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Endogenous vitamin E metabolites mediate allosteric PPARγ activation with unprecedented co-regulatory interactions.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt 60438, Germany. Electronic address:

Vitamin E exhibits pharmacological effects beyond established antioxidant activity suggesting involvement of unidentified mechanisms. Here, we characterize endogenously formed tocopherol carboxylates and the vitamin E mimetic garcinoic acid (GA) as activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Co-stimulation of PPARγ with GA and the orthosteric agonist pioglitazone resulted in additive transcriptional activity. Read More

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Selective requirement of MYB for oncogenic hyperactivation of a translocated enhancer in leukemia.

Cancer Discov 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Hematology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute and Oncode Institute

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inv(3)(q21;q26) or t(3;3)(q21;q26), a translocated GATA2 enhancer drives oncogenic expression of EVI1. We generated an EVI1-GFP AML model and applied an unbiased CRISPR/Cas9 enhancer scan to uncover sequence motifs essential for EVI1 transcription. Using this approach, we pinpointed a single regulatory element in the translocated GATA2 enhancer that is critically required for aberrant EVI1 expression. Read More

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Field studies on breeding sites of Culicoides LATREILLE (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in agriculturally used and natural habitats.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10007. Epub 2021 May 11.

Working Group Biodiversity of Aquatic and Semiaquatic Landscape Features, Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374, Müncheberg, Germany.

Culicoides are vectors of pathogens mainly of veterinary importance. To establish targeted vector control measures, it is paramount to comprehend the ecological factors determining their distribution. Therefore, we used emergence traps to sample eight biotopes and assess their potential as breeding sites. Read More

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oColonic delivery of metronidazole-loaded capsules for local treatment of bacterial infections: a clinical pharmacoscintigraphy study.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Drug delivery to the colon offers great promise for local treatment of colonic diseases as it allows bypassing systemic absorption in the small intestine, thereby increasing luminal drug concentrations in the colon. The primary objective of this in vivo pharmaco-scintigraphy study was to assess the colon drug targeting accuracy of a metronidazole benzoate colonic drug delivery system intended for local treatment of Clostridioides difficile infections. Additionally, it was assessed if the concept of mucoadhesion would increase colonic residence time and promote higher drug bioavailability. Read More

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Occipital Horn Syndrome as a Result of Splice Site Mutations in . No Activity of Splice Variants Missing Exon 10 or Exon 15.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 21;14:532291. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Disease-causing variants in lead to two different phenotypes associated with copper deficiency; a lethal form called Menkes disease (MD), leading to early death, and a much milder form called occipital horn syndrome (OHS). Some investigators have proposed that an transcript missing exon 10 leads to a partly active protein product resulting in the OHS phenotype. Here, we describe an individual with OHS, a biology professor, who survived until age 62 despite a splice site mutation, leading to skipping of exon 15. Read More

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Lack of antibodies against seasonal coronavirus OC43 nucleocapsid protein identifies patients at risk of critical COVID-19.

J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 24;139:104847. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Institute of Virology, Department of Clinical Virology, University Hospital Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The vast majority of COVID-19 patients experience a mild disease. However, a minority suffers from critical disease with substantial morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To identify individuals at risk of critical COVID-19, the relevance of a seroreactivity against seasonal human coronaviruses was analyzed. Read More

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Real-time PCR biochip for on-site detection of Coxiella burnetii in ticks.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 6;14(1):239. Epub 2021 May 6.

Parasitic and Honeybee Disease Laboratory, Bacterial and Parasitic Disease Division, Department of Animal & Plant Health Research, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, 39660, Republic of Korea.

Background: Q fever, a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, has adverse effects on public health. Ticks are vectors of C. burnetii and they contribute to the transmission of the pathogen. Read More

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Detection of Species, and -Like and -Like Endosymbionts in and from a Shared Field Site in Georgia, United States of America.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Two abundant species of aggressive ticks commonly feed on humans in Georgia: the Gulf Coast tick () and the Lone Star tick (). is the primary host of , " Rickettsia andeanae," and a -like endosymbiont (AmacFLE), whereas is the primary host for , , , and a -like endosymbiont (AamCLE). Horizontal transmission of from to by co-feeding has been described, and has been found infrequently in ticks. Read More

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Molecular Characterization of Complement Component 3 (C3) in the Pearl Oyster Improves Our Understanding of the Primitive Complement System in Bivalve.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:652805. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China.

As the central component in the complement system, complement component 3 (C3) plays essential roles in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, a C3 gene (designated as ) was obtained from the pearl oyster by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA consists of 5,634 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 5,193 bp encoding a protein of 1,730 amino acids with a 19 residue signal peptide. Read More

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Broad and potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies isolated from human survivors of New World hantavirus infection.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(5):109086

Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

New World hantaviruses (NWHs) are endemic in North and South America and cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), with a case fatality rate of up to 40%. Knowledge of the natural humoral immune response to NWH infection is limited. Here, we describe human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from individuals previously infected with Sin Nombre virus (SNV) or Andes virus (ANDV). Read More

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A highly virulent canine distemper virus strain isolated from vaccinated mink in China.

Virus Genes 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

National Research Center for Veterinary Medicine, No.3 Cuiwei Road, High-Tech District, Luoyang, Henan, 471003, PR China.

An outbreak of canine distemper in 2017 in mink breeding farms (Shandong province, China) caused severe pneumonia, hardened footpads, and death in more than 5000 vaccinated animals. Sequencing of the hemagglutinin and fusion protein genes from the WH2 canine distemper virus (CDV) strain we isolated from the infected minks were clustered into the recently isolated CDV Asia-1 genotype group. The WH2 strain was distinct from the current vaccine strains, containing a novel potential N-glycosylation site in its hemagglutinin protein. Read More

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Phytostabilization of Phosphate Mine Wastes Used as a Store-and-Release Cover to Control Acid Mine Drainage in a Semiarid Climate.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, Research Center on Plant and Microbial Biotechnology, Biodiversity and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University in Rabat, Laboratoire Mixte International-LMI AMIR, Rabat 10001, Morocco.

The abandoned Kettara pyrrhotite mine, located near Marrakech, Morocco, is an acid mine drainage (AMD) producer site. A store-and-release cover system made of phosphate wastes was built to prevent water infiltration and the formation of AMD. This cover system should be vegetated with appropriate plants to ensure its long-term sustainability and allow its reintegration in the surrounding ecosystem. Read More

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Smad2 and Smad3 differentially modulate chordin transcription via direct binding on the distal elements in gastrula Xenopus embryos.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 30;559:168-175. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Cell Differentiation and Aging, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do, 24252, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Transforming growth factor (TGF)β/activin superfamily regulates diverse biological processes including germ layer specification and axis patterning in vertebrates. TGFβ/activin leads to phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, followed by regulation of their target genes. Activin treatment also induces the essential organizer gene chordin (chrd). Read More

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Carbapenem-resistance determinants acquired through novel chromosomal integrations in XDR .

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

Two novel or containing genomic islands (GIs) were discovered in four extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolated from in-patients at a tertiary hospital in Ghana by whole-genome sequence analyses. The strains were of ST234 and formed a phylogenetic clade together with ST111, recognized as a global high-risk clone. Their carbapenem resistance was encoded by Tn-type integrons, In1592 () and In1595 (), both carrying complete mobilization modules. Read More

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Neutrophil extracellular traps and inflammasomes cooperatively promote venous thrombosis in mice.

Blood Adv 2021 May;5(9):2319-2324

Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; and.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is linked to local inflammation. A role for both neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and the assembly of inflammasomes (leading to caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1β activation) in the development of DVT was recently suggested. However, no link between these 2 processes in the setting of thrombosis has been investigated. Read More

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Pollution characteristics and source identification of soil metal(loid)s at an abandoned arsenic-containing mine, China.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 11;413:125382. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Institute of Environmental Engineering, School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China.

Mining activities can result in serious contamination of soil by heavy metal(loid)s. In this study, the sources and spatial distribution of metal(loid)s, and the risks to public health from these metal(loid)s at an abandoned arsenic mine site were explored. The mean concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), strontium (Sr), and thallium (Tl) in the soil in the mining area were higher than the mean background values. Read More

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High neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio at cancer diagnosis predicts incidence of stroke in cancer patients.

Brain Commun 2021 9;3(2):fcab071. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Although cancer increases the incidence and severity of ischaemic stroke, there is no reliable method for predicting ischaemic stroke in cancer patients. To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at cancer diagnosis for predicting the incidence of ischaemic stroke, we used a hospital-based cancer registry that contained clinical data from all patients treated for cancer at Osaka University Hospital between 2007 and 2015. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated after dividing absolute neutrophil counts by absolute lymphocyte counts. Read More

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A Truncated TIR-NBS Protein TN10 Pairs with Two Clustered TIR-NBS-LRR Immune Receptors and Contributes to Plant Immunity in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 13;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Control of Fujian-Taiwan Crop Pests, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Plant Immunity Center, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

The encoding genes of plant intracellular nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain receptors (NLRs) often exist in the form of a gene cluster. Several recent studies demonstrated that the truncated Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-NBS (TIR-NBS) proteins play important roles in immunity. In this study, we identified a large gene cluster on ecotype Col-0 chromosome 1, which included nine genes, to . Read More

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Designing a SARS-CoV-2 T-Cell-Inducing Vaccine for High-Risk Patient Groups.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Immunology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

We describe the results of two vaccinations of a self-experimenting healthy volunteer with SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides performed in March and April 2020, respectively. The first set of peptides contained eight peptides predicted to bind to the individual's HLA molecules. The second set consisted of ten peptides predicted to bind promiscuously to several HLA-DR allotypes. Read More

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Multipotent Stromal Cell Extracellular Vesicle Distribution in Distant Organs after Introduction into a Bone Tissue Defect of a Limb.

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The Center of New Medical Technologies, Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademika Lavrenteva str., 8, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.

When administered intravenously, extracellular vesicles derived from multipotent stromal cells (MSC EVs) immediately pass through the lungs along with the blood and regularly spread to all organs. When administered intraperitoneally, they are absorbed either into the blood or into the lymph and are quickly disseminated throughout the body. The possibility of generalized spread of MSC EVs to distant organs in case of local intratissular administration remains unexplored. Read More

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Apoptosis is a generator of Wnt-dependent regeneration and homeostatic cell renewal in the ascidian Ciona.

Biol Open 2021 Apr 23;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Station Biologique, Roscoff 29680, France.

In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, basal body parts regenerate distal structures but distal body parts do not replace basal structures. Regeneration involves the activity of adult stem cells in the branchial sac, which proliferate and produce migratory progenitor cells for tissue and organ replacement. Branchial sac-derived stem cells also replenish recycling cells lining the pharyngeal fissures during homeostatic growth. Read More

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Are Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera traits reliable indicators of semi-urban pollution in the Tsitsa River, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa?

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 29;193(5):309. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Unilever Centre for Environmental Water Quality, Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa.

The taxonomy-based response pattern of macroinvertebrates to pollution gradient is well established, with tolerant taxa increasing in impacted conditions, while sensitive taxa increase with decreasing deterioration, typical of rural pollution. This study identified rural indicator and sensitive traits of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa by examining their trait distribution pattern in relation to rural pollution. Physicochemical parameters and EPT were sampled seasonally from August 2016 to April 2017. Read More

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Optimizing Spatial Biopsy Sampling for the Detection of Prostate Cancer.

J Urol 2021 Apr 28:101097JU0000000000001832. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Purpose: The appropriate number of systematic biopsy cores to retrieve during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-targeted prostate biopsy is not well defined. We aimed to demonstrate a biopsy sampling approach that reduces required core count while maintaining diagnostic performance.

Materials And Methods: We collected data from a cohort of 971 men who underwent MRI-ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy for suspected prostate cancer. Read More

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Efficient generation of osteoclasts from human induced pluripotent stem cells and functional investigations of lethal CLCN7-related osteopetrosis.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

BIH Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt - Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great potential for modelling human diseases and the development of innovative therapeutic approaches. Here, we report on a novel, simplified differentiation method for forming functional osteoclasts from hiPSCs. The three-step protocol starts with embryoid body formation, followed by hematopoietic specification, and finally osteoclast differentiation. Read More

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Mobile Type VI secretion system loci of the gut Bacteroidales display extensive intra-ecosystem transfer, multi-species spread and geographical clustering.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 26;17(4):e1009541. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

The human gut microbiota is a dense microbial ecosystem with extensive opportunities for bacterial contact-dependent processes such as conjugation and Type VI secretion system (T6SS)-dependent antagonism. In the gut Bacteroidales, two distinct genetic architectures of T6SS loci, GA1 and GA2, are contained on Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICE). Despite intense interest in the T6SSs of the gut Bacteroidales, there is only a superficial understanding of their evolutionary patterns, and of their dissemination among Bacteroidales species in human gut communities. Read More

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Alcohol Consumption in the Australian Mining Industry: The Role of Workplace, Social, and Individual Factors.

Workplace Health Saf 2021 Apr 24:21650799211005768. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

The University of Newcastle.

Background: Coal miners have been reported to have higher rates of risky/harmful alcohol misuse; however, it is not known if metalliferous mining employees whose working conditions differ in workplace practices, also have increased rates of risky/harmful alcohol misuse. This study aimed to examine alcohol consumption in a sample of Australian metalliferous mining workers and to examine the demographic and workplace factors associated with risky/harmful alcohol use.

Methods: All employees from a convenience sample of four Australian mine sites were invited to complete a paper-based cross-sectional survey between June 2015 and May 2017. Read More

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Hydrogel-coated needles prevent puncture site bleeding.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

The Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Departments of Surgery and of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Incomplete hemostasis after vascular cannulation can cause a hematoma or pseudoaneurysm. We hypothesized that a hydrogel-coated needle would effectively and rapidly stop bleeding after vascular cannulation.

Methods: A hydrogel composed of sodium alginate, hyaluronic acid, and calcium carbonate was coated onto the surface of suture needles. Read More

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Changes in Rat Bone Tissue at the Site of the Defect In Vivo under the Effect of a Cryogenically Structured Albumin Sponge Containing a Bioregulator.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Apr 24;170(6):805-808. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

A. N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

We performed a morphological study of the bone tissue after implantation of a cryogenically structured albumin sponge containing a bioregulator isolated from blood serum into an extensive experimental defect of the femur. By day 90, no complete reparation of the bone tissue was achieved in the control group (without implantation of 3D carrier), a loose spongy bone is formed at the site of the defect. After implantation of the 3D carrier without serum bioregulator, the defect was closed, but the formed bone was loose and contained no inflammation foci. Read More

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In-site and solvent-free exfoliation of porous graphene oxide from pencil lead fiber for solid-phase microextraction of cadmium ion before GF-AAS determination.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Apr 23;188(5):172. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of MOE, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan, China.

Graphene oxide (GO)-functionalized pencil lead fiber was prepared for the first time by in situ oxidation and exfoliation of graphite contained in pencil lead fiber to porous graphene oxide structure via a one-step solvent-free dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) microplasma treatment. This new fiber was demonstrated as a highly efficient and low-cost solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for the determination of toxic metal ions. The fiber extraction performance was evaluated by using cadmium as a model analyte in a direct immersing SPME mode. Read More

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Quantification of selected microplastics in Australian urban road dust.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 8;416:125811. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences, The University of Queensland, 20 Cornwall Street, Woolloongabba, Queensland 4102, Australia.

Microplastics (1 - 5000 µm) are pervasive in every compartment of our environment. However, little is understood regarding the concentration and size distribution of microplastics in road dust, and how they change in relation to human activity. Within road dust, microplastics move through the environment via atmospheric transportation and stormwater run-off into waterways. Read More

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