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Recent progress on the mutations of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and suggestions for prevention and controlling of the pandemic.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jun 17;93:104971. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

College of Animal Sciences, Key Lab for Zoonoses Research, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 5333 Xi' An Road, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a global pandemic in the past year, which poses continuing threat to human beings. To date, more than 3561 mutations in the viral spike protein were identified, including 2434 mutations that cause amino acid changes with 343 amino acids located in the viral receptor-binding domain (RBD). Among these mutations, the most representative ones are substitution mutations such as D614G, N501Y, Y453F, N439K/R, P681H, K417N/T, and E484K, and deletion mutations of ΔH69/V70 and Δ242-244, which confer the virus with enhanced infectivity, transmissibility, and resistance to neutralization. Read More

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Epidemiology of Brucellosis in California, 1993 - 2017: A Continuing Foodborne Disease Risk for Older Latinos.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Infectious Diseases Branch, Center for Infectious Diseases, California Department of Public Health, USA.

Background: Brucellosis is a severe, occupational or foodborne zoonosis throughout much of the world. Although eradicated from domestic cattle in the United States, brucellosis remains a disease risk to people through acquisition and consumption of animal products from endemic countries.

Methods: Cases of human brucellosis reported through the California public health disease surveillance network were reviewed for 1993 to 2017. Read More

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Novel corona virus (COVID-19); Global efforts and effective investigational medicines: A review.

J Infect Public Health 2021 May 1;14(7):910-921. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Chemistry, Hindu College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007,India.

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), associated with the outbreak of deadly virus originating in Wuhan, China, is now a global health emergency and a matter of serious concern. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading worldwide, and WHO declared the outbreak of this disease a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Though some of the countries have succeeded in slowing down the rate of the spread of this pandemic, most the countries across the globe are still continuing to experience an increasing trend in the growth and spread of this deadly disease. Read More

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Development of a reverse transcription droplet digital PCR assay for sensitive detection of peach latent mosaic viroid.

Mol Cell Probes 2021 Jun 5;58:101746. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Applied Biology, Institute of Environmentally Friendly Agriculture, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61185, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) represents a continuing threat to peach tree production worldwide. In this study, a sensitive and accurate quantification of PLMVd in peach leaves was established using a reverse transcription droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-ddPCR) assay. The quantitative linearity, accuracy, and sensitivity of RT-ddPCR for the detection of PLMVd were comparatively assessed to those of reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Read More

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Clinical Ecopsychology: The Mental Health Impacts and Underlying Pathways of the Climate and Environmental Crisis.

Front Psychiatry 2021 21;12:675936. Epub 2021 May 21.

Psychopathology and Clinical Intervention, Institute of Psychology, University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Humankind is confronted with progressing climate change, pollution, environmental degradation, and/or destruction of the air, soil, water, and ecosystems. The climate and environmental crisis is probably one of the greatest challenges in the history of humankind. It not only poses a serious current and continuing threat to physical health, but is also an existing and growing hazard to the mental health of millions of people worldwide. Read More

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Coupling high-resolution coral bleaching modeling with management practices to identify areas for conservation in a warming climate: Keramashoto National Park (Okinawa Prefecture, Japan).

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;790:148094. Epub 2021 May 29.

Nature Conservation Bureau, Ministry of the Environment, Godochosha No. 5, Kasumigaseki 1-2-2, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8975, Japan.

Increases in sea-surface temperature due to global warming are a major threat to tropical and subtropical corals as exposure to high water temperatures is the primary cause of coral bleaching. To continue receiving high ecosystem services from coral reef ecosystems in the future, it is important to predict the growth conditions of corals and take appropriate countermeasures to protect them at both global and local scales. The Kerama Islands (part of the Nansei Islands, Japan) were selected as the study area. Read More

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Feasibility and usefulness of online virtual training of urology residents in times of COVID-19: A single-center experience and an evidence-based strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat analysis.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 31;10:116. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Background: The COVID-19 disease has resulted in an almost complete shutdown of all services worldwide. Hospitals continued to provide emergency services and treatment for COVID-19 disease. Teaching hospitals like ours had another responsibility at hand; training of our surgical residents. Read More

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Thoughts on African Swine Fever Vaccines.

Authors:
Daniel L Rock

Viruses 2021 May 20;13(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease of domestic swine with mortality rates approaching 100%. Devastating ASF outbreaks and continuing epidemics starting in the Caucasus region and now in the Russian Federation, Europe, China, and other parts of Southeast Asia (2007 to date) highlight its significance. ASF strain Georgia-07 and its derivatives are now endemic in extensive regions of Europe and Asia and are "out of Africa" forever, a situation that poses a grave if not an existential threat to the swine industry worldwide. Read More

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Triazolopyrimidine Nuclei: Privileged Scaffolds for Developing Antiviral Agents with a Proper Pharmacokinetic Profile.

Curr Med Chem 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy.

Viruses are a continuing threat to global health. The lack or limited therapeutic armamentarium against some viral infections and increasing drug resistance issues make the search for new antiviral agents urgent. In recent years, a growing literature highlighted the use of triazolopyrimidine (TZP) heterocycles in the development of antiviral agents, with numerous compounds that showed potent antiviral activities against different RNA and DNA viruses. Read More

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Factors Associated With Adherence to COVID-19 Preventive Measures Among Saudi Arabians.

Cureus 2021 Apr 22;13(4):e14623. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, SAU.

Background A recent outbreak of COVID-19 which was initially reported in Wuhan City, China, has become a worldwide pandemic. This global public health threat drew the attention of the medical and scientific community to make the necessary research efforts to combat the spread of the virus. Predictors of preventive behaviors could be of considerable importance relevant to identifying high-risk groups to manage their behavior. Read More

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Elucidating reasons of COVID-19 re-infection and its management strategies.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 May-Jun;15(3):1001-1006. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, 110076, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Reinfection is gradually being recognised after symptomatic or asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. We try to elucidate various explanations behind COVID-19 reinfection and suggest possible strategies to counteract this threat.

Methods: We carried out a comprehensive review of the literature using suitable keywords such as 'COVID-19', 'Pandemics', 'Reinfection', 'Vaccines' and 'India' on the search engines of PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and Research Gate in March 2021 and first half of April 2021 during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Pretreatment HIV Drug-resistance Surveillance as a Tool for Monitoring and Control of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Cuba.

MEDICC Rev 2021 04 30;23(2):64. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

AIDS Research Laboratory (LISIDA), San José de las Lajas, Cuba.

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is an ongoing threat to public health. Its elimination requires greater efforts to broaden antiretroviral treatment coverage, availability and personalization. HIV drug resistance is currently a global problem due to its continuing increase in recent years, undermining efficacy of antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, United States

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to be a global threat since its emergence. Although several COVID-19 vaccines have become available, the prospective timeframe for achieving effective levels of vaccination across global populations remains uncertain. Moreover, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants presents continuing potential challenges for future vaccination planning. Read More

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Evaluating the Indonesia Free Movement: Understanding continuing use of restraint of the mentally ill in rural Java.

Transcult Psychiatry 2021 May 9:13634615211009626. Epub 2021 May 9.

Center for Public Mental Health, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Forcible restraint and confinement of persons suffering from mental illness occurs throughout the world, including in Indonesia. Since 2010, when (GBP) or the () movement was launched, national policy has been published to eradicate in Indonesia by improving the mental healthcare system. This article analyses this policy, specifically the National Mental Health Legislation (2014) and the Ministry of Health Regulation (2017), and evaluates their current state of implementation through a local, in-depth case study. Read More

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Ganoderma boninense Disease Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Classification: A Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800, Thailand.

Ganoderma boninense (G. boninense) infection reduces the productivity of oil palms and causes a serious threat to the palm oil industry. This catastrophic disease ultimately destroys the basal tissues of oil palm, causing the eventual death of the palm. Read More

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Alcohol marketing versus public health: David and Goliath?

Global Health 2021 Apr 12;17(1):45. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Seebohm Rowntree Building, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK.

Background: Alcohol harms are rising globally, and alcohol policies, where they exist, are weak or under-developed. Limited progress has been made since the formulation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Strategy in 2010. WHO is seeking to accelerate progress in implementing international efforts to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. Read More

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World AIDS Day 2020: Reflections on global and South African progress and continuing challenges.

South Afr J HIV Med 2021 10;22(1):1205. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Reflecting on progress and challenges in meeting global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets is often done ahead of World AIDS Day. This article reflects on progress and the continuing challenges in meeting targets in South Africa (SA).

Objective: To review policy and implementation related progress and continuing challenges towards eliminating HIV as a public health threat by 2030. Read More

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Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Host miRNAs Correlated with Immune Gene Dysregulation during Fatal Disease Progression in the Ebola Virus Cynomolgus Macaque Disease Model.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 23;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Diagnostic Systems Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft. Detrick, MD 21702, USA.

Ebola virus is a continuing threat to human populations, causing a virulent hemorrhagic fever disease characterized by dysregulation of both the innate and adaptive host immune responses. Severe cases are distinguished by an early, elevated pro-inflammatory response followed by a pronounced lymphopenia with B and T cells unable to mount an effective anti-viral response. The precise mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of the host immune system are poorly understood. Read More

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COVID-19 Is Not the Flu: Four Graphs From Four Countries.

Front Public Health 2021 10;9:628479. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Montreal Behavioral Medicine Centre, Centre integrée universitaire de santé et services sociaux du Nord de l'Ile de Montréal (CIUSSS-NIM), Montreal, QC, Canada.

COVID-19 has caused a global public health emergency. Government mitigation strategies included a series of behavior-based prevention policies that had a likely impact on the spread of other contagious respiratory illnesses, such as seasonal influenza. Our aim was to explore how 2019-2020 influenza tracked onto COVID-19 pandemic and its mitigation methods. Read More

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Successful maintenance of process and outcomes for oesophageal cancer surgery in Ireland during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Ir J Med Sci 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Trinity St. James's Cancer Institute, Dublin, Ireland.

Introduction: The emergence of the novel coronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the coronavirus disease COVID-19 has impacted enormously on non-COVID-19-related hospital care. Curtailment of intensive care unit (ICU) access threatens complex surgery, particularly impacting on outcomes for time-sensitive cancer surgery. Oesophageal cancer surgery is a good example. Read More

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Decade of progress in motor functional neurological disorder: continuing the momentum.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Psychiatry and Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a prevalent, disabling and costly condition at the neurology-psychiatry intersection. After being marginalised in the late 20th century, there has been renewed interest in this field. In this article, we review advances that have occurred over the past decade (2011-2020) across diagnosis, mechanisms, aetiologies, treatments and stigma in patients with motor FND (mFND, that is, functional movement disorder and functional limb weakness). Read More

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Rapid Identification of Plasmid Replicon Type and Coexisting Plasmid-Borne Antimicrobial Resistance Genes by S1-Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis-Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2021 May 4;18(5):298-305. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Bacterial drug resistance is a significant food safety problem and public health threat. Plasmids carrying drug resistance genes may result in the rapid spread of resistance among different bacteria, hosts, and environments; therefore, antibiotic resistance monitoring and continuing research into the mechanisms of drug resistance are urgently needed. Southern blotting with probes for antibiotic resistance genes and even next-generation sequencing have been used previously to detect plasmid-borne resistance genes, but these approaches are complex and time-consuming. Read More

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Adolescent noncompliance with age-specific versus universal US motorcycle helmet laws: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Safety Res 2021 02 2;76:166-175. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Lyles School of Civil Engineering and Department of Agricultural & Biological Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Dr, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2093, USA.

Introduction: The U.S. experience with motorcycle helmets affords an important insight into the responses of adolescents to age-specific laws. Read More

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February 2021

Novel and Evolving Therapies for COVID-19 Related Pulmonary Complications.

Am J Med Sci 2021 05 25;361(5):557-566. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune - 38, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address:

Coronaviruses disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the most crucial threat, the world has ever witnessed. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of this disease pandemic. The World Health Organization has confirmed the continuing epidemic as a worldwide public health crisis. Read More

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Toward genetic modification of plant-parasitic nematodes: delivery of macromolecules to adults and expression of exogenous mRNA in second stage juveniles.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Feb;11(2)

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK.

Plant-parasitic nematodes are a continuing threat to food security, causing an estimated 100 billion USD in crop losses each year. The most problematic are the obligate sedentary endoparasites (primarily root knot nematodes and cyst nematodes). Progress in understanding their biology is held back by a lack of tools for functional genetics: forward genetics is largely restricted to studies of natural variation in populations and reverse genetics is entirely reliant on RNA interference. Read More

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February 2021

Getting in Front of Chronic Wasting Disease: Model-Informed Proactive Approach for Managing an Emerging Wildlife Disease.

Front Vet Sci 2020 6;7:608235. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Biosciences, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Continuing geographic spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) poses a serious threat to the sustainable future of cervids and hunting in North America. Moreover, CWD has been detected in captive cervids in South Korea and, in recent years, in free-ranging reindeer in Europe (Norway). Management of this disease is limited by logistical, financial, and sociopolitical considerations, and current strategies primarily focus on reducing host densities through hunter harvest and targeted culling. Read More

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January 2021

Optimisation and application of a forensic microsatellite panel to combat Greater-one horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) poaching in India.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2021 May 27;52:102472. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Wildlife Institute of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248001, India. Electronic address:

The Greater one-horned (GoH) rhinoceros is one of the most charismatic endemic megaherbivores of the Indian subcontinent. Threatened by poaching, habitat loss and disease, the species is found only in small areas of its historical distribution. Increasing demands for rhino horns in chinese traditional medicine has put the existing population under continuing threat, and large profits and low conviction rates make poaching difficult to contain. Read More

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Old enemy, new threat: you can't solve today's problems with yesterday's solution.

Authors:
Madan M Rehani

J Radiol Prot 2021 06 1;41(2). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, 175 Cambridge Str., Suite 244, Boston, MA, United States of America.

The radiation protection principles of justification, optimization, and dose limitation as enumerated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection have been guiding light for the profession for over three decades. The dose limitation does not apply to medical exposure but keeping patients' doses low is achieved through optimization, particularly by developing and using diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). There are new findings that demonstrate that despite using the best possible approaches to justification and optimization including as well use of DRLs, a very large number of patients are receiving doses in excess of 100 mSv of effective dose or organ doses exceeding 100 mGy. Read More

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A Community Orthopaedic Residency Approach to Education and Training During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2021 01 12;5(1). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

From the Baylor Scott & White, University Medical Center, Dallas, TX (Dr. Oguayo, Dr. Chu, and Dr. Jones); and Orthopedic Associates of Dallas, Dallas, TX (Dr. Oguayo, Dr. Chu, and Dr. Jones).

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly affected all facets of everyday life including the practice of medicine. Hospital systems and medical practices have evolved to protect patients, physicians, and staff and conserve personal protective equipment and resources. Orthopaedic practices have been specifically affected by social distancing and stay at home guidelines, limiting in-office practice and elective surgery restrictions. Read More

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January 2021

Return of the Neurotropic Enteroviruses: Co-Opting Cellular Pathways for Infection.

Viruses 2021 01 22;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Enteroviruses are among the most common human infectious agents. While infections are often mild, the severe neuropathogenesis associated with recent outbreaks of emerging non-polio enteroviruses, such as EV-A71 and EV-D68, highlights their continuing threat to public health. In recent years, our understanding of how non-polio enteroviruses co-opt cellular pathways has greatly increased, revealing intricate host-virus relationships. Read More

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January 2021