16,176 results match your criteria continent africa


Nonlinear dynamics for the spread of pathogenesis of COVID-19 pandemic.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 20;14(7):817-831. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University School of Basic & Applied Sciences (USBAS), Head, Non-Linear Dynamics-Research-Lab, GGS Indraprastha University, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Coronaviruses did not invite attention at a global level and responsiveness until the series of 2003-SARS contagion followed by year-2012 MERS plus, most recently, 2019-nCoV eruptions. SARS-CoV &MERS-CoV are painstaking, extremely pathogenic. Also, very evidently, both have been communicated from bats to palm-civets & dromedary camels and further transferred ultimately to humans. Read More

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Temporal transition of racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes in 3108 counties of the United States: Three phases from January to December 2020.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;791:148167. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of the Environment, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States of America.

Early studies reported higher risk of COVID-19 outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities in the early phase of the pandemic in the United States. While the initial surge of COVID-19 was concentrated in some areas, COVID-19 became pervasive across the entire continent with high impacts in the northern region and central region in the end of 2020. With this geographical transition, we aim to investigate patterns of these racial/ethnic disparities over time. Read More

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Health of African refugee children outside Africa: A scoping review.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 Jun 9;61:199-206. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G5, Canada. Electronic address:

Problem: Africa is the largest source continent of refugee children. However, we found no published synthesis of the literature on the health of African refugee children outside Africa. Conducting a review of the literature on this particular population will help illuminate the particular contextual health issues faced by African child refugees who live outside Africa. Read More

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Multilocus phylogenies reveal three new truffle-like taxa and the traces of interspecific hybridization in Octaviania (Boletaceae, Boletales).

IMA Fungus 2021 Jun 11;12(1):14. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611-0680, USA.

Among many convergently evolved sequestrate fungal genera in Boletaceae (Boletales, Basidiomycota), the genus Octaviania is the most diverse. We recently collected many specimens of Octaviania subg. Octaviania, including several undescribed taxa, from Japan and the Americas. Read More

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The epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in Africa: a scoping review.

Lancet Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Translational Epidemiology, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA; Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons; New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

This scoping review of population-based epidemiological studies was done to provide background information on the prevalences and distribution of psychiatric disorders in Africa for calls to broaden diversity in psychiatric genetic studies. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science to retrieve relevant literature in English, French, and Portuguese from Jan 1, 1984, to Aug 18, 2020. In 36 studies from 12 African countries, the lifetime prevalence ranged from 3·3% to 9·8% for mood disorders, from 5·7% to 15·8% for anxiety disorders, from 3·7% to 13·3% for substance use disorders, and from 1·0% to 4·4% for psychotic disorders. Read More

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Bioecology of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), its management and potential patterns of seasonal spread in Africa.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0249042. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.

Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) has rapidly spread in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and has emerged as a major pest of maize and sorghum in the continent. Read More

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Laparoscopic removal of intravesically inserted transobturator tape.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Introduction And Hypothesis: The aim of this video is to provide a step-by-step description of our approach to the surgical management of intravesically localized transobturator tape after previous failure of repeated cystoscopic tape resection.

Methods: This video presents a patient with tape erosion to the urinary bladder after repeated cystoscopic tape resection, recurrent stone formation, and repeated lithotripsy, with recurrent urinary tract infections and overactive bladder (OAB) with urgency incontinence.

Results: During the laparoscopy procedure tape was identified in the left obturator muscle, cut near the obturator muscle, and dissected up to the bladder wall. Read More

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Variation in the risk of colorectal cancer in families with Lynch syndrome: a retrospective cohort study.

Authors:

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Background: Existing clinical practice guidelines for carriers of pathogenic variants of DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) are based on the mean age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of colorectal cancer for all carriers of pathogenic variants in the same gene. We aimed to estimate the variation in the penetrance of colorectal cancer between carriers of pathogenic variants in the same gene by sex and continent of residence.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we sourced data from the International Mismatch Repair Consortium, which comprises 273 members from 122 research centres or clinics in 32 countries from six continents who are involved in Lynch syndrome research. Read More

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Premarital Fertility and Marital Timing in Malawi.

Stud Fam Plann 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

In Malawi, Africa, the median age at first marriage is among the lowest on the continent and adolescent fertility rates are among the highest. Using high-frequency panel data from the country designed to follow single women and men into marriage, we examine the extent to which premarital fertility is associated with the timing of marriage. Two notable findings emerge. Read More

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The effect of vesicourethral anastomosis technique on functional results in retropubic radical prostatectomy.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 9:e14460. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Ege University Hospital, Department of Urology, Izmir, Turkey.

Aim: We aimed to compare the functional results of two different vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA) techniques used in open retropubic radical prostatectomy.

Methods: A total of 476 patients including the first group with four focus VUA at 12-, 3-, 6-, and 9-o'clock positions (n = 288) and the second group with six focus VUA at 12-, 2-, 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-o'clock (n = 188) were included in the study. Perioperative data, erectile function and continence status over a 12-month period were compared. Read More

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COVID-19 pandemic: impacts on the achievements of Sustainable Development Goals in Africa.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 11;38:251. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Since the launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, Africa has made some progress towards its achievements, particularly in the area of gender equality- SDG 5, climate change -SDG 13 and preserving life on land- SDG 15. Although, some African countries have made tangible impact on the other goals such as health, food production and economic growth; these efforts experienced some setbacks with attention shifting to curbing the spread of the novel coronavirus. As much as mitigating the spread of the spread of COVID-19 is important, so is ensuring efforts made on other goals are not lost, as the SDGs are much interconnected, and failure in one impacts others. Read More

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COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on peer review speed of anesthesiology journals: An observational study.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Mar;37(1):57-62. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Background And Aims: Publication of a scientific article in a reputed journal is an uphill task that demands a significant amount of time and effort from the author and editorial team. It is a matter of great enthusiasm for all prospective researchers to know whether this daily evolving publication load of articles during this pandemic had changed the journal's inherent peer review or publication process. We aimed to compare the peer review speed of anesthesiology journal articles published during pandemic (2020) to the previous year and to analyze various factors affecting peer review speed. Read More

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Drain fluid creatinine-to-serum creatinine ratio as an initial test to detect urine leakage following cystectomy: A retrospective study.

Indian J Urol 2021 Apr-Jun;37(2):153-158. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Introduction: Urine leak following radical cystectomy is a known complication. Among the various methods to diagnose this, assessment of drain fluid creatinine is a relatively easy procedure. We aimed to ascertain the validity of the drain fluid creatinine-to-serum creatinine ratio (DCSCR) as an initial indicator of urinary leak in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Read More

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The power of large-scale community science in addressing anthropogenic change.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno Reno, NV, 89557, USA.

The human imprint on the global environment has become so pervasive that it rivals the forces of nature in its impact on ecosystem function. We are now living in the Anthropocene with increased air, light, noise, and heavy metal pollution (Foley et al., 2005). Read More

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Direct and size-mediated effects of temperature and ration-dependent growth rates on energy reserves in juvenile anadromous alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus).

J Fish Biol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Environmental Conservation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

Growth rate and energy reserves are important determinants of fitness and are governed by endogenous and exogenous factors. Thus, examining the influence of individual and multiple stressors on growth and energy reserves can help estimate population health under current and future conditions. In young anadromous fishes, freshwater habitat quality determines physiological state and fitness of juveniles emigrating to marine habitats. Read More

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Current status of , preclinical and clinical study registries across the globe: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Indian J Pharmacol 2021 Mar-Apr;53(2):160-169

Department of Pharmacology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Introduction: Registration of study protocols brings about transparency and traceability and the amount of publication bias can be estimated. In this study, we have collected and presented data regarding clinical study registries, preclinical, in vitro and in silico study registries across the globe.

Materials And Methods: We searched via Google Search Engine with appropriate keywords e. Read More

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Genetic variation in Neotropical butterflies is associated with sampling scale, species distributions, and historical forest dynamics.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" (MACN-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Prior studies of butterfly diversification in the Neotropics have focused on Amazonia and the tropical Andes, while southern regions of the continent have received little attention. To address the gap in knowledge about the Lepidoptera of temperate South America, we analyzed over 3,000 specimens representing nearly 500 species from Argentina for a segment of the mitochondrial COI gene. Representing 42% of the country's butterfly fauna, collections targeted species from the Atlantic and Andean forests, biodiversity hotspots that were previously connected but are now isolated. Read More

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Practice patterns in the management of fungal and acanthamoeba keratitis: a five-continent survey.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Ophthalmology Department, Strasbourg University Hospital, FMTS, Strasbourg, France.

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Meta-analysis of studies on depression prevalence among diabetes mellitus patients in Africa.

Heliyon 2021 May 21;7(5):e07085. Epub 2021 May 21.

ICT and Society Research Group, South Africa Luban Workshop, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa.

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion or insulin action. It can be caused by the consumption of carbohydrate meals or medication side effects. Depression as a comorbid condition in an individual with diabetes is accountable for increased disability, mortality, and significant health problem in patients. Read More

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Neurocognition in Kenyan youth at clinical high risk for psychosis.

Schizophr Res Cogn 2021 Sep 25;25:100198. Epub 2021 May 25.

Africa Mental Health Research and Training Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya.

Introduction: Cognitive deficits are typically seen in schizophrenia and in the prodrome, and are a major predictor of functional outcomes in patients. In Africa, few studies have investigated neurocognition in psychosis, which presents a gap in our understanding of the heterogeneity of the illness. In this study, we assessed neurocognition among the largest sample of psychosis-risk participants recruited in the continent to date. Read More

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September 2021

Mitrofanoff external continent urinary diversion in the management of bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex in adolescents.

Urol Case Rep 2021 Sep 19;38:101727. Epub 2021 May 19.

Urology Department, Academic Hospital Habib Bourguiba, Sfax, Tunisia.

Despite theadvancements in surgical reconstructive techniques for bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex, urinary incontinence represents a major problem that affects the quality of life. Bladder augmentation associated to Mitrofanoff external continent urinary diversion (ECUD) constitute for some surgeon the best solution for the management of bladder exstrophyallowing to achieve continence and to preserve renal function. Read More

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September 2021

Human Papillomavirus Infection at the Time of Delivery.

Cureus 2021 Jun 1;13(6):e15364. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Biophysics Laboratory, Stefan S Nicolau Institute of Virology, Bucharest, ROU.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most encountered viral etiologies of genital infections that are transmitted through the sexual route in sexually active females. In the genital area, condylomata acuminate warts and the Buschke-Loewenstein tumor (giant condyloma acuminatum) are described. These lesions are associated with benign HPV6 and HPV 11 types. Read More

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One-year impact of a bowel management program in treating fecal incontinence in patients with anorectal malformations.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pediatric Colorectal and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, United States.

Background: Many patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) need a bowel management program (BMP) to manage lifelong problems of fecal incontinence or severe constipation. We aimed to evaluate the sustainability of the results in such a program.

Methods: A single-institution retrospective review was performed in children with ARM who attended our BMP (2015-2019). Read More

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Chiropractic Practice in the Continent of Africa: A Structured Online Survey of 608 Chiropractors.

J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2021 May;44(4):280-288

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; World Spine Care, Santa Ana, California.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the status, supply, demographics, and characteristics of chiropractic practice in the continent of Africa.

Methods: A survey consisting of questions on demographics, clinical practice, and patient profile was administered to 608 chiropractors practicing in the different countries of the African continent. Chiropractic association officers of each country were contacted via e-mail for assistance in the distribution of the survey link to chiropractors in their country. Read More

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COVID-19 and the marginalized: an opinion piece on further measures to address COVID-19 in prisons in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Int J Prison Health 2021 06;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)

Department of Geography and Rural Development, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Purpose: This paper examines prison services and how they can be managed to uphold COVID-19 prevention etiquettes, in light of the contemporary rise in COVID-19 cases across the sub-Saharan Africa continent and the world at large.

Design/methodology/approach: An extensive review of existing literature on COVID-19 was conducted to ascertain the nature of the pandemic in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa.

Findings: In line with empirical observations, the paper recommends regular disinfection of prisons and correctional facilities on the sub-continent. Read More

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Antenatal and postnatal assessment of pelvic floor muscles in continent and incontinent primigravida women.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Reduced pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and thickness are considered critical factors in pregnancy-related stress urinary incontinence. Various methods have been evaluated for the measurement of these two factors, but validity needs to be well established. The objective was to assess the strength and thickness of pelvic floor muscles of continent and incontinent primigravida women using the digital method and transperineal ultrasound, and to study the correlation between the two methods. Read More

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Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in Africa: What is the current state of knowledge?

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Jul 25;206:106709. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Medicine, Neurology division, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile Ife, Nigeria.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, usually involving the optic nerve, brain, and spinal cord. While the disease is believed to be more common among individuals of African descent, the disease landscape across the continent has not been systematically explored. In this study, we carried out a systematic scoping review by synthesizing original studies on NMOSD from Africa. Read More

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The use of ileocecal pouch with appendix as an urethral substitute in patients who are willing to have a orthotopic bladder replacement - point of technique.

Actas Urol Esp (Engl Ed) 2021 Jun 14;45(5):406-411. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Urology, Landesklinikum Korneuburg-Teaching Hospital, Korneuburg, Austria.

Introduction: The authors describe the technique of orthotopic bladder replacement with an ileocecal pouch and unaltered appendix used as an orthotopic urethral substitute. Additional procedures with regard to the bothersome voiding symptoms will be described.

Material And Methods: In a small cohort of 5 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer with tumor involvement of the bladder neck or proximal urethra (2 males/3 females) we performed the following reconstruction. Read More

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Missed opportunities for vaccination in Africa.

Curr Opin Immunol 2021 Jun 1;71:55-61. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

The purpose of this review is to assess the extent of missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) in Africa, determine the associated factors, and provide recommendations that countries could adopt in reducing MOV. Two databases were searched for multinational studies and systematic reviews reporting MOV and involving African countries. A total of 288 records were identified and 12 studies included for synthesis. Read More

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Robotic vs laparoscopic distal pancreatectomies: A systematic review and meta-analysis on costs and perioperative outcome.

Int J Med Robot 2021 Jun 3:e2295. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Cátedra Medicina Basada en la Eficiencia, Fundación de Investigación HM Hospitales.

Aim: The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare perioperative outcomes and costs of robotic and laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (RDP and LDP).

Material And Methods: In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we searched Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane and Web of Science for reports published before December 2020.

Results: The literature search identified 11 papers (1187 patients). Read More

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