institute of Pharmacy and Food Chemistry, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany; Helmholtz Institute for RNA-Based Infection Research (HIRI), 97080 Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to biologics is a successful strategy to favorably impact the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of the resulting bioconjugate. We compare bioconjugates synthesized by strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) using PEG and linear polyglycerol (LPG) of about 20 kDa or 40 kDa, respectively, with an azido functionalized human Interferon-α2a (IFN-α2a) mutant. Site-specific PEGylation and LPGylation resulted in IFN-α2a bioconjugates with improved in vitro potency compared to commercial Pegasys. Read More

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Immunogenicity against hepatitis C virus with mesenchymal stem cells of inbreed BALB/c mice sub cloned with HCVcp protein gene.

Transpl Immunol 2022 Jun 25:101651. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Sirjan School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Hepatitis C is one of the leading causes of liver disease in the world and despite extensive research, there is still no vaccine against it. Researchers have identified cell-based therapies as an alternative strategy in advanced liver disorders. The aim of this study was to transfer the hepatitis C virus core protein (HCVcp) gene into mesenchymal stem cells and to evaluate its immunogenicity after injection into mice. Read More

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Scrutinizing pathways of Nicotine effect on renal Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine receptor and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Mice: role of Chlorella vulgaris.

Gene 2022 Jun 25:146697. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Nicotine is one of several physiologically stable and active chemicals found in tobacco. The mechanism through which nicotine causes kidney damage is still obscure. As a result, the goal of this research was to investigate how oral nicotine intake can lead to kidney damage. Read More

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Comparative effectiveness and acceptability of different ACT delivery formats to treat depression: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Affect Disord 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

School of Nursing, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of acute depression. However, whether ACT can be effectively delivered in individual, group, internet, and combined delivery format remain unclear. We aimed to examine the most effective delivery format for ACT via a network meta-analysis (NMA). Read More

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Electroconvulsive therapy effects on anhedonia and reward circuitry anatomy: A dimensional structural neuroimaging approach.

J Affect Disord 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) resulting from maladaptive reward processing. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for patients with MDD. No previous neuroimaging studies have taken a dimensional approach to assess whether ECT-induced volume changes are specifically related to improvements in anhedonia and positive valence emotional constructs. Read More

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Clinical Epidemiology of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales in the Greater Houston Region of Texas: A 6-year Trend and Surveillance Analysis.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

University of Texas Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Center for Infectious Diseases, Houston, Texas, USA.

Objectives: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) remain an urgent public health priority in the United States. CRE poses a major threat to patients in healthcare and a potential risk to the community. This study examined the epidemiological trends, clinical, and microbiological data of CRE in the Greater Houston Region of Texas. Read More

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Propensity-Matched Patients Undergoing Revision Hip Arthroscopy Over the Age of 40 Had Higher Risk of Conversion to Total Hip Arthroplasty Compared to Their Primary Counterparts.

Arthroscopy 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

American Hip Institute Research Foundation, Chicago, IL 60018; American Hip Institute, Chicago, IL 60018. Electronic address:

Purposes: To report patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and survivorship following revision hip arthroscopy in patients aged ≥ 40 years and to compare these results to a propensity-matched primary hip arthroscopy control group.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed for all patients who underwent revision hip arthroscopy between June 2008 and January 2019. Patients were included if they were ≥ 40 years of age at the time of surgery and had minimum 2-year follow-up for the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Visual Analog Scale for pain and the Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS). Read More

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Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplementation on Knee Osteoarthritis - A target trial emulation study using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Centre for Big Data Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: To assess the real-world effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by replicating a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design in an observational study.

Method: This study emulated a target trial using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Eligible participants were ≥45 years, had symptomatic KOA and did not take vitamin D supplements in the past 30 days. Read More

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Novel pathological findings and immunohistochemical detection of FMDV antigens in the brain of calves naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease.

Microb Pathog 2022 Jun 25:105650. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

ICAR-DFMD-International Centre for Foot and Mouth Disease, Arugul, Jatni, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious and economically devastating viral disease of cloven-hoofed domestic and wildlife animals. The disease is endemic in India and other developing countries of the world. The disease is mainly characterized by the presence of vesicular lesions and "tigroid heart" in calves. Read More

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Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds from urban green spaces in the six core districts of Beijing based on a new satellite dataset.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jun 25:119672. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

School of Ecology and Environment, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, 100048, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Food Chain Pollution Control, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, 100048, China. Electronic address:

Urban green spaces (UGSs) are often positively associated with the health of urban residents. However, UGSs may also have adverse health effects by releasing biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and increasing the ambient concentrations of ozone (O) and secondary organic aerosols in urban areas. BVOC emissions from UGSs might be underestimated because of the lack of consideration of the UGS land-use type in urban areas. Read More

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Prevalence and characteristics of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 at two academic centers in Boston and Minneapolis, USA.

Am J Infect Control 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) ST131, with its emergent resistance-associated H30Rx, H30R1, and C1-M27 clonal subsets, accounts for the greatest share of extraintestinal E. coli infections and most extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. Read More

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Impact of Certified Infection Preventionists in Acute Care Settings: A Systematic Review.

Am J Infect Control 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Health care-associated infection (HAI) is a common adverse event affecting patient safety. This review aims to (1) establish evidence for the impact of certified infection prevention and control (CIC) specialists on infection prevention and patient safety in acute care settings and (2) summarize study design and statistical modeling used for impact assessment to inform future studies.

Methods: We searched and reviewed full-text, quantitative studies assessing the impact of CIC. Read More

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Mechanisms orchestrating the enzymatic activity and cellular functions of deubiquitinases.

J Biol Chem 2022 Jun 25:102198. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Laboratory for Cell Signaling and Cancer, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center, H1T 2M4, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Montréal, Montréal H3C 3J7, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are required for the reverse reaction of ubiquitination and act as major regulators of ubiquitin signaling processes. Emerging evidence suggests that these enzymes are regulated at multiple levels in order to ensure proper and timely substrate targeting, and to prevent the adverse consequences of promiscuous deubiquitination. The importance of DUB regulation is highlighted by disease-associated mutations that inhibit or activate DUBs, deregulating their ability to coordinate cellular processes. Read More

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Cell-intrinsic Wnt4 ligand regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in macrophages.

J Biol Chem 2022 Jun 25:102193. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Institut national de recherche scientifique, Centre Armand Frappier Santé Biotechnologie, Laval H7V 1B7, CANADA; Centre d'Excellence de Recherche sur les Maladies Orphelines - Fondation Courtois (CERMO-FC), Montreal, CANADA. Electronic address:

Macrophages respond to their environment by adopting a predominantly inflammatory or anti-inflammatory profile, depending on the context. The polarization of the subsequent response is regulated by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic signals and is associated with alterations in macrophage metabolism. Although macrophages are important producers of Wnt ligands, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating metabolic changes associated with macrophage polarization remains unclear. Read More

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ROS function as an inducer of autophagy to promote granulocyte proliferation in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

Dev Comp Immunol 2022 Jun 25:104479. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Immunology, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Zhuhai, 519000, China; Functional Laboratory of Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266235, China; Dalian Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Disease Prevention and Control, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China. Electronic address:

Hematopoiesis is the biological process to generate new blood cells in the living body and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute significantly to the regulation of haematopoietic cell homeostasis. In the present study, the involvement of ROS in the proliferation of haemocytes was examined in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The ROS content in haemocytes increased significantly after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, but decreased after the treatment with antioxidant N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, a scavenger of ROS). Read More

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Recognizing the individualized sensorimotor loop of stroke patients during BMI-supported rehabilitation training based on brain functional connectivity analysis.

J Neurosci Methods 2022 Jun 25:109658. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital of Capital Medical University, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-machine interaction training can facilitate rehabilitation by closing the sensorimotor loop. However, it remains unclear how to evaluate whether the loop is closed, especially for stroke patients whose brain regions of motor control and sensorimotor feedback could be altered. Our hypothesis is that motor recovery depends on whether sensorimotor loop is established poststroke. Read More

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