2,743 results match your criteria contrast thyrotropin

Fasting reduces the number of TRH immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of male rats, but not in mice.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Mar 18;752:135832. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofisica, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

During fasting or weight loss, the fall in leptin levels leads to suppression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and, consequently, inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. However, differently than rats, just few PVH neurons express the leptin receptor in mice. In the present study, male adult rats and mice were submitted to 48 -h fasting to evaluate the consequences on proTRH peptide expression at the PVH level. Read More

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Directed evolution of an enhanced POU reprogramming factor for cell fate engineering.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Transcription factor-driven cell fate engineering in pluripotency induction, transdifferentiation, and forward reprogramming require efficiency, speed, and maturity for widespread adoption and clinical translation. Here, we used Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc driven pluripotency reprogramming to evaluate methods for enhancing and tailoring cell fate transitions, through directed evolution with iterative screening of pooled mutant libraries and phenotypic selection. We identified an artificially evolved and enhanced POU factor (ePOU) that substantially outperforms wild-type Oct4 in terms of reprogramming speed and efficiency. Read More

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Imaging of Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca in the Intact Pituitary Gland of Transgenic Mice Expressing a Low Affinity Ca Indicator.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 16;11:615777. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Instituto de Biología y Genética Molecular (IBGM), Universidad de Valladolid y Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Valladolid, Spain.

The adenohypophysis contains five secretory cell types (somatotrophs, lactotrophs, thyrotrophs, corticotrophs, and gonadotrophs), each secreting a different hormone, and controlled by different hypothalamic releasing hormones (HRHs). Exocytic secretion is regulated by cytosolic Ca signals ([Ca]), which can be generated either by Ca entry through the plasma membrane and/or by Ca release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition, Ca entry signals can eventually be amplified by ER release calcium-induced calcium release (CICR). Read More

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February 2021

Potential Interaction Between SARS-CoV-2 and Thyroid: A Review.

Endocrinology 2021 03;162(3)

Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) produced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is sweeping the world in a very short time. Although much has been learned about the clinical course, prognostic inflammatory markers, and disease complications of COVID-19, the potential interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the thyroid is poorly understood. In contrast to SARS-CoV-1, limited available evidence indicates there is no pathological evidence of thyroid injury caused by SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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A Novel Long-Term Graves' Disease Animal Model Confirmed by Functional Thyrotropin Receptor Antibodies.

Eur Thyroid J 2020 Dec 23;9(Suppl 1):51-58. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

AdvanceCor GmbH, Martinsried, Germany.

Introduction: A novel long-term murine model for Graves' disease (GD) using repeated, long-term immunizations with recombinant adenovirus expressing the extracellular A-subunit of the human thyrotropin receptor (Ad-TSHR) was applied to evaluate the functional anti-TSHR-antibody (TSHR-Ab) profile.

Methods: BALB/c mice received 7 immunizations with either 10 plaque-forming units of Ad-TSHR or control Ad-GFP. Naïve (nonimmuized native) mice were also studied. Read More

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December 2020

No Longterm Severe Thyroid Dysfunction Seen In Patients With Preexisting Reduced Serum Tt3 Concentrations After A Single Large Dose Of Iodinated Contrast.

Endocr Pract 2020 Aug;26(8):840-845

From the Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Tianjin Chest Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University and Nankai University, the Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Objective: After an intravenous bolus injection of 100 mL of iodinated contrast agent (370 mgI/mL), the amount of iodine atoms entering the blood is tens of thousands of times the daily dose of iodine recommended by the World Health Organization. However, the effect of iodinated contrast in patients with nonthyroidal illness, manifested as reduced serum total triiodothyronine (TT3) concentrations, is unclear. We studied the effect of iodinated contrast on thyroid function and auto-antibodies in patients with reduced TT3 after diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease. Read More

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Opposing effects of thyroid hormones on cancer risk: a population-based study.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Mar;184(3):481-490

Translational Oncology Laboratory, Meir Medical Center, Kfar-Saba, Israel.

Objective: The association between dysregulated thyroid hormone function and cancer risk is inconclusive, especially among different age groups and uncommon malignancies. We sought to determine the relation of TSH and free T4 levels with overall cancer risk as well as risk of specific cancer types.

Design And Methods: Data on thyroid hormone profile was collected from 375 635 Israeli patients with no prior history of cancer. Read More

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A review of species differences in the control of, and response to, chemical-induced thyroid hormone perturbations leading to thyroid cancer.

Arch Toxicol 2021 03 5;95(3):807-836. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

BASF SE, APD/ET-Li 444, Speyerer Str. 2, 67117, Limburgerhof, Germany.

This review summarises the current state of knowledge regarding the physiology and control of production of thyroid hormones, the effects of chemicals in perturbing their synthesis and release that result in thyroid cancer. It does not consider the potential neurodevelopmental consequences of low thyroid hormones. There are a number of known molecular initiating events (MIEs) that affect thyroid hormone synthesis in mammals and many chemicals are able to activate multiple MIEs simultaneously. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and thyroid hormone dynamics of thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas at a single institution.

Endocrine 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Endovascular Therapy, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.

Purpose: Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSPA) are extremely rare pituitary adenomas; their perioperative thyroid hormone dynamics have not been completely elucidated. Here, we investigated the clinical characteristics, perioperative findings, and thyroid hormone dynamics of TSPA at a single institution.

Methods: We enrolled 11 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for TSPA during 2005-2019 at Hiroshima University Hospital (TSPA group) and 24 patients who underwent TSS for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) in 2019 (NFPA group; for comparison). Read More

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December 2020

Reevaluation of the Effect of Iodine on Thyroid Cell Survival and Function Using PCCL3 and Nthy-ori 3-1 Cells.

J Endocr Soc 2020 Nov 28;4(11):bvaa146. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

The appropriate amount of iodine is critical for normal function of thyroid cells synthesizing thyroid hormones. Although normal thyroid cell lines such as rat PCCL3 and FRTL5 and human Nthy-ori 3-1 have been widely used for in vitro studies on physiological and pathophysiological effects of iodine on thyroid cells, we have recently pointed out the critical differences between FRTL5/PCCL3 cells and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells. Therefore, we here directly compared some of the cellular characteristics-iodine uptake, differentiated status, iodine-induced cytotoxicity, and iodine-regulation of autophagy-between PCCL3 and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells. Read More

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November 2020

Thyrotropin regulation of differentiated gene transcription in adult human thyrocytes in primary culture.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 12 14;518:111032. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Thyroid transcription factors (TTFs) - NKX2-1, FOXE1, PAX8 and HHEX - regulate multiple genes involved in thyroid development in mice but little is known about TTF regulation of thyroid-specific genes - thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), deiodinase type 2 (DIO2), sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and TSH receptor (TSHR) - in adult, human thyrocytes. Thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) regulation of thyroid-specific gene expression in primary cultures of human thyrocytes is biphasic yielding an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve (IUDRC) with upregulation at low doses and decreases at high doses. Herein we show that NKX2-1, FOXE1 and PAX8 are required for TSH-induced upregulation of the mRNA levels of TG, TPO, DIO2, NIS, and TSHR whereas HHEX has little effect on the levels of these thyroid-specific gene mRNAs. Read More

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December 2020

MRI Findings of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Hypophysitis: Possible Association with Fibrosis.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 09 6;41(9):1683-1689. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

From the Department of Radiology (R.K., W.G., E.M., S.A., Y.U., O.A.), Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Purpose: Hypophysitis is one of the well-known adverse effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced hypophysitis frequently causes irreversible hypopituitarism, which requires long-term hormone replacement. Despite the high frequency and clinical significance, characteristic MR imaging findings of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced hypophysitis have not been established. Read More

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September 2020

Hormonal Regulation of Autophagy in Thyroid PCCL3 Cells and the Thyroids of Male Mice.

J Endocr Soc 2020 Jul 15;4(7):bvaa054. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process by which cells degrade intracellular proteins and organelles in the lysosomes and recycle their metabolites. We have recently demonstrated the crucial role for the basal level of autophagic activity in thyrocyte survival and homeostasis using the thyroid-specific autophagy knockout mice. Here, we first studied hormonal regulation of autophagy in thyrocytes in vitro using a rat thyroid cell line PCCl3 and in vivo with mice. Read More

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The intramolecular agonist is obligate for activation of glycoprotein hormone receptors.

FASEB J 2020 08 10;34(8):11243-11256. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Rudolf Schönheimer Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

In contrast to most rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, the glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHR) have a large extracellular N-terminus for hormone binding. The hormones do not directly activate the transmembrane domain but mediate their action via a, thus, far only partially known Tethered Agonistic LIgand (TALI). The existence of such an intramolecular agonist was initially indicated by site-directed mutation studies and activating peptides derived from the extracellular hinge region. Read More

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Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of cancer incidence and cancer mortality: a systematic review.

BMC Endocr Disord 2020 Jun 9;20(1):83. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Côte Sainte-Catherine, H-425, Montreal, Quebec, H3T 1E2, Canada.

Background: Thyroid hormone has been shown to be involved in carcinogenesis via its effects on cell proliferation pathways. The objective of this study is to determine the association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and the risk of incident cancer and cancer mortality via systematic review.

Methods: A systematic search was performed on Medline and Pubmed to identify relevant studies. Read More

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Nanomagnetic lateral flow assay for high-precision quantification of diagnostically relevant concentrations of serum TSH.

Talanta 2020 Aug 4;216:120961. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov St, 119991, Moscow, Russia; National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31 Kashirskoe shosse, 115409, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is the first-line marker for initial evaluation of the thyroid gland function. We present a lateral flow immunoassay based on superparamagnetic nanolabels for rapid (<25 min) quantitative determination of TSH at a point of care. The demonstrated limit of detection (LOD) of 0. Read More

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TSH Receptor Homodimerization in Regulation of cAMP Production in Human Thyrocytes .

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 30;11:276. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, United States.

Thyrotropin hormone (TSH) was reported to exhibit biphasic regulation of cAMP production in human thyroid slices; specifically, upregulation at low TSH doses transitioning to inhibition at high doses. We observed this phenomenon in HEK293 cells overexpressing TSH receptors (TSHRs) but in only 25% of human thyrocytes (hThyros) . Because TSHR expression in hThyros was low, we tested the hypothesis that high, levels of TSHRs were needed for biphasic cAMP regulation. Read More

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[Significance of Dynamic Risk Assessment in the Follow-up of Non-distant Metastatic Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients with Intermediate and High Risk].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2020 Apr;42(2):222-227

Department of Nuclear Medicine,PUMC Hospital,CAMS and PUMC,Beijing 100730,China.

To tailor the subsequent treatment and follow-up strategy,this study dynamically assessed the response to initial therapy in non-distant metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with intermediate and high risk. A total of 184 non-distant metastatic DTC patients (intermediate-risk 111 cases and high-risk 73 cases) were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Based on the results of initial response assessment (6-12 months after initial therapy),patients were divided into two groups:excellent response (ER) group (=113) and non-excellent response (non-ER) group (=71). Read More

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[Thyroid hormone therapy in old age].

K A Iwen G Brabant

Internist (Berl) 2020 Jun;61(6):541-548

School of Medical Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, Großbritannien.

Background: There is evidence that the treatment of overt hyperthyroidism with thyroid hormones is able to reduce mortality as well as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal morbidity. It remains unclear whether these data can be extrapolated to the mildest form of hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether and to what extent the threshold for therapeutic intervention needs to be modified in the elderly, in whom hypothalamo-pituitary regulation is increasingly insensitive to the negative feedback by thyroid hormones and the patients' response to thyroid hormones changes. Read More

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Differential activating effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and its analog taltirelin on motor output to the tongue musculature in vivo.

Sleep 2020 09;43(9)

Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is produced by the hypothalamus but most brain TRH is located elsewhere where it acts as a neuromodulator. TRH-positive neurons project to the hypoglossal motoneuron pool where TRH receptor RNA shows a high degree of differential expression compared with the rest of the brain. Strategies to modulate hypoglossal motor activity are of physiological and clinical interest given the potential for pharmacotherapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common and serious respiratory disorder. Read More

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September 2020

A Direct Comparison of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Protein Levels in Mice Provides Unexpected Insights into Thyroid Hormone Action.

Thyroid 2020 08 6;30(8):1193-1204. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.

Thyroid hormone (TH) action is mediated by three major thyroid hormone receptor (THR) isoforms α1, β1, and β2 (THRA1, THRB1, and THRB2). These THRs and a fourth major but non-TH binding isoform, THRA2, are encoded by two genes and . Reliable antibodies against all THR isoforms are not available, and THR isoform protein levels in mammalian tissues are often inferred from messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Read More

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Slit2 May Underlie Divergent Induction by Thyrotropin of IL-23 and IL-12 in Human Fibrocytes.

J Immunol 2020 04 21;204(7):1724-1735. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105; and

IL-23 and IL-12, two structurally related heterodimeric cytokines sharing a common subunit, divergently promote Th cell development and expansion. Both cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), an autoimmune component of Graves disease. In TAO, CD34 fibrocytes, putatively derived from bone marrow, can be identified in the orbit. Read More

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Prospective Trial of Functional Thyrotropin Receptor Antibodies in Graves Disease.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 04;105(4)

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, Missouri.

Context: Scarce data exist regarding the relevance of stimulatory (TSAb) and blocking (TBAb) thyrotropin receptor antibodies in the management of Graves disease (GD).

Objective: To evaluate the clinical utility and predictive value of TSAb/TBAb.

Design: Prospective 2-year trial. Read More

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Routine free thyroxine reference intervals are suboptimal for monitoring children on thyroxine replacement therapy and target intervals need to be assay-specific.

Sci Rep 2019 12 13;9(1):19080. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology and Diabetes, Monash Children's Hospital, Clayton, Australia.

Central hypothyroidism is a condition where there is (qualitatively or quantitatively) TSH deficiency, leading to reduced thyroid hormone production. In such patients, serum TSH does not accurately reflect the adequacy of thyroxine replacement, as the log-linear relationship between thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) is lost. We aimed to prospectively determine the optimal physiological FT4 treatment range for children treated for primary hypothyroidism, based on their serum TSH concentrations. Read More

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December 2019

Thyrotropin, but Not Thyroid-Stimulating Antibodies, Induces Biphasic Regulation of Gene Expression in Human Thyrocytes.

Thyroid 2020 02 28;30(2):270-276. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) activate TSH receptor (TSHR) signaling by binding to its extracellular domain. TSHR signaling has been studied extensively in animal thyrocytes and in engineered cell lines, and differences in signaling have been observed in different cell systems. We, therefore, decided to characterize and compare TSHR signaling mediated by TSH and monoclonal TSAbs in human thyrocytes in primary culture. Read More

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February 2020

The effect of thyroid functions on contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention.

J Pak Med Assoc 2019 10;69(10):1453-1458

Department of Cardiology Postgraduate Hospital, Bursa, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate the effects of thyroidism on the development of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods: The prospective, observational study was conducted at Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Edirne, Turkey, from October 1, 2016, to October 1, 201 7, and comprised patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and euthyroid patients. Thyroid and renal functions were evaluated from blood samples taken before the procedure. Read More

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October 2019

Age effect on thyroid hormone brain response in male mice.

Endocrine 2019 12 7;66(3):596-606. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45122, Essen, Germany.

Purpose: Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for brain development and central nervous system (CNS) function. Disturbances of thyroid function occur with higher prevalence in the ageing population and may negatively impact brain function.

Methods: We investigated the age impact on behavior in young adult and old male mice (5 vs. Read More

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December 2019

Pituitary apoplexy after cardiac surgery in a 14-year-old girl with Carney complex: a case report.

Endocr J 2019 Dec 4;66(12):1117-1123. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

A 14-year-old girl was referred to our department because of headache and visual impairment following the resection of recurrent cardiac myxoma. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan detected an intra- and supra-sellar tumor. Moreover, the patient showed the presence of spotty skin pigmentations on her cheeks and lower lip. Read More

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December 2019

Perfluoroalkyl acids and thyroid hormones across stages of kidney function.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Dec 19;696:133994. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

West Virginia University School of Public Health, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Data for US adults aged ≥20 years for 2007-2012 (N = 7020) were used to study concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free (FT3) and total triiodothyronine (TT3), free (FT4) total thyroxine (TT4), and thyroglobulin (TGN) across stages of glomerular function (GF). Data for 2007-2008 and 2011-2012 (N = 2549) were used to study associations between thyroid hormone biomarkers and five serum perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). We report how thyroid hormone biomarkers vary in human serum across stages of GF. Read More

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December 2019

How can the occurrence of delayed elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone in preterm infants born between 35 and 36 weeks gestation be predicted?

PLoS One 2019 23;14(8):e0220240. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: We evaluated frequency and risk factors of delayed TSH elevation (dTSH) and investigated follow-up outcomes in the dTSH group with venous TSH (v-TSH) levels of 6-20 mU/L according to whether late preterm infants born at gestational age (GA) 35-36 weeks had risk factors.

Methods: The medical records of 810 neonates (414 boys) born at Seoul National University Hospital who had a normal neonatal screening test (NST) and underwent the first repeat venous blood test at 10-21 days post birth were reviewed.

Results: Seventy-three (9. Read More

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February 2020