479 results match your criteria contribute compartmentalization

Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4): A Suspected Efflux Transporter for Human's Platelet Activation.

Protein Pept Lett 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemistry, Organic Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina. Greece.

The main role of platelets is to contribute to hemostasis. However, under pathophysiological conditions, platelet activation may lead to thrombotic events of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, anti-thrombotic treatment is important in patients with cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Development of a high sensitivity ELISA detecting IgG, A & M antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in serum and saliva.

Immunology 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, U.K.

Detecting antibody responses during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential in determining the seroepidemiology of the virus and the potential role of antibody in disease. Scalable, sensitive and specific serological assays are essential to this process. The detection of antibody in hospitalized patients with severe disease has proven relatively straightforward; detecting responses in subjects with mild disease and asymptomatic infections has proven less reliable. Read More

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Compartmentalized replication organelle of flavivirus at the ER and the factors involved.

Yali Ci Lei Shi

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China.

Flaviviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that pose a considerable threat to human health. Flaviviruses replicate in compartmentalized replication organelles derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The characteristic architecture of flavivirus replication organelles includes invaginated vesicle packets and convoluted membrane structures. Read More

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Biomolecular Condensates under Extreme Martian Salt Conditions.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 23;143(13):5247-5259. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Physical Chemistry I - Biophysical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, TU Dortmund University, Otto-Hahn Street 4a, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.

Biomolecular condensates formed by liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) are considered one of the early compartmentalization strategies of cells, which still prevail today forming nonmembranous compartments in biological cells. Studies of the effect of high pressures, such as those encountered in the subsurface salt lakes of Mars or in the depths of the subseafloor on Earth, on biomolecular LLPS will contribute to questions of protocell formation under prebiotic conditions. We investigated the effects of extreme environmental conditions, focusing on highly aggressive Martian salts (perchlorate and sulfate) and high pressure, on the formation of biomolecular condensates of proteins. Read More

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Regulation of Age-Related Protein Toxicity.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:637084. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology of Ageing, European Research Institute for the Biology of Ageing, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Proteome damage plays a major role in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Under healthy conditions, molecular quality control mechanisms prevent toxic protein misfolding and aggregation. These mechanisms include molecular chaperones for protein folding, spatial compartmentalization for sequestration, and degradation pathways for the removal of harmful proteins. Read More

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Dynamic 3D Locus Organization and Its Drivers Underpin Immunoglobulin Recombination.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:633705. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Lymphocyte Signalling and Development Programme, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

A functional adaptive immune system must generate enormously diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires from a limited number of AgR genes, using a common mechanism, V(D)J recombination. The AgR loci are among the largest in the genome, and individual genes must overcome huge spatial and temporal challenges to co-localize with optimum variability. Our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved has increased enormously, due in part to new technologies for high resolution mapping of AgR structure and dynamic movement, underpinning mechanisms, and resulting repertoires. Read More

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February 2021

Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and "Mito-Inflammation": Actors in the Diseases.

Biomedicines 2021 Feb 20;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Medical Sciences and Laboratory for Technologies of Advanced Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

A decline in mitochondrial redox homeostasis has been associated with the development of a wide range of inflammatory-related diseases. Continue discoveries demonstrate that mitochondria are pivotal elements to trigger inflammation and stimulate innate immune signaling cascades to intensify the inflammatory response at front of different stimuli. Here, we review the evidence that an exacerbation in the levels of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to mito-inflammation, a new concept that identifies the compartmentalization of the inflammatory process, in which the mitochondrion acts as central regulator, checkpoint, and arbitrator. Read More

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February 2021

In vitro activity of ibrexafungerp and comparators against Candida albicans genotypes from vaginal samples and blood cultures.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: Emergence of azole resistance may contribute to recurrences of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Thus, new drugs are needed to improve the therapeutic options. We studied the in vitro activity of ibrexafungerp and comparators against Candida albicans isolates from vaginal samples and blood cultures. Read More

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February 2021

Interplay of folded domains and the disordered low-complexity domain in mediating hnRNPA1 phase separation.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 03;49(5):2931-2945

Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, TN 38105, USA.

Liquid-liquid phase separation underlies the membrane-less compartmentalization of cells. Intrinsically disordered low-complexity domains (LCDs) often mediate phase separation, but how their phase behavior is modulated by folded domains is incompletely understood. Here, we interrogate the interplay between folded and disordered domains of the RNA-binding protein hnRNPA1. Read More

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The Lymph Node Reservoir: Physiology, HIV Infection, and Antiretroviral Therapy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 28;109(4):918-927. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Eshelman School of Pharmacy, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Despite advances in treatment, finding a cure for HIV remains a top priority. Chronic HIV infection is associated with increased risk of comorbidities, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, people living with HIV must remain adherent to daily antiretroviral therapy, because lapses in medication adherence can lead to viral rebound and disease progression. Read More

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The key role of solvent in condensation: Mapping water in liquid-liquid phase-separated FUS.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 28;120(7):1266-1275. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department Physical Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Formation of biomolecular condensates through liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has emerged as a pervasive principle in cell biology, allowing compartmentalization and spatiotemporal regulation of dynamic cellular processes. Proteins that form condensates under physiological conditions often contain intrinsically disordered regions with low-complexity domains. Among them, the RNA-binding proteins FUS and TDP-43 have been a focus of intense investigation because aberrant condensation and aggregation of these proteins is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Read More

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GRKs and Epac1 Interaction in Cardiac Remodeling and Heart Failure.

Cells 2021 01 14;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

INSERM UMR-1048, Institute of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases, Université de Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, 31432 Toulouse, France.

β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) play a major role in the physiological regulation of cardiac function through signaling routes tightly controlled by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). Although the acute stimulation of β-ARs and the subsequent production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) have beneficial effects on cardiac function, chronic stimulation of β-ARs as observed under sympathetic overdrive promotes the development of pathological cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF), a leading cause of mortality worldwide. This is accompanied by an alteration in cAMP compartmentalization and the activation of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1) signaling. Read More

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January 2021

Insights Into the Regulation of the Expression Pattern of Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle Enzymes in C and C Grasses.

Front Plant Sci 2020 16;11:570436. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Life Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom.

C photosynthesis is characterized by the compartmentalization of the processes of atmospheric uptake of CO and its conversion into carbohydrate between mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells. As a result, most of the enzymes participating in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle, including RubisCO, are highly expressed in bundle-sheath cells. There is evidence that changes in the regulatory sequences of contribute to its bundle-sheath-specific expression, however, little is known about how the spatial-expression pattern of other CBB cycle enzymes is regulated. Read More

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October 2020

MLL4-associated condensates counterbalance Polycomb-mediated nuclear mechanical stress in Kabuki syndrome.

Nat Genet 2020 12 9;52(12):1397-1411. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Cellular, Computational and Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

The genetic elements required to tune gene expression are partitioned in active and repressive nuclear condensates. Chromatin compartments include transcriptional clusters whose dynamic establishment and functioning depend on multivalent interactions occurring among transcription factors, cofactors and basal transcriptional machinery. However, how chromatin players contribute to the assembly of transcriptional condensates is poorly understood. Read More

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December 2020

Comprehensive proteomic analysis revealing multifaceted regulatory network of the xero-halophyte Haloxylon salicornicum involved in salt tolerance.

J Biotechnol 2020 Dec 15;324:143-161. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Plant Omics Division, CSIR- Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSIR-CSMCRI), Gijubhai Badheka Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India. Electronic address:

Haloxylon salicornicum is a xero-halophyte which grow predominantly in dry saline areas. However, the proteomic approach for revealing the regulatory network involved in salt adaptation of this important xerohalophyte has not been studied so far. In the present investigation, the label-free quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out in shoot of H. Read More

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December 2020

Therapeutic Implications for PDE2 and cGMP/cAMP Mediated Crosstalk in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 10;21(20). Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the principal superfamily of enzymes responsible for degrading the secondary messengers 3',5'-cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP. Their refined subcellular localization and substrate specificity contribute to finely regulate cAMP/cGMP gradients in various cellular microdomains. Redistribution of multiple signal compartmentalization components is often perceived under pathological conditions. Read More

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October 2020

Hydroxycinnamate Amides: Intriguing Conjugates of Plant Protective Metabolites.

Trends Plant Sci 2021 02 6;26(2):184-195. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Research Centre for Plant Metabolomics, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:

The syntheses of aromatic monoamines and aliphatic polyamines (PAs) are responsive to environmental stresses, with some modulating aspects of plant defense. Conjugation of amines to hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) generates HCA amides (HCAAs), with the conjugates possessing properties from both compounds. Conjugation may reduce the polarity of the resulting metabolite and assist in translocation, stability, and compartmentalization. Read More

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February 2021

Glutamine reliance in cell metabolism.

Exp Mol Med 2020 09 17;52(9):1496-1516. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon, 21983, South Korea.

As knowledge of cell metabolism has advanced, glutamine has been considered an important amino acid that supplies carbon and nitrogen to fuel biosynthesis. A recent study provided a new perspective on mitochondrial glutamine metabolism, offering mechanistic insights into metabolic adaptation during tumor hypoxia, the emergence of drug resistance, and glutaminolysis-induced metabolic reprogramming and presenting metabolic strategies to target glutamine metabolism in cancer cells. In this review, we introduce the various biosynthetic and bioenergetic roles of glutamine based on the compartmentalization of glutamine metabolism to explain why cells exhibit metabolic reliance on glutamine. Read More

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September 2020

Environmental adaptation of the root microbiome in two rice ecotypes.

Microbiol Res 2020 Dec 27;241:126588. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China; State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 China. Electronic address:

The root microbiome plays a key role that can influence host plant growth and abiotic stress. While there has been extensive characterization of community structure, spatial compartmentalization, and the impact of drought stresses on the root microbiome in rice and other plants, there is relatively little known about the differences in root microbiome among rice ecotypes in natural upland and lowland fields. Herein, we used two rice ecotypes, upland and irrigated ecotype rice (two Indica and two Japonica genotypes), as a model to explore the responses of the root microbiome under different environmental conditions. Read More

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December 2020

Stress Granules in Cancer.

Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 2020 Aug 14. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Cancer Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The capacity of cells to organize complex biochemical reactions in intracellular space is a fundamental organizational principle of life. Key to this organization is the compartmentalization of the cytoplasm into distinct organelles, which is frequently achieved through intracellular membranes. Recent evidence, however, has added a new layer of flexibility to cellular compartmentalization. Read More

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Fine configuration of the dural fibrous network and the extradural neural axis compartment in the jugular foramen: an epoxy sheet plastination and confocal microscopy study.

J Neurosurg 2020 Jul 3:1-11. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

1Department of Anatomy and.

Objective: The extradural neural axis compartment (EDNAC) is an adipovenous zone that is located between the meningeal (ML) and endosteal (EL) layers of the dura mater and has been minimally investigated in the jugular foramen (JF) region. In this study, the authors aimed to explore the fine architecture of the EDNAC within the JF and evaluate whether the EDNAC can be used as a component for JF compartmentalization.

Methods: A total of 46 cadaveric heads (31 male, 15 female; age range 54-96 years) and 30 dry skulls were examined in this study. Read More

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Detection of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in both serum and saliva enhances detection of infection.

medRxiv 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Background: Detecting antibody responses during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential in determining the seroepidemiology of the virus and the potential role of antibody in disease. Scalable, sensitive and specific serological assays are essential to this process. The detection of antibody in hospitalized patients with severe disease has proven straightforward; detecting responses in subjects with mild disease and asymptomatic infections has proven less reliable. Read More

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Contribution of two different Na transport systems to acquired salinity tolerance in rice.

Plant Sci 2020 Aug 13;297:110517. Epub 2020 May 13.

Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8528, Japan; Graduate School of Integrated Sciences for Life, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8528, Japan. Electronic address:

To elucidate the mechanisms of salt acclimation, physiological parameters of 70 rice varieties were compared under control and salt stress conditions after the acclimation treatment. The results indicated that some rice varieties had the ability to acclimatize to salt stress, exhibiting improved growth following the acclimation treatment under subsequent salinity stress compared to those without acclimation treatment. Conversely, some varieties exhibited reduced growth both with and without acclimation treatment under subsequent salinity stress. Read More

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Characterization of neutrophil-neuronal co-cultures to investigate mechanisms of post-ischemic immune-mediated neurotoxicity.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 07 20;341:108782. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester NY 14642, United States; Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester NY 14642, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Immune-mediated reperfusion injury is a critical component of post-ischemic central nervous system (CNS) damage. In this context, the activation and recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to the CNS induces neurotoxicity in part through the release of degradative enzymes, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species. However, the extent to which close-range interactions between PMNs and neurons contribute to injury in this context has not been directly investigated. Read More

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HIV RNA Rebound in Seminal Plasma after Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption.

J Virol 2020 07 16;94(15). Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

If strategies currently in development succeed in eradicating HIV reservoirs in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, residual sources of virus may remain in anatomic compartments. Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 12 individuals enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled therapeutic vaccine clinical trial in people with HIV (PWH) who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute or early infection (ClinicalTrials registration no. NCT01859325). Read More

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Functional Postnatal Maturation of the Medial Olivocochlear Efferent-Outer Hair Cell Synapse.

J Neurosci 2020 06 19;40(25):4842-4857. Epub 2020 May 19.

Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1428 Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The organ of Corti, the auditory mammalian sensory epithelium, contains two types of mechanotransducer cells, inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). IHCs are involved in conveying acoustic stimuli to the CNS, while OHCs are implicated in the fine tuning and amplification of sounds. OHCs are innervated by medial olivocochlear (MOC) cholinergic efferent fibers. Read More

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Membrane Compartmentalization and Scaffold Proteins in Leukocyte Migration.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 28;8:285. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Biotechnology Institute Thurgau at the University of Konstanz, Kreuzlingen, Switzerland.

Leukocyte migration across vessels into and within peripheral and lymphoid tissues is essential for host defense against invading pathogens. Leukocytes are specialized in sensing a variety of guidance cues and to integrate environmental stimuli to navigate in a timely and spatially controlled manner. These extracellular signals must be transmitted across the leukocyte's plasma membrane in a way that intracellular signaling cascades enable directional cell movement. Read More

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Phylodynamic analysis and evaluation of the balance between anthropic and environmental factors affecting IBV spreading among Italian poultry farms.

Sci Rep 2020 04 29;10(1):7289. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Dipartimento di Medicina Animale, Produzioni e Salute (MAPS), Università di Padova, Legnaro, (PD), Italia.

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) control is mainly based on wide vaccine administration. Although effective, its efficacy is not absolute, the viral circulation is not prevented and some side effects cannot be denied. Despite this, the determinants of IBV epidemiology and the factors affecting its circulation are still largely unknown and poorly investigated. Read More

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Weak interactions in higher-order chromatin organization.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 05;48(9):4614-4626

Institute of Gene Biology Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia.

The detailed principles of the hierarchical folding of eukaryotic chromosomes have been revealed during the last two decades. Along with structures composing three-dimensional (3D) genome organization (chromatin compartments, topologically associating domains, chromatin loops, etc.), the molecular mechanisms that are involved in their establishment and maintenance have been characterized. Read More

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Intratumor δ-catenin heterogeneity driven by genomic rearrangement dictates growth factor dependent prostate cancer progression.

Oncogene 2020 05 20;39(22):4358-4374. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, 27834, USA.

Only a small number of genes are bona fide oncogenes and tumor suppressors such as Ras, Myc, β-catenin, p53, and APC. However, targeting these cancer drivers frequently fail to demonstrate sustained cancer remission. Tumor heterogeneity and evolution contribute to cancer resistance and pose challenges for cancer therapy due to differential genomic rearrangement and expression driving distinct tumor responses to treatments. Read More

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