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Disgust uniquely predicts coping and interpersonal processes beyond anxiety and dysphoria in the context of naturalistic stressors.

J Anxiety Disord 2021 Jul 9;82:102446. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Seattle Pacific University, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Disgust is theorized to serve a unique function of motivating avoidance of noxious stimuli and setting interpersonal boundaries to prevent contamination. Research has established the relevance of disgust to OCD, posttraumatic stress, and phobias, suggesting transdiagnostic features. However, research has not always accounted for overlap of disgust with other negative emotions, obscuring unique contributions. Read More

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Endovascular treatment of a ruptured post-traumatic false aneurysm of the aortic isthmus: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jul 9;85:106190. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Mohammed First University, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Oujda, Morocco; University Hospital Center Mohamed VI, Oujda, Morocco.

Introduction: The false aneurysm of the aortic isthmus is, given its severity and case fatality rate, a subject of interest in vascular surgery. The interest of this article is the analysis of the different characteristics of this pathology based on the study of a case report and on a review of the literature.

Case Report: This is a 21-year-old patient admitted for the management of a severe polytrauma following a fall from a cliff, causing him paraplegia following a fracture of the dorsal spine which is objectified on the CT bodyscan, which also shows the presence of a localized dissection with ruptured false aneurysm of the isthmus. Read More

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Flow inside a bone scaffold: Visualization using 3D phase contrast MRI and comparison with numerical simulations.

J Biomech 2021 Jul 12;126:110625. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. Electronic address:

We report on results of experimental flow measurements inside a bone scaffold model, subjected to a uniform incoming flow (applied perfusion). Understanding the flow behavior inside a tissue engineered scaffold is essential for mechanistic studies of mechanobiology, particularly flow-sensitive bone cells. Nearly all existing studies that quantify interstitial flow inside engineered bone scaffolds have been based on numerical results, in part due to the difficulties associated with quantitative measurements and visualization of flow inside large, opaque bone or bone mimics. Read More

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Odours as context cues of emotional memories - The role of semantic relatedness.

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2021 Jul 19;219:103377. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Odours constitute effective context cues, facilitating memory retrieval. Identifying factors which modulate the effectiveness of olfactory context cues can advance the understanding of processes underlying this effect. We hypothesized that the interplay of subjective stress and semantic relatedness between the odour and the learning material would modulate the effectiveness of an olfactory context cue. Read More

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Patient understanding of and participation in infection-related care across surgical pathways: a scoping review.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Infectious Diseases & HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the existing evidence on patient understanding of and/or participation in infection-related care in surgical specialties.

Method: A scoping review of literature was conducted. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and grey literature sources were searched using predefined search criteria for policies, guidelines and studies in English. Read More

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GRADE guidelines 33: Addressing imprecision in a network meta-analysis.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medicine, University Health Network, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON, M5G 2C4, Canada.

Objective: This article describes GRADE guidance for assessing imprecision when rating the certainty of the evidence from network meta-analysis.

Study Design And Setting: A project group within the GRADE working group conducted iterative discussions, computer simulations, and presentations at GRADE working group meetings to produce and obtain approval for this guidance.

Results: When addressing imprecision of a network estimate, reviewers should consider the 95% confidence or credible interval, and the optimal information size. Read More

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New Determination Methods, Toxic Mechanisms, and Control Strategies (Preface to the special issue of Food and Chemical Toxicology on the Outcomes of Mycotoxins in Food).

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jul 19;155:112436. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, 50003, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

The special issue "Mycotoxins in Food: New Determination Methods, Toxic Mechanisms, and Control Strategies" in Food and Chemical Toxicology contains 28 articles on current hot topics in mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and fumonisins. Intestinal toxicity, immune toxicity, and oxidative stress are especially concerned by researchers in this special issue; moreover, mycotoxin detoxification and exposure and assessments in humans are reported in this context. All the new results in this special issue will help to further understand the toxic mechanisms of mycotoxins and cast new light for the control of mycotoxin contamination. Read More

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The Pause-then-Cancel model of human action-stopping: Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; Department of Neurology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. Electronic address:

The ability to stop already-initiated actions is a key cognitive control ability. Recent work on human action-stopping has been dominated by two controversial debates. First, the contributions (and neural signatures) of attentional orienting and motor inhibition after stop-signals are near-impossible to disentangle. Read More

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Timing, duration, and differential susceptibility to early life adversities and cardiovascular disease risk across the lifespan: Implications for future research.

Prev Med 2021 Jul 19:106736. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO, United States of America.

Early life adversities (ELA), include experiences such as child maltreatment, household dysfunction, bullying, exposure to crime, discrimination, bias, and victimization, and are recognized as social determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Strong evidence shows exposure to ELA directly impacts cardiometabolic risk in adulthood and emerging evidence suggests there may be continuity in ELA's prediction of cardiometabolic risk over the life course. Extant research has primarily relied on a cumulative risk framework to evaluate the relationship between ELA and CVD. Read More

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Can polarization of macrophage metabolism enhance cardiac regeneration?

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; The Heart Center, Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

While largely appreciated for their antimicrobial and repair functions, macrophages have emerged as indispensable for the development, homeostasis, and regeneration of tissue, including regeneration of the neonatal heart. Upon activation, mammalian neonatal macrophages express and secrete factors that coordinate angiogenesis, resolution of inflammation, and ultimately cardiomyocyte proliferation. This is contrary to adult macrophages in the adult heart, which are incapable of inducing significant levels of cardiac regeneration. Read More

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Single molecule RNA localization and translation in the mammalian oocyte and embryo.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jul 19:167166. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, ASC, Libechov 27721, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

During oocyte growth the cell accumulates RNAs to contribute to oocyte and embryo development which progresses with ceased transcription. To investigate the subcellular distribution of specific RNAs and their translation we developed a technique revealing several instances of localized translation with distinctive regulatory implications. We analyzed the localization and expression of candidate non-coding and mRNAs in the mouse oocyte and embryo. Read More

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Repurpose but also (nano)-reformulate! The potential role of nanomedicine in the battle against SARS-CoV2.

J Control Release 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, , University of Cologne, Greinstraße 6, 50939 Cologne, Germany.

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has taken the world by surprise. To date, a worldwide approved treatment remains lacking and hence in the context of rapid viral spread and the growing need for rapid action, drug repurposing has emerged as one of the frontline strategies in the battle against SARS-CoV2. Repurposed drugs currently being evaluated against COVID-19 either tackle the replication and spread of SARS-CoV2 or they aim at controlling hyper-inflammation and the rampaged immune response in severe disease. Read More

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When the cerebellum holds the starting gun.

Neuron 2021 Jul;109(14):2207-2209

Neurophysiology of Brain Circuits Team, Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole normale supérieure (IBENS), Ecole normale supérieure, CNRS, INSERM, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:

How the cerebellum affects movement onset is poorly understood. In this issue of Neuron, Dacre et al. (2021) establish that in the context of operant conditioning, the transient activation of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway to the motor cortex is sufficient to initiate the conditioned movement. Read More

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The interactions between childhood adversities and recent stress were associated with early-adulthood depression among Chinese undergraduate students.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Mental Health Center and Psychiatric Laboratory, the State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: It is widely acknowledged that childhood adversities (CAs) and recent stress are potential risk factors for adult depression. However, the mechanism(s) by which interactions of CAs with recent stress affect adult depression remain unclear.

Aims: To investigate the predictive association of the interaction among CAs and recent stress with early-adult depression. Read More

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Predicting mutant outcome by combining deep mutational scanning and machine learning.

Proteins 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Computer Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva, Israel.

Motivation: Deep mutational scanning provides unprecedented wealth of quantitative data regarding the functional outcome of mutations in proteins. A single experiment may measure properties (e.g. Read More

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Narrative frames as choice over structure of American Indian sexual and reproductive health consequences of historical trauma.

Sociol Health Illn 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA.

Emerging evidence suggests that the historical trauma associated with settler colonialism affects the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of American Indian (AI) communities today. This article examines how one AI community narratively frames the influence of historical trauma within the context of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the implications of this framing for health behaviours, internalized oppression, SRH outcomes, and future CBPR interventions. We found that AIs framed the SRH consequences of historical trauma with renderings that favoured personal choice over structural explanations. Read More

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Appraising screening, making risk in/visible. The medical debate over Non-Rare Thrombophilia (NRT) testing before prescribing the pill.

Sociol Health Illn 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

CERMES3, UNIVERSITE DE PARIS, INSERM, EHESS, CNRS, Villejuif, France.

Non-rare thrombophilia (NRT) are hereditary predispositions to thromboembolism, the most severe side effect of combined hormonal contraception. In the mid-1990s, the identification of NRT stirred up a controversy over the possibility of investigating these genetic variants in women wishing to use contraception. Through a review of literature, this article reconstructs the debate over whether and how this genetic test should be prescribed as a way to reconfigure the risk visibility on pharmacological contraception. Read More

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Determination of Alternaria toxins in tomato, wheat and sunflower seeds by SPE and LC-MS/MS - a method validation through a collaborative trial.

J AOAC Int 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Geel, Belgium.

Background: Alternaria toxins are ubiquitous contaminants in highly consumed food products. Therefore, they are candidates to be regulated by EU legislation. In this context the availability of reliable analytical methods is a keystone both for protecting the health of the citizens and the smooth functioning of the European market. Read More

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In-depth bioinformatic study of the cadherin 5 interactome in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm unveils 8 novel biomarkers.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK.

Objectives: Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is characterized by the dilation of the aorta and is associated with poor prognosis if not diagnosed and treated early. In this context, the identification of biomarkers regarding the TAA diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis is crucial. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the differential gene expression profile of the cadherin 5 (CDH5 or VE-Cadherin) gene network in patients with TAA, to propose novel biomarkers. Read More

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Role of Flow Cytometric Immunophenotyping for Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma in Small Biopsy and Cytology Specimens.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

From the Hematopathology (Chan, Gao, Sigler, Baik, Roshal, Lin), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Context.—: The diagnosis of classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) traditionally requires surgical tissue biopsy because of the paucity of diagnostic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Diagnosis can be challenging in small core needle and cytologic biopsies, which are increasingly used because of reduced costs and minimal invasiveness. Read More

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Donor orientation and service quality: Key factors in active blood donors' satisfaction and loyalty.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255112. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Business Economics, Faculty of Legal and Business Sciences, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Faced with the increasing demand for blood and greater restrictions on ensuring the safety of transfusions, voluntary donation is currently the only and best alternative for the health system to have a sustainable and safe blood supply. In this context, one of the primary strategies of blood transfusion centres is to increase the satisfaction of their active donors so that they maintain their intention to donate in the future and, in turn, make the necessary recommendations so that third parties can become new donors. That is why this paper raises a question for research concerning, what should the premises be to guide the management of blood transfusion centres to maintain and even increase the satisfaction and loyalty of their active donors? In order to respond to this issue, a change in paradigm is proposed based on a management model supported by donor orientation and service quality as basic pillars, as well as on the development of a number of key social capital resources that explain this orientation toward the donor. Read More

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Estimating the effect of tracking tag weight on insect movement using video analysis: A case study with a flightless orthopteran.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255117. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czechia.

In this study, we describe an inexpensive and rapid method of using video analysis and identity tracking to measure the effects of tag weight on insect movement. In a laboratory experiment, we assessed the tag weight and associated context-dependent effects on movement, choosing temperature as a factor known to affect insect movement and behavior. We recorded the movements of groups of flightless adult crickets Gryllus locorojo (Orthoptera:Gryllidae) as affected by no tag (control); by light, medium, or heavy tags (198. Read More

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Experimental study protocol of the project "MOtor function and VItamin D: Toolkit for motor performance and risk Assessment (MOVIDA)".

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254878. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Cardiovascular and Endocrine-Metabolic Diseases and Aging, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

Musculoskeletal injuries, a public health priority also in the military context, are ascribed to several risk factors, including: increased reaction forces; low/reduced muscle strength, endurance, body mass, Vitamin D level, and bone density; inadequate lifestyles and environment. The MOVIDA Project-funded by the Italian Ministry of Defence-aims at developing a transportable toolkit (assessment instrumentation, assessment protocols and reference/risk thresholds) which integrates motor function assessment with biological, environmental and behavioural factors to help characterizing the risk of stress fracture, stress injury or muscle fatigue due to mechanical overload. The MOVIDA study has been designed following the STROBE guidelines for observational cross-sectional studies addressing healthy adults, both militaries and civilians, with varying levels of physical fitness (sedentary people, recreational athletes, and competitive athletes). Read More

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Mortality and associated risk factors of COVID-19 infection in dialysis patients in Qatar: A nationwide cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254246. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Context: Patients on maintenance dialysis are more susceptible to COVID-19 and its severe form. We studied the mortality and associated risks of COVID-19 infection in dialysis patients in the state of Qatar.

Methods: This was an observational, analytical, retrospective, nationwide study. Read More

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Diagnostic efficiency and validity of the DSM-oriented Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report scales in a clinical sample of Swedish youth.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254953. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) are widely used measures of psychiatric symptoms and lately also adapted to the DSM. The incremental validity of adding the scales to each other has not been studied. We validated the DSM subscales for affective, anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), oppositional defiant (ODD), conduct problems (CD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in consecutively referred child and adolescent psychiatric outpatients (n = 267) against LEAD DSM-IV diagnoses based on the K-SADS-PL and subsequent clinical work-up. Read More

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Genotypic and phenotypic prevalence of Nocardia species in Iran: First systematic review and meta-analysis of data accumulated over years 1992-2021.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254840. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Pain Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Nocardia species belong to the aerobic actinomycetes group of bacteria which are gram-positive and partially acid-fast Bacilli. These bacteria may sometimes be associated with nosocomial infections. Nocardia diseases are not required to be reported to public health authorities in Iran. Read More

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Integrative bioinformatics approaches to map key biological markers and therapeutic drugs in Extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254678. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an intra-epidermal adenocarcinoma. Till now, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of scrotal EMPD is poorly known. This present study aims to explore the knowledge of molecular mechanism of scrotal EMPD by identifying the hub genes and candidate drugs using integrated bioinformatics approaches. Read More

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Use of non-invasive intracranial pressure pulse waveform to monitor patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0240570. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Biological and Health Sciences Division, State University of Ponta Grossa-UEPG, Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil.

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is treated mainly by hemodialysis, however, hemodialysis is associated with frequent complications, some of them involve the increased intracranial pressure. In this context, monitoring the intracranial pressure of these patients may lead to a better understanding of how intracranial pressure morphology varies with hemodialysis. This study aimed to follow-up patients with ESRD by monitoring intracranial pressure before and after hemodialysis sessions using a noninvasive method. Read More

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Pain modulation by your partner: An experimental investigation from a social-affective perspective.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254069. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Background: Social context such as the relationship between a person experiencing pain and a caregiver has been shown to affect the experience of pain, yet, results are not consistent. Possibly, differential effects of interpersonal relationships are modulated by affective states expressed by social partners. Viewing partner pictures in experimental designs is not only associated with lowered perceived pain intensity, but also affects neural responses. Read More

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Induction of a chromatin boundary in vivo upon insertion of a tad border.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009691. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Genetics and Evolution, Faculty of Science, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Mammalian genomes are partitioned into sub-megabase to megabase-sized units of preferential interactions called topologically associating domains or TADs, which are likely important for the proper implementation of gene regulatory processes. These domains provide structural scaffolds for distant cis regulatory elements to interact with their target genes within the three-dimensional nuclear space and architectural proteins such as CTCF as well as the cohesin complex participate in the formation of the boundaries between them. However, the importance of the genomic context in providing a given DNA sequence the capacity to act as a boundary element remains to be fully investigated. Read More

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