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Tansley Review No. 36 Excited leaves.

Authors:
David Walker

New Phytol 1992 Jul;121(3):325-345

Robert Hill Institute, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

Photosynthesis is largely to do with energy transduction; the conversion of light energy into electrical energy into chemical energy. Precisely how much light energy is needed to bring about the reduction of one molecule of carbon dioxide and the release of one molecule of oxygen (the quantum requirement) is a matter of fundamental importance and one which has attracted much past controversy. This article concludes that a minimum quantum requirement of eight, as demanded by the Z-scheme, is obviously consistent with much contemporary work which puts the measured value for C leaves close to nine. Read More

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CD169+ Subcapsular Macrophage Role in Antigen Adjuvant Activity.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:624197. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States.

Vaccines have played a pivotal role in improving public health, however, many infectious diseases lack an effective vaccine. Controlling the spread of infectious diseases requires continuing studies to develop new and improved vaccines. Our laboratory has been investigating the immune enhancing mechanisms of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand-based adjuvants, including the TLR2 ligand Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein, PorB. Read More

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Blood Serum Cytokines in Patients with Subacute Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study to Search for Biomarkers of Injury Severity.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 4;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Clinical Research Center for Precision and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia.

. Despite considerable interest in the search for a spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy, there is a critical need to develop a panel of diagnostic biomarkers to determine injury severity. In this regard, there is a requirement for continuing research into the fundamental processes of neuroinflammatory and autoimmune reactions in SCI, identifying changes in the expression of cytokines. Read More

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The cardiology training needs of general practice-based pharmacists.

Int J Pharm Pract 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Pharmacy, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Clarkston Court, Glasgow, UK.

Objectives: As the role of the general practice clinical pharmacist (GPCP) evolves, there has been a shift towards patient-facing roles across multiple conditions. This study aimed to measure the self-reported cardiology training needs of GPCPs.

Methods: An online survey was developed. Read More

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February 2021

COVID-19: A catalyst for change in telehealth service delivery for opioid use disorder management.

Subst Abus 2021 Mar 8:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: COVID-19 has exacerbated income inequality, structural racism, and social isolation-issues that drive addiction and have previously manifested in the epidemic of opioid-associated overdose. The co-existence of these epidemics has necessitated care practice changes, including the use of telehealth-based encounters for the diagnosis and management of opioid use disorder (OUD).

Methods: We describe the development of the "Addiction Telehealth Program" (ATP), a telephone-based program to reduce treatment access barriers for people with substance use disorders staying at San Francisco's COVID-19 Isolation and Quarantine (I&Q) sites. Read More

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[The management of benign thyroid pathologies in medical radiation protection].

Authors:
Massimo Virgili

G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2020 Dec;42(4):281-291

Associazione italiana radioprotezione medica (AIRM - Roma).

Summary: The thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive human organs. There are two major unwanted consequences from radiation to the thyroid in humans: hypothyroidism and neoplasia. In the system of dose limitation medical surveillance undoubtedly acquires obligations with regard to early tumor diagnosis (secondary prevention). Read More

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December 2020

Prescriber and pharmacist attitudes toward inclusion of diagnosis or clinical indication on prescription orders.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Background: Pharmacy and medication safety organizations have long recommended that diagnosis or clinical indication be required on medication orders to improve the safety and effectiveness of care.

Objective: To assess attitudes of Arizona prescribers and pharmacists toward the inclusion of the clinical indication or the diagnosis on prescription orders and perceived barriers to its implementation in Arizona.

Methods: Data were obtained by questionnaires from pharmacists and primary care prescribers after a continuing pharmacy education presentation on the value of including a clinical indication or a diagnosis on prescription orders. Read More

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February 2021

Review of FDA Amendments Act Section 921 Experience in Posting Data-mining Results from the FAERS Database.

Clin Ther 2021 Feb 24;43(2):380-395. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Title IX, § 921 of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 requires the FDA to mine data on a regular basis, using its adverse events database, the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, to identify potential signals of serious risks/new safety information. This review of the FDA's quarterly web-posted results is the first to document the contributions of the program to maintaining the continued safe use of approved pharmaceutical drugs/biologics and the lessons that have emerged from this rich experience.

Methods: Details on proprietary prescription drugs/biologics, generic prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs were downloaded from the quarterly posts that begin in first quarter of 2008. Read More

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February 2021

[Right ventricular systolic dysfunction as a predictor of adverse outcome in patients with COVID-19].

Kardiologiia 2020 Dec 15;60(11):1303. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

«A.N. Bakulev National Medical Scientific Center for Cardiovascular Surgery», Moscow, Russia.

Aim To analyze survival of patients with COVID-19 based on echocardiographic (EchoCG) criteria for evaluation of the right ventricular (RV) systolic function.Material and methods Data of patients were retrospectively evaluated at the Center for Medical Care of Patients with Coronavirus Infection. Among 142 primarily evaluated patients with documented COVID-19, 110 patients (men/women, 63/47; mean age, 62. Read More

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December 2020

Maintenance of professional competence in Ireland: a national survey of doctors' attitudes and experiences.

BMJ Open 2020 12 10;10(12):e042183. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Medical Education Unit, National University of Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

Objectives: Programmes to ensure doctors' maintenance of professional competence (MPC) have been established in many countries. Since 2011, doctors in Ireland have been legally required to participate in MPC. A significant minority has been slow to engage with MPC, mirroring the contested nature of such programmes internationally. Read More

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December 2020

Avian Surveys in the Korean Inner Border Area, Gimpo, Republic of Korea.

Biodivers Data J 2020 6;8:e56219. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Hanns Seidel Foundation Korea, Seoul, South Korea Hanns Seidel Foundation Korea Seoul South Korea.

Background: Birds are useful environmental indicators as their presence reflects the health of the food web. Bird occurrence, rarity and abundance are reliable indicators of ecosystem health. Monitoring of avian populations in the Republic of Korea (ROK) is a primary requirement due to plummeting populations and the risks to threatened species. Read More

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November 2020

Video visits and access to care in pediatric rehabilitation therapies in the time of a pandemic.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2020;13(3):385-388

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Telemedicine has emerged as a vital tool for continuing to provide therapy to children with disabilities throughout the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. While video visits have certain advantages, such as the ability to see the children in their home, they also have potential drawbacks, as some exam maneuvers and objective measurement tools cannot be performed virtually. The increased utilization of telemedicine also raises questions about access to care. Read More

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December 2020

How vision and leadership shaped the U.S. National Cancer Institute's 50-year journey to advance the evidence base of cancer control and cancer care delivery research.

Health Policy Open 2020 Dec 13;1:100015. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Strategic Visions in Healthcare LLC, New York, NY, United States of America.

In 1971, Congress passed the National Cancer Act, landmark legislation that reorganized the National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute (NCI). The Act included a new focus on cancer control, including the requirement that the NCI award research grants and contracts, in collaboration with other public agencies and private industry, to conduct cancer control activities related to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cancer. The requirement placed the NCI at the nexus of a rapidly changing science and a complex and dynamic healthcare delivery system and involved an evolutionary transformation to advance cancer control and cancer care delivery research along the cancer care continuum. Read More

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December 2020

A Point-Based Risk Calculator Predicting Mortality in Patients That Developed Postoperative Sepsis.

J Intensive Care Med 2020 Oct 12:885066620960991. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: Predicting the mortality from post-operative sepsis remains a continuing problem. We built a statistical model using national data to predict mortality in patients who developed post-operative sepsis.

Methods: This is a retrospective study using the American College of Surgeons National Quality Surgical Improvement Program database, in which we gathered data from adult patients between 2011 and 2016 who experienced postoperative sepsis. Read More

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October 2020

Management of pembrolizumab-induced steroid refractory mucositis with infliximab: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Sep;8(18):4100-4108

Department of Hematology-Oncology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, United States.

Background: Pembrolizumab is an anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) that was shown to have a tolerable safety profile with 17% of grade 3-4 drug-related adverse events, notable response rate of 16% with median duration of response of 8 mo, and median overall survival of 8 mo. Severe mucositis is a very rare complication with only two cases of grade 4 mucositis reported, and both cases had good response to intravenous methylprednisolone and subsequent oral prednisone tapering. We report the first case of pembrolizumab-induced severe mucositis that was refractory to steroid treatment. Read More

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September 2020

Changing the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) training pathway in the United Kingdom - an illustrative retrospective.

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 12 3;58(10):1261-1267. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Sheffield and Barnsley Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Electronic address:

OMFS training is perceived as a long and expensive pathway although papers have shown it compares favourably with other surgical specialties. Every OMFS clinician has a vested interest and duty continually to improve the quality of training and minimise costs, especially to trainees at junior levels. Any serious proposal to fundamentally change the format of training, must be given due consideration by all stakeholders. Read More

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December 2020

What helps and hinders doctors in engaging in continuous professional development? An explanatory sequential design.

PLoS One 2020 20;15(8):e0237632. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China.

Background: Licensure and registration are the traditional approaches to ensure minimally acceptable standards of care for practice. However, due to advances in medical technology and changes in clinical practice, the knowledge and skills obtained from basic education and training may rapidly become out of date. There is no mandated, structured and ongoing mechanism to assess all doctors' competence in Hong Kong. Read More

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October 2020

Facilitating personal development for public involvement in health-care education and research: A co-produced pilot study in one UK higher education institute.

Health Expect 2020 10 24;23(5):1191-1201. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Science, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.

Background: Public involvement in the education of students enrolled on higher education programmes has gained impetus. For students enrolled on professional health-care programmes and health-related modules in the UK, there is also a requirement by professional bodies to include "service user" involvement in preparation for entry to a professional health-care register and continuing professional development. Actively involving patients and members of the public in research is also a requirement by many research funders. Read More

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October 2020

A Practical Approach to Acute Postoperative Pain Management in Chronic Pain Patients.

J Perianesth Nurs 2020 Dec 11;35(6):564-573. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Nurse Anesthesia Pathway, Department of Acute, Chronic and Continuing Care, School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

In the United States, more than 100 million people suffer from chronic pain. Among patients presenting for surgery, about one in four have chronic pain. Acute perioperative pain management in this population is challenging because many patients with chronic pain require long-term opioids for the management of this pain, which may result in tolerance, physical dependence, addiction, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Read More

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December 2020

Viral and bacterial coinfection of the respiratory tract in a 10-month-old child.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jul 1;13(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Consultant, Department of Paediatrics and Neonates, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, England, UK.

A 10-month-old child, immunised appropriately for age, presented with a history of cough, vomiting, diarrhoea, increased work of breathing and eye redness for 1 week. She was treated for suspected bronchiolitis with supportive oxygen and hypertonic saline nebulisation. In view of continuing fever spikes and persistent oxygen requirement, she was evaluated further. Read More

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NKG2A/CD94 Is a New Immune Receptor for HLA-G and Distinguishes Amino Acid Differences in the HLA-G Heavy Chain.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 19;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Institute of Transfusion Medicine and Transplant Engineering, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Natural killer (NK) cell therapies are a tool to antagonize a dysfunctional immune system. NK cells recognize malignant cells, traffic to a tumor location, and infiltrate the solid tumor. The immune checkpoint molecule human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is upregulated on malignant cells but not on healthy surrounding cells, the requirement of understanding the basis of receptor mediated events at the HLA-G/NK cell interface becomes obvious. Read More

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Optimizing long-term monitoring of radiation air-dose rates after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

J Environ Radioact 2020 Sep 18;220-221:106281. Epub 2020 May 18.

Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo, Japan.

Radiation air dose rates near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) have been steadily decreasing over the past eight years since the release of radioactive elements in March 2011. Currently, the radiation monitoring program is expected to transition to long-term monitoring after most of the remediation activities are completed. The main long-term monitoring objectives are to (1) confirm the continuing reduction of contaminant and hazard levels, (2) provide assurance for the public, (3) accumulate the basic datasets for scientific knowledge and future preparation, and (4) detect changes or anomalies in contaminant mobility (if they occur), or any unexpected processes or events. Read More

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September 2020

Conflict Between Direct Experience and Research-Based Evidence Is a Key Challenge to Evidence-Based Respiratory Medicine on British Racing Yards.

Front Vet Sci 2020 27;7:266. Epub 2020 May 27.

Royal Veterinary College (RVC), London, United Kingdom.

Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is a commonly diagnosed but variably defined syndrome of equine lower airway inflammation. The most recent American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) consensus statement, informed by research evidence, recommends a case definition based on clinical signs (poor performance or occasional coughing of at least 3 weeks duration), increased endoscopically-visible tracheal mucus, and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology, and proposes that the condition should be termed 'mild-moderate equine asthma' (mEA). In British Thoroughbred racehorses, research to date has focused on airway inflammation defined by increased tracheal mucus and inflammatory tracheal wash sample cytology. Read More

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An international survey of airway management education in 61 countries.

Br J Anaesth 2020 07 20;125(1):e54-e60. Epub 2020 May 20.

Starship Children's Hospital, and University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Deficiencies in airway management skills and judgement contribute to poor outcomes. Airway management practice guidelines emphasise the importance of education. Little is known about the global uptake of guidelines, availability of equipment, provision of training, assessment of skills, and confidence with procedures. Read More

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Trauma Nurses' Experience With Decontamination: Opportunities for Improvement.

J Trauma Nurs 2020 May/Jun;27(3):151-154

Bronson Hospital/Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo (Dr Schieman); and Bronson Hospital, Kalamazoo, Michigan (Mss Cowles and Hoeve).

Trauma patients are unique in their potential for exposure to dangerous chemicals or material, placing staff in the emergency department (ED) or trauma unit at risk for exposure themselves. The purpose of this study was to describe one centers' trauma nursing experience with decontamination and to identify opportunities for improvement. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of decontamination practices using an anonymous online survey of trauma nurses at a single Midwestern verified Level I trauma center and burn center. Read More

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Addressing the Challenge of Pain Education in Low-Resource Countries: Essential Pain Management in Papua New Guinea.

Anesth Analg 2020 06;130(6):1608-1615

School of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a low-resource country in the South-West Pacific with considerable health care challenges, including a high burden of painful disease. The Essential Pain Management (EPM) educational program was developed to address the challenge of inadequate pain education in PNG and the first workshop was held in 2010. The aims of EPM are to improve pain knowledge, teach a simple system for managing pain, and address local pain management barriers. Read More

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Routine, ensemble characterisation of electrophoretic mobility in high and saturated ionic dispersions.

Sci Rep 2020 03 13;10(1):4628. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Nanotechnology group of Malvern Panalytical Ltd., Grovewood Road, Malvern, WR14 1XZ, United Kingdom.

With the industrialisation of nanoparticle manufacture, the pervasive incursion of nanoparticles into the environment, the need to characterise nano-scale pharmaceuticals and living systems in replicated in vivo conditions, the continuing development of new theories to describe the electro-kinetic behaviour of nano-particles in representative ionic strengths and numerous other applications, there is an urgent requirement to provide simple and effective experimental tools to validate these models and explore new systems. Micro-electrophoresis implemented with a diffusion barrier, which isolates the dispersed phase from the electrode surface, is demonstrated as enabling such measurements for the first time, preventing the catastrophic outgassing, precipitation and sample degradation observed when the dispersed phase is in close proximity to the electrode surface. Using a measurement of a few minute's duration in a standard laboratory light scattering instrument we reproduce the theoretically predicted phenomena of asymptotic, non-zero electrophoretic mobility with increasing ionic strength, the cationic Hofmeister series dependency, charge inversion and a continuously decreasing variation in mobility with pH as molarity increases. Read More

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Continuing professional development requirements for UK health professionals: a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2020 03 10;10(3):e032781. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Objectives: This paper sets out to establish the numbers and titles of regulated healthcare professionals in the UK and uses a review of how continuing professional development (CPD) for health professionals is described internationally to characterise the postqualification training required of UK professions by their regulators. It compares these standards across the professions and considers them against the best practice evidence and current definitions of CPD.

Design: A scoping review. Read More

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The Development of a Competency Assessment Standard for General Practitioners in China.

Front Public Health 2020 20;8:23. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

International Primary Health Care Research Institute, Shenzhen, China.

This paper describes the development of a competency assessment standard for General Practitioners in Shenzhen, China. The standard is to be used for developing and delivering the training curriculum for General Practitioners and to enable rigorous assessment of the mastery of the standards by GP trainees. The requirement for the training of General Practitioners in China is mandated by government policy requires an international standard curriculum to meet the needs of patients and the community. Read More

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February 2020