3,180 results match your criteria constitutive nitric

Cardioprotective Effect of Whole Body Periodic Acceleration in Dystrophic Phenotype Rodent.

Front Physiol 2021 4;12:658042. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and the development of a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), which is the leading cause of death in DMD patients. Despite knowing the cause of DMD, there are currently no therapies which can prevent or reverse its inevitable progression. We have used whole body periodic acceleration (WBPA) as a novel tool to enhance intracellular constitutive nitric oxide (NO) production. Read More

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Overexpression of SlGSNOR impairs in vitro shoot proliferation and developmental architecture in tomato but confers enhanced disease resistance.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Jun 30;261:153433. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Crop and Food Sciences, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, 46300, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The pervasive presence of nitric oxide (NO) in cells and its role in modifying cystein residues through protein S-nitrosylation is a remarkable redox based signalling mechanism regulating a variety of cellular processes. S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE (GSNOR) governs NO bioavailability by the breakdown of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), fine-tunes NO signalling and controls total cellular S-nitrosylated proteins. Most of the published data on GSNOR functional analysis is based on the model plant Arabidopsis with no previous report for its effect on in vitro regeneration of tissue cultured plants. Read More

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NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the eyes of hypertensive rats.

Mol Vis 2021 2;27:161-178. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla. CL Profesor García González, Sevilla, Spain.

Purpose: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by NADPH oxidase and inflammation are associated with arterial hypertension and eye diseases associated with high blood pressure, including glaucoma, retinopathies (e.g., age-related macular degeneration), and choroidopathies affecting ocular function; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse outcomes remain undefined. Read More

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Constitutive nitric oxide synthase-like enzyme in two species involved in cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Parasitol Int 2021 Aug 19;83:102347. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Federal University of Para, Institute of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Structural Biology, Belém 66095-110, Pará, Brazil; National Institute of Science and Technology in Structural Biology and Bioimaging, Rio de Janeiro, 21.941-902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that primarily inhabits macrophages. The destruction of the parasite in the host cell is a fundamental mechanism for infection control. In addition, inhibition of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages seems to be related to the ability of some species to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) by depleting arginine. Read More

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Elevated CO differentially regulates root nitrate transporter kinetics in a genotype and nitrate dose-dependent manner.

Plant Sci 2021 Apr 13;305:110807. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India. Electronic address:

The nitrogen (N) and protein concentration of wheat crop and grain often decline as a result of exposure of the crop to elevated CO (EC). In our earlier studies, it was found that the exacerbated production of nitric oxide (NO) represses the transcription of nitrate reductase (NR) and high affinity nitrate transporters (HATS) in EC grown wheat seedlings receiving high N. High N supply under EC also resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS; NO and S- nitrosothiols) ensuing faster senescence and reduced N metabolite concentration in wheat. Read More

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Ethylene-induced stomatal closure is mediated via MKK1/3-MPK3/6 cascade to EIN2 and EIN3.

J Integr Plant Biol 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

School of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710119, China.

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) play essential roles in guard cell signaling, but whether MPK cascades participate in guard cell ethylene signaling and interact with hydrogen peroxide (H O ), nitric oxide (NO), and ethylene-signaling components remain unclear. Here, we report that ethylene activated MPK3 and MPK6 in the leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana as well as ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), ein3, nitrate reductase1 (nia1), and nia2 mutants, but this effect was impaired in ethylene response1 (etr1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase AtrbohF, mpk kinase1 (mkk1), and mkk3 mutants. By contrast, the constitutive triple response1 (ctr1) mutant had constitutively active MPK3 and MPK6. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of β /β -adrenoceptor blockade on β -adrenoceptor activity in the rat cremaster muscle artery.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 27;178(8):1789-1804. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background And Purpose: The physiological role of vascular β -adrenoceptors is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests cardiac β -adrenoceptors are functionally effective after down-regulation of β /β -adrenoceptors. The functional interaction between the β -adrenoceptor and other β-adrenoceptor subtypes in rat striated muscle arteries was investigated. Read More

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Rapid, Nitric Oxide Synthesis-Dependent Activation of MMP-9 at Pericyte Somata During Capillary Ischemia .

Front Physiol 2020 11;11:619230. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States.

Nitric oxide serves essential roles in normal vascular physiology, but paradoxically contributes to vascular pathology in disease. During brain ischemia, aberrant nitric oxide levels can cause cellular injury through induction of nitrosative/oxidative stress and post-translational activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). We recently demonstrated that brain pericyte somata were associated with very early and localized MMP-9 activation along capillaries during cerebral ischemia, leading to focal blood-brain barrier disruption. Read More

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January 2021

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha limits dendritic cell stimulation of CD8 T cell immunity.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(12):e0244366. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Dendritic cells are sentinels of the immune system and represent a key cell in the activation of the adaptive immune response. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α)-a crucial oxygen sensor stabilized during hypoxic conditions-has been shown to have both activating and inhibitory effects in immune cells in a context- and cell-dependent manner. Previous studies have demonstrated that in some immune cell types, HIF-1α serves a pro-inflammatory role. Read More

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Proinflammatory Cytokines Perturb Mouse and Human Pancreatic Islet Circadian Rhythmicity and Induce Uncoordinated β-Cell Clock Gene Expression via Nitric Oxide, Lysine Deacetylases, and Immunoproteasomal Activity.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 23;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 3 Blegdamsvej, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Pancreatic β-cell-specific clock knockout mice develop β-cell oxidative-stress and failure, as well as glucose-intolerance. How inflammatory stress affects the cellular clock is under-investigated. Real-time recording of Per2:luciferase reporter activity in murine and human pancreatic islets demonstrated that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) lengthened the circadian period. Read More

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December 2020

The Expression of CD74-Regulated Inflammatory Markers in Stage IV Melanoma: Risk of CNS Metastasis and Patient Survival.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 14;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Innate inflammatory features have been found in melanoma tumors from patients at all stages, and molecular analysis has identified definitive inflammatory proteins expressed by tumors cells in patients who presents the worst prognosis. We have previously observed weakened outcomes in patients with constitutive expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and improved outcomes with CD74 expression in stage III melanoma. In our current study, we tested our hypothesis on CD74-regulated inflammatory markers' expression in stage IV melanoma tumors whether the signature is associated with survival outcome and/or risk of developing CNS metastasis. Read More

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December 2020

Nitric Oxide Inhibits NF-κB-mediated Survival Signaling: Possible Role in Overcoming TRAIL Resistance.

Anticancer Res 2020 Dec 7;40(12):6751-6763. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Translational Hematology Oncology Research (THOR), Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Chemoresistance is a major consequence of multicycle chemotherapy and can be attributed to constitutive activation of pro-survival signaling pathways. Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous signaling molecule which has been shown to inhibit several pathways involved with survival signaling in cancer cells. We have previously demonstrated the anti-tumor activity of a nitric oxide-donor, nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), mediated by increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) and its receptors in human tumors. Read More

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December 2020

Valproic acid alters nitric oxide status in neurulating mouse embryos.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Jan 4;99:152-159. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University "G. D'Annunzio", Chieti Pescara, Italy. Electronic address:

The molecular bases of the teratogenic effects elicited by valproic acid (VPA) are not fully defined. It was previously shown that inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is associated with an enhancement of the teratogenic effects of VPA, while amplification of NO signal by sildenafil prompted a dose-dependent reduction of VPA-induced neural tube defects. In this study, for the first time, the effect of VPA on the NO synthesis was evaluated in mouse embryos during early organogenesis. Read More

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January 2021


Wiad Lek 2020 ;73(9 cz. 2):1900-1903


Objective: The aim: To determine a possible role of nitric oxide system as one of the pathogenesis links in Stevens-Johnson syndrome depending on the severity of disease progression.

Patients And Methods: Material and methods: We examined 11 patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The function of nitric oxide system (NO - NOS) in blood serum was examined. Read More

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November 2020

Constitutive LH receptor activity impairs NO-mediated penile smooth muscle relaxation.

Reproduction 2021 Jan;161(1):31-41

Department of Physiology, Southern Illinois School of Medicine, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.

Timely activation of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) is critical for fertility. Activating mutations in LHCGR cause familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP) due to premature synthesis of testosterone. A mouse model of FMPP (KiLHRD582G), expressing a constitutively activating mutation in LHCGR, was previously developed in our laboratory. Read More

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January 2021

Involvement of overweight and lipid metabolism in the development of pulmonary hypertension under conditions of chronic intermittent hypoxia.

Pulm Circ 2020 Jul-Sep;10(1 Suppl):42-49. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Institute of Health Studies, Universidad Arturo Prat, Iquique, Chile.

There is growing evidence that exposure to hypoxia, regardless of the source, elicits several metabolic responses in individuals. These responses are constitutive and are usually observed under hypoxia but vary according to the type of exposure. The aim of this review was to describe the involvement of obesity and lipid metabolism in the development of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension and in the development of acute mountain sickness under chronic intermittent hypoxia. Read More

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October 2020

Modulation of hydrogen sulfide synthesis improves heart function and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in diabetes.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2021 May 16;99(5):549-555. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Blood Circulation, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. The endothelial dysfunction and diastolic heart dysfunction are associated with a decreasing level of hydrogen sulfide (HS) and inhibition of the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of modulation of HS synthesis on heart functions and vasorelaxation in diabetes. Read More

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Cell-specific expression of Hfe determines the outcome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice.

Haematologica 2020 10 13;Online ahead of print. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Internal Medicine II, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Rheumatology, Pneumology, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria; Christian Doppler Laboratory for Iron Metabolism and Anemia Research, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck.

Mutations in HFE cause hereditary hemochromatosis type I hallmarked by increased iron absorption, iron accumulation in hepatocytes and iron deficiency in myeloid cells. HFE encodes an MHC-I like molecule, but its function in immune responses to infection remains incompletely understood. Here, we investigated putative roles of Hfe in myeloid cells and hepatocytes, separately, upon infection with Salmonella Typhimurium, an intracellular bacterium with iron-dependent virulence. Read More

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October 2020

Role of constitutive nitric oxide synthases in the dynamic regulation of the autophagy response of keratinocytes upon UVB exposure.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2020 Nov;19(11):1559-1568

Edison Biotechnology Institute and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA.

Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces autophagy responses, which play a role in the regulation of the oncogenic processes of irradiated cells. However, the mechanism of autophagy responses post-UVB irradiation remains to be fully elucidated. Previous studies indicate that UVB radiation induces the activation and uncoupling of constitutive nitric oxide synthases (cNOS), which produce nitric oxide and peroxynitrite; both have been shown to regulate autophagy responses. Read More

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November 2020

Association of Cigarette Smoking With Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration, Neuroinflammation, and Oxidation.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2018777. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Neurological Disorder Research, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Importance: Cigarette smoking has been associated with risk of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer disease. The association between smoking and biomarkers of changes in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not fully understood.

Objective: To investigate the association of cigarette smoking with CSF biomarkers of neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, oxidation, and neuroprotection. Read More

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October 2020

Characterization of rat tail lymphatic contractility and biomechanics: incorporating nitric oxide-mediated vasoregulation.

J R Soc Interface 2020 09 30;17(170):20200598. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30313, USA.

The lymphatic system transports lymph from the interstitial space back to the great veins via a series of orchestrated contractions of chains of lymphangions. Biomechanical models of lymph transport, validated with or experimental results, have proved useful in revealing novel insight into lymphatic pumping; however, a need remains to characterize the contributions of vasoregulatory compounds in these modelling tools. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key mediator of lymphatic pumping. Read More

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September 2020

Dysregulation of Nitric Oxide Signaling in Microglia: Multiple Points of Functional Convergence in the Complex Pathophysiology of Alzheimer Disease.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Sep 25;26:e927739. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Center for Cognitive and Molecular Neuroscience, Prague, Czech Republic.

Current critical thinking has displaced the elaborated beta amyloid theory as the underlying unitary mechanism of Alzheimer disease (AD) in favor of concerted, long-term disruption or dysregulation of broad-based physiological processes. We present a critical discussion in which a chronic state of systemic proinflammation sustained over the course of several decades and engendered by ongoing metabolic or autoimmune disease is predicted to promote severe disruptions of central neurological processes. Specifically, long-term functional rundown of microglial-mediated phagocytic activity in concert with aberrant expression and cellular deposition of beta amyloid and tau protein facilitates formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Read More

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September 2020

Cerebral Vasodilator Property of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor (PJ34) in the Neonatal and Adult Mouse Is Mediated by the Nitric Oxide Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 8;21(18). Epub 2020 Sep 8.

UMR-S1144-Optimisation Thérapeutique en Neuropsychopharmacologie, Faculté de Pharmacie de Paris, Université de Paris, 4 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75006 Paris, France.

The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor PJ34 has been reported to improve endothelial dysfunction in the peripheral system. We addressed the role of PJ34 on the vascular tone and vasoreactivity during development in the mouse brain. Blood flows were measured in the basilar trunk using ultrasonography. Read More

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September 2020

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Human Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells Controls Oxidative Stress, Reactive Oxygen-Mediated Cell Signaling and Inflammatory Responses.

Front Physiol 2020 29;11:879. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.

Background: Perturbation of endothelial function in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been reported, which may be associated with endothelial cell expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Previous reports indicate that CFTR activity upregulates endothelial barrier function, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and NO release, while limiting interleukin-8 (IL-8) release, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in cell culture. In view of reported microvascular dysfunction in people with CF we investigated the role of CFTR expression and activity in the regulation of oxidative stress, cell signaling and inflammation in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs) in cell culture. Read More

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Emerging regulatory roles of opioid peptides, endogenous morphine, and opioid receptor subtypes in immunomodulatory processes: Metabolic, behavioral, and evolutionary perspectives.

Immunol Lett 2020 11 19;227:28-33. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Center for Cognitive and Molecular Neuroscience, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Integrated behavioral paradigms such as nociceptive processing coupled to anti-nociceptive responsiveness include systemically-mediated states of alertness, vigilance, motivation, and avoidance. Within a historical and cultural context, opium and its biologically active compounds, codeine and morphine, have been widely used as frontline anti-nociceptive agents. In eukaryotic cells, opiate alkaloids and opioid peptides were evolutionarily fashioned as regulatory factors in neuroimmune, vascular immune, and systemic immune communication and auto-immunoregulation. Read More

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November 2020

Modulation of NADPH oxidase and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by vanillin in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2020 Nov 3;72(11):1546-1555. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Objectives: To investigate the protective effect of vanillin in cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and elucidate the role of nrf-2 and its downstream antioxidant molecules.

Methods: Rats received vanillin (100 mg/kg orally) for 10 constitutive days and CP (7.5 mg/kg, once, ip) on day 6 of vanillin administration. Read More

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November 2020

Novel anti-thrombotic mechanisms mediated by Mas receptor as result of balanced activities between the kallikrein/kinin and the renin-angiotensin systems.

Pharmacol Res 2020 10 24;160:105096. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

The risk of thrombosis, a globally growing challenge and a major cause of death, is influenced by various factors in the intravascular coagulation, vessel wall, and cellular systems. Among the contributors to thrombosis, the contact activation system and the kallikrein/kinin system, two overlapping plasma proteolytic systems that are often considered as synonymous, regulate thrombosis from different aspects. On one hand, components of the contact activation system such as factor XII initiates activation of the coagulation proteins promoting thrombus formation on artificial surfaces through factor XI- and possibly prekallikrein-mediated intrinsic coagulation. Read More

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October 2020

Potential Immunoregulatory and Antiviral/SARS-CoV-2 Activities of Nitric Oxide.

Med Sci Monit 2020 May 26;26:e925679. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Center for Cognitive and Molecular Neuroscience, Prague, Czech Republic.

Nitric oxide (NO) represents a key signaling molecule in multiple regulatory pathways underlying vascular, metabolic, immune, and neurological function across animal phyla. Our brief critical discussion is focused on the multiple roles of the NO signaling pathways in the maintenance of basal physiological states of readiness in diverse cell types mediating innate immunological functions and in the facilitation of proinflammatory-mediated adaptive immunological responses associated with viral infections. Prior studies have reinforced the critical importance of constitutive NO signaling pathways in the homeostatic maintenance of the vascular endothelium, and state-dependent changes in innate immunological responses have been associated with a functional override of NO-mediated inhibitory tone. Read More

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Inhibition of Band 3 tyrosine phosphorylation: a new mechanism for treatment of sickle cell disease.

Br J Haematol 2020 08 28;190(4):599-609. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain how a glutamate to valine substitution in sickle haemoglobin (HbS) can cause sickle cell disease (SCD). We propose and document a new mechanism in which elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of Band 3 initiates sequelae that cause vaso-occlusion and the symptoms of SCD. In this mechanism, denaturation of HbS and release of heme generate intracellular oxidants which cause inhibition of erythrocyte tyrosine phosphatases, thus permitting constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of Band 3. Read More

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Nitrogen Depletion Blocks Growth Stimulation Driven by the Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Tobacco.

Front Plant Sci 2020 20;11:312. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata, Argentina.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a messenger molecule widespread studied in plant physiology. Latter evidence supports the lack of a NO-producing system involving a NO synthase (NOS) activity in higher plants. However, a NOS gene from the unicellular marine alga () was characterized in recent years. Read More

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