10,616 results match your criteria contrasting biological


Neuromorphological changes following selection for tameness and aggression in the Russian fox-farm experiment.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The Russian fox-farm experiment is an unusually long-running and well-controlled study designed to replicate wolf-to-dog domestication. As such, it offers an unprecedented window onto the neural mechanisms governing the evolution of behavior. Here we report evolved changes to gray matter morphology resulting from selection for tameness vs. Read More

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Chemical contamination alters the interactions between bacteria and phytoplankton.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 31;278:130457. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Universite de Pau et des Pays de L'Adour, E2S UPPA, CNRS, IPREM, 64000, Pau, France.

Bacteria and phytoplankton are key players in aquatic ecosystem functioning. Their interactions mediate carbon transfer through the trophic web. Chemical contamination can alter the function and diversity of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton, with important consequences for ecosystem functioning. Read More

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September 2021

Electron and proton transport in wheat exposed to salt stress: is the increase of the thylakoid membrane proton conductivity responsible for decreasing the photosynthetic activity in sensitive genotypes?

Photosynth Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Plant Physiology, Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia.

Effects of salinity caused by 150 mM NaCl on primary photochemical reactions and some physiological and biochemical parameters (K/Na ratio, soluble sugars, proline, MDA) have been studied in five Triticum aestivum L. genotypes with contrasting salt tolerance. It was found that 150 mM NaCl significantly decreased the photosynthetic efficiency of two sensitive genotypes. Read More

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Sex-specific differences in : essential oil yield, growth-defence conflict and population sex ratio.

AoB Plants 2021 Jun 22;13(3):plab021. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Nature Conservation, Institute of Game Management and Nature Protection, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Guba Sándor utca 40, H-7400 Kaposvár, Hungary.

In plants, biomass and nutrient allocation often generate trade-offs between the different biochemical pathways conflicting the utilization of the common source among growth, reproduction and chemical defence. However, in dioecious plant species, these trade-off patterns could appear as a more contrasted problem between males and females due to the dissimilar reproduction investment. Generally, the growth ratio is higher in males than females, while females have a stronger defence than males. Read More

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Dynamics of Long-Range Temporal Correlations in Broadband EEG During Different Motor Execution and Imagery Tasks.

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:660032. Epub 2021 May 28.

Brain Embodiment Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.

Brain activity is composed of oscillatory and broadband arrhythmic components; however, there is more focus on oscillatory sensorimotor rhythms to study movement, but temporal dynamics of broadband arrhythmic electroencephalography (EEG) remain unexplored. We have previously demonstrated that broadband arrhythmic EEG contains both short- and long-range temporal correlations that change significantly during movement. In this study, we build upon our previous work to gain a deeper understanding of these changes in the long-range temporal correlation (LRTC) in broadband EEG and contrast them with the well-known LRTC in alpha oscillation amplitude typically found in the literature. Read More

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Theory of temperature-dependent consumer-resource interactions.

Ecol Lett 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Theoretical and Experimental Ecology Station, CNRS, Moulis, France.

Changes in temperature affect consumer-resource interactions, which underpin the functioning of ecosystems. However, existing studies report contrasting predictions regarding the impacts of warming on biological rates and community dynamics. To improve prediction accuracy and comparability, we develop an approach that combines sensitivity analysis and aggregate parameters. Read More

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The major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 does not show any association among South Asian populations.

Sci Rep 2021 06 11;11(1):12346. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 221005, India.

With the growing evidence on the variable human susceptibility against COVID-19, it is evident that some genetic loci modulate the severity of the infection. Recent studies have identified several loci associated with greater severity. More recently, a study has identified a 50 kb genomic segment introgressed from Neanderthal adding a risk for COVID-19, and this genomic segment is present among 16% and 50% people of European and South Asian descent, respectively. Read More

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Acoustic Vulnerability, Hydraulic Capacitance, and Xylem Anatomy Determine Drought Response of Small Grain Cereals.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:599824. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Selection of high-yielding traits in cereal plants led to a continuous increase in productivity. However, less effort was made to select on adaptive traits, favorable in adverse and harsh environments. Under current climate change conditions and the knowledge that cereals are staple foods for people worldwide, it is highly important to shift focus to the selection of traits related to drought tolerance, and to evaluate new tools for efficient selection. Read More

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Hydrophobic-hydrophilic crown-like structure enables aquatic insects to reside effectively beneath the water surface.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 10;4(1):708. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Preeminent Medical Photonics Education & Research Center, Institute for NanoSuit Research, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Japan.

Various insects utilise hydrophobic biological surfaces to live on the surface of water, while other organisms possess hydrophilic properties that enable them to live within a water column. Dixidae larvae reside, without being submerged, just below the water surface. However, little is known about how these larvae live in such an ecological niche. Read More

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Diversity of dimethylsulfide-degrading methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in anoxic sediments along the Medway Estuary, UK.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas but the microbial diversity mediating methylotrophic methanogenesis is not well-characterized. One overlooked route to methane is via the degradation of dimethylsulfide (DMS), an abundant organosulfur compound in the environment. Methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can degrade DMS in anoxic sediments depending on sulfate availability. Read More

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Chromosome-level genome assembly of a regenerable maize inbred line A188.

Genome Biol 2021 Jun 9;22(1):175. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, 4024 Throckmorton Center, Manhattan, KS, 66506-5502, USA.

Background: The maize inbred line A188 is an attractive model for elucidation of gene function and improvement due to its high embryogenic capacity and many contrasting traits to the first maize reference genome, B73, and other elite lines. The lack of a genome assembly of A188 limits its use as a model for functional studies.

Results: Here, we present a chromosome-level genome assembly of A188 using long reads and optical maps. Read More

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Genome-wide analysis of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in two contrasting soybean genotypes subjected to phosphate starvation.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 9;22(1):433. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, College of Agronomy, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China.

Background: Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth and development, and low-phosphorus (LP) stress is a major factor limiting the growth and yield of soybean. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been reported to be key regulators in the responses of plants to stress conditions, but the mechanism through which LP stress mediates the biogenesis of lncRNAs in soybean remains unclear.

Results: In this study, to explore the response mechanisms of lncRNAs to LP stress, we used the roots of two representative soybean genotypes that present opposite responses to P deficiency, namely, a P-sensitive genotype (Bogao) and a P-tolerant genotype (NN94156), for the construction of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) libraries. Read More

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Conspicuous animal signals avoid the cost of predation by being intermittent or novel: confirmation in the wild using hundreds of robotic prey.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jun 9;288(1952):20210706. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Social animals are expected to face a trade-off between producing a signal that is detectible by mates and rivals, but not obvious to predators. This trade-off is fundamental for understanding the design of many animal signals, and is often the lens through which the evolution of alternative communication strategies is viewed. We have a reasonable working knowledge of how conspecifics detect signals under different conditions, but how predators exploit conspicuous communication of prey is complex and hard to predict. Read More

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Metabolic and biotransformation effects on dietary glucosinolates, their bioavailability, catabolism and biological effects in different organisms.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Jun 5:107784. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Chemistry Department, School of Sciences & Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Glucosinolate-producing plants have long been recognized for both their distinctive benefits to human nutrition and their resistance traits against pathogens and herbivores. Despite the accumulation of glucosinolates (GLS) in plants is associated with their resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, the defensive and biological activities of GLS are commonly conveyed by their metabolic products. In view of this, metabolism is considered the driving factor upon the interactions of GLS-producing plants with other organisms, also influenced by plant and plant attacking or digesting organism characteristics. Read More

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The stressed bird in the hand: Influence of sampling design on the physiological stress response in a free-living songbird.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jun 10;238:113488. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Despite the widely used application of standardized capture-handling protocols to collect blood and assess the physiological stress response, the actual sampling design (e.g., timing and the number of blood samples) often differs between studies, and the potential implications for the measured physiological endpoints remain understudied. Read More

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Dynamic Stark Effect in Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy Revealing Modulation of Ultrafast Charge Separation in Bacterial Reaction Centers by an Inherent Electric Field.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 7;12(23):5526-5533. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Despite extensive study, mysteries remain regarding the highly efficient ultrafast charge separation processes in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs). In this work, transient Stark signals were found to be present in ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectra recorded for purple bacterial RCs at 77 K. These arose from the electric field that is inherent to the intradimer charge-transfer intermediate of the bacteriochlorophyll pair (P), PP. Read More

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High resolution RNA-seq profiling of genes encoding ribosomal proteins across different organs and developmental stages in .

Plant Direct 2021 May 27;5(5):e00320. Epub 2021 May 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Epigenetics Longhua Bioindustry and Innovation Research Institute College of Life Sciences and Oceanography Shenzhen University Shenzhen China.

In , each ribosomal protein (RP) is encoded by a small gene family consisting of two or more highly homologous paralogues, which results in ribosome heterogeneity. It is largely unknown that how genes from multiple member containing RP families are regulated at transcriptional level to accommodate the needs of different plant organs and developmental stages. In this study, we investigated the transcript accumulation profiles of RP genes and found that the expression levels of RP genes are varied dramatically in different organs and developmental stages. Read More

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Facial Emotion Recognition and Emotional Memory From the Ovarian-Hormone Perspective: A Systematic Review.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:641250. Epub 2021 May 20.

Experimental Psychology II and Biological Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.

Background: We review original papers on ovarian-hormone status in two areas of emotional processing: facial emotion recognition and emotional memory. Ovarian-hormone status is operationalized by the levels of the steroid sex hormones 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), fluctuating over the natural menstrual cycle and suppressed under oral contraceptive (OCs) use. We extend previous reviews addressing single areas of emotional processing. Read More

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Chickpea glutaredoxin () gene mitigates drought and salinity stress by modulating the physiological performance and antioxidant defense mechanisms.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 May 6;27(5):923-944. Epub 2021 May 6.

Plant Transgenic Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are short, cysteine-rich glutathione (GSH)-mediated oxidoreductases. In this study, a chickpea ( L.) [ ()] gene has been selected based on screening experiments with two contrasting varieties of chickpea, PUSA-362 (drought-tolerant) and ICC-1882 (drought-sensitive) under drought and salinity. Read More

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Integration of Dual Stress Transcriptomes and Major QTLs from a Pair of Genotypes Contrasting for Drought and Chronic Nitrogen Starvation Identifies Key Stress Responsive Genes in Rice.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Jun 5;14(1):49. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

ICAR-National Institute for Plant Biotechnology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi, 110012, India.

We report here the genome-wide changes resulting from low N (N-W+), low water (N+W-)) and dual stresses (N-W-) in root and shoot tissues of two rice genotypes, namely, IR 64 (IR64) and Nagina 22 (N22), and their association with the QTLs for nitrogen use efficiency. For all the root parameters, except for root length under N-W+, N22 performed better than IR64. Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid content were higher in IR64 under N+W+ treatment and N-W+ and N+W- stresses; however, under dual stress, N22 had higher chlorophyll b content. Read More

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Female reproductive mode shapes allometric scaling of male traits in livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae).

J Evol Biol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Reproductive mode is predicted to influence the form of sexual selection. The viviparity driven conflict hypothesis posits that a shift from lecithotrophic (yolk-nourished) to matrotrophic (mother-nourished or placental) viviparity drives a shift from pre-copulatory toward post-copulatory sexual selection. In lecithotrophic species, we predict that pre-copulatory sexual selection will manifest as males exhibiting a broad distribution of sizes, and small and large males exhibiting contrasting phenotypes (morphology and coloration); conversely, in matrotrophic species an emphasis on post-copulatory sexual selection will preclude these patterns. Read More

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Plant and soil nitrogen in oligotrophic boreal forest habitats with varying moss depths: does exclusion of large grazers matter?

Oecologia 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

The boreal forest consists of drier sunlit and moister-shaded habitats with varying moss abundance. Mosses control vascular plant-soil interactions, yet they all can also be altered by grazers. We determined how 2 decades of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) exclusion affect feather moss (Pleurozium schreberi) depth, and the accompanying soil N dynamics (total and dissolvable inorganic N, δN), plant foliar N, and stable isotopes (δN, δC) in two contrasting habitats of an oligotrophic Scots pine forest. Read More

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Temporal Changes of Virus-Like Particle Abundance and Metagenomic Comparison of Viral Communities in Cropland and Prairie Soils.

mSphere 2021 Jun 2:e0116020. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

University of Oklahoma, Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Norman, Oklahoma, USA.

During the last several decades, viruses have been increasingly recognized for their abundance, ubiquity, and important roles in different ecosystems. Despite known contributions to aquatic systems, few studies examine viral abundance and community structure over time in terrestrial ecosystems. The effects of land conversion and land management on soil microbes have been previously investigated, but their effects on virus population are not well studied. Read More

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Spatiotemporal patterns of anuran functional diversity in temperate montane forests.

Zool Res 2021 Jul;42(4):412-416

CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization & Ecological Restoration Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

Functional diversity is an integrative approach to better understand biodiversity across space and time. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns (i.e. Read More

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Successful Use of Geochemical Tools to Trace the Geographic Origin of Long-Snouted Seahorse Raised in Captivity.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 25;11(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

ECOMARE, CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Santiago University Campus, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

The global market of dried seahorses mainly supplies Traditional Chinese Medicine and still relies on blurry trade chains that often cover less sustainable practices targeting these pricey and endangered fish. As such, reliable tools that allow the enforcement of traceability, namely to confirm the geographic origin of traded seahorses, are urgently needed. The present study evaluated the use of elemental fingerprints (EF) in the bony structures of long-snouted seahorses raised in captivity in two different locations (southern Portugal and Northern Spain) to discriminate their geographic origin. Read More

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Intra-Colonial Viral Infections in Western Honey Bees ().

Microorganisms 2021 May 18;9(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Abeilles et Environnement, INRAE, 84000 Avignon, France.

RNA viruses play a significant role in the current high losses of pollinators. Although many studies have focused on the epidemiology of western honey bee () viruses at the colony level, the dynamics of virus infection within colonies remains poorly explored. In this study, the two main variants of the ubiquitous honey bee virus DWV as well as three major honey bee viruses (SBV, ABPV and BQCV) were analyzed from -parasitized pupae. Read More

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Genome-Wide Analysis of nsLTP Gene Family and Identification of Contributing to High Oil Accumulation in Sesame ( L.).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 18;22(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China.

The biosynthesis and storage of lipids in oil crop seeds involve many gene families, such as nonspecific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs). nsLTPs are cysteine-rich small basic proteins essential for plant development and survival. However, in sesame, information related to nsLTPs was limited. Read More

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Karyotype Evolution and Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNAs in the Saffron Finch, (Passeriformes, Aves).

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 19;11(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ, UK.

The Saffron finch (), a semi-domestic species, is tolerant of human proximity and nesting in roof spaces. Considering the importance of cytogenomic approaches in revealing different aspects of genomic organization and evolution, we provide detailed cytogenetic data for . , including the standard Giemsa karyotype, C- and G-banding, repetitive DNA mapping, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) FISH. Read More

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A Heterozygous Genotype-Dependent Branched-Spike Wheat and the Potential Genetic Mechanism Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing.

Biology (Basel) 2021 May 14;10(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Collaborative Innovation of Modern Crops and Food Crops in Jiangsu, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology, College of Agriculture, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

Wheat ( L.) spike architecture is an important trait associated with spike development and grain yield. Here, we report a naturally occurring wheat mutant with branched spikelets (BSL) from its wild-type YD-16, which has a normal spike trait and confers a moderate level of resistance to wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB). Read More

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Clinical Significance of Heme Oxygenase 1 in Tumor Progression.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 17;10(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Via L.B. Alberti 2, 16132 Genova, Italy.

Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) plays a key role in cell adaptation to stressors through the antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties of its metabolic products. For these reasons, in cancer cells, HO-1 can favor aggressiveness and resistance to therapies, leading to poor prognosis/outcome. Genetic polymorphisms of HO-1 promoter have been associated with an increased risk of cancer progression and a high degree of therapy failure. Read More

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