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Characterization of a composite with enhanced attraction to savannah tsetse flies from constituents or analogues of tsetse refractory waterbuck (Kobus defassa) body odor.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 1;15(6):e0009474. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.

Savannah tsetse flies avoid flying toward tsetse fly-refractory waterbuck (Kobus defassa) mediated by a repellent blend of volatile compounds in their body odor comprised of δ-octalactone, geranyl acetone, phenols (guaiacol and carvacrol), and homologues of carboxylic acids (C5-C10) and 2-alkanones (C8-C13). However, although the blends of carboxylic acids and that of 2-alkanones contributed incrementally to the repellency of the waterbuck odor to savannah tsetse flies, some waterbuck constituents (particularly, nonanoic acid and 2-nonanone) showed significant attractive properties. In another study, increasing the ring size of δ-octalactone from six to seven membered ring changed the activity of the resulting molecule (ε-nonalactone) on the savannah tsetse flies from repellency to attraction. Read More

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Novel TREM2 splicing isoform that lacks the V-set immunoglobulin domain is abundant in the human brain.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an immunoglobulin-like receptor expressed by certain myeloid cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, osteoclasts, and microglia. In the brain, TREM2 plays an important role in the immune function of microglia, and its dysfunction is linked to various neurodegenerative conditions in humans. Ablation of TREM2 or its adaptor protein TYROBP causes polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (also known as Nasu-Hakola disorder) with early onset of dementia, whereas some missense variants in TREM2 are associated with an increased risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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Identification and characterization of a novel carboxylesterase EstQ7 from a soil metagenomic library.

Arch Microbiol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Key Laboratory of Food Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, People's Republic of China.

A novel lipolytic gene, estq7, was identified from a fosmid metagenomic library. The recombinant enzyme EstQ7 consists of 370 amino acids with an anticipated molecular mass of 42 kDa. Multiple sequence alignments showed that EstQ7 contained a pentapeptide motif GHSMG, and a putative catalytic triad Ser174-Asp306-His344. Read More

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MorphoScript: a dedicated analysis to assess the morphology and contractile structures of cardiomyocytes derived from stem cells.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

PhyMedExp, INSERM, CNRS, University of Montpellier, Montpellier.

Motivation: Cardiomyocytes derived from stem cells are closely followed, notably since the discovery in 2007 of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). Cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) derived from hiPSC are indeed more and more used to study specific cardiac diseases as well as for developing novel applications such as drug safety experiments. Robust dedicated tools to characterize hiPSC-CM are now required. Read More

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A microfluidic device enabling deterministic single cell trapping and release.

Lab Chip 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Successful single-cell isolation is a pivotal technique for subsequent biological and chemical analysis of single cells. Although significant advances have been made in single-cell isolation and analysis techniques, most passive microfluidic devices cannot deterministically release trapped cells for further analysis. In this paper, we present a novel microfluidic device that can achieve high-efficiency cell trapping, which can then be released in a deterministic order. Read More

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CyberKnife Radiation Therapy as a Platform for Translational Mouse Studies.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 May 27:1-22. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology and CyberKnife Center, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: Cancer remains to be a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for almost 10 million deaths in 2018. Radiation therapy (RT) is a common nonsurgical treatment in the management of patients with cancer that reduces disease recurrence and improves overall survival. However, preclinical RT modeling for accelerated bench-to-bedside translation of combination therapies is largely missing. Read More

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The landscape of bispecific T cell engager in cancer treatment.

Biomark Res 2021 May 26;9(1):38. Epub 2021 May 26.

Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

T cell-based immunotherapies have revolutionized treatment paradigms in various cancers, however, limited response rates secondary to lack of significant T-cell infiltration in the tumor site remain a major problem. To address this limitation, strategies for redirecting T cells to treat cancer are being intensively investigated, while the bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) therapy constitutes one of the most promising therapeutic approaches. BiTE is a bispecific antibody construct with a unique function, simultaneously binding an antigen on tumor cells and a surface molecule on T cells to induce tumor lysis. Read More

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Molecular Mechanisms of Azole Resistance in Four Clinical Isolates.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Azole resistance constitutes a serious clinical problem in the management of infections caused by This study aimed to explore azole-resistant mechanisms in clinical isolates collected in Jinan, Shandong, China. In total, 22 samples were collected and analyzed. Among these, four isolates (28A, 28D, 28I, and 28J) exhibited high level of pan-azole-resistance that was Hsp90 dependent. Read More

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The chosen few-variations in common and rare soil bacteria across biomes.

ISME J 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Zurich, 8092, Switzerland.

Soil bacterial communities are dominated by a few abundant species, while their richness is associated with rare species with largely unknown ecological roles and biogeography. Analyses of previously published soil bacterial community data using a novel classification of common and rare bacteria indicate that only 0.4% of bacterial species can be considered common and are prevalent across biomes. Read More

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CORO6 Promotes Cell Growth and Invasion of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma via Activation of WNT Signaling.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:647301. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Urology, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes the most lethal type of genitourinary cancer. Understanding of RCC tumor biology helps to identify novel targets and develop directed treatments for patients with this type of cancer. Analysis from both The Cancer Genome Atlas Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma dataset and our RCC samples demonstrated that the expression level of CORO6 was significantly higher in RCC patients than in normal kidney tissues, and its level was highly associated with tumor stage and grade. Read More

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A Rodent Model of Mild Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

Front Neurol 2021 5;12:637947. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institut des Neurosciences Cognitives et Intégratives d'Aquitaine, CNRS UMR 5287, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

In the brain of full-term newborns, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), a consequence of severe hypoxia and ischemia due to low cardiac output, is frequently observed and results in cerebral injuries with dramatic consequences for life. To investigate the physiopathology of HIE, several animal models have been developed, but none closely replicate human cases, mostly because they are based on a single carotid ligation protocol. In the present study we aimed to develop a novel and more accurate HIE model in juvenile (post-natal days (PND) 14-16) rats. Read More

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Biotherapeutic-loaded injectable hydrogels as a synergistic strategy to support myocardial repair after myocardial infarction.

J Control Release 2021 May 20;335:216-236. Epub 2021 May 20.

Hengyang Medical College, Hunan Province Cooperative Innovation Center for Molecular Target New Drug Study & School of Pharmaceutical Science, Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Key Laboratory for Atherosclerology of Hunan Province, University of South China, 28 W Changsheng Road, Hengyang 421001, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Myocardial infarction (MI) has been considered as the leading cause of cardiovascular-related deaths worldwide. Although traditional therapeutic agents including various bioactive species such as growth factors, stem cells, and nucleic acids have demonstrated somewhat usefulness for the restoration of cardiac functions, the therapeutic efficiency remains unsatisfactory most likely due to the off-target-associated side effects and low localized retention of the used therapeutic agents in the infarcted myocardium, which constitutes a substantial barrier for the effective treatment of MI. Injectable hydrogels are regarded as a minimally invasive technology that can overcome the clinical and surgical limitations of traditional stenting by a modulated sol-gel transition and localized transport of a variety of encapsulated cargoes, leading to enhanced therapeutic efficiency and improved patient comfort and compliance. Read More

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The clinical role of host and bacterial-derived extracellular vesicles in pneumonia.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute for Lung Research, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Hesse, Germany; Department of Medical Microbiology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Pneumonia is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to constant evolution of respiratory bacteria and viruses, development of drug resistance and emerging pathogens, it constitutes a considerable health care threat. To enable development of novel strategies to control pneumonia, a better understanding of the complex mechanisms of interaction between host cells and infecting pathogens is vital. Read More

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Cancer-associated fibroblasts in non-small cell lung cancer: Recent advances and future perspectives.

Cancer Lett 2021 Aug 18;514:38-47. Epub 2021 May 18.

Hangzhou Cancer Institution, Affiliated Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310002, China; Key Laboratory of Clinical Cancer Pharmacology and Toxicology Research of Zhejiang Province, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310006, China; Zhejiang University Cancer Center, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes the majority of lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Nearly 70% of NSCLC patients were diagnosed at advanced stage with only 15% of five-year survival rate. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major component of tumor microenvironment and account for almost 70% of the cells in tumor tissues. Read More

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The Role of BCL-2 Proteins in the Development of Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer and Emerging Therapeutic Strategies.

Am J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul;44(7):374-382

Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

The development of androgen resistance in advanced prostate cancer remains a challenging clinical problem. Because androgen deprivation therapy constitutes the backbone of first-line treatments for metastatic prostate cancer, the phenotypic switch from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent growth state limits the treatment options for these patients. This critical change from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent growth state can be regulated by the B-cell lymphoma gene 2 (BCL-2) family of apoptotic proteins. Read More

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Characterization of a novel type of carbonic anhydrase that acts without metal cofactors.

BMC Biol 2021 May 18;19(1):105. Epub 2021 May 18.

Structural Biology Research Center, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801, Japan.

Background: Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are universal metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO) and bicarbonate (HCO). They are involved in various biological processes, including pH control, respiration, and photosynthesis. To date, eight evolutionarily unrelated classes of CA families (α, β, γ, δ, ζ, η, θ, and ι) have been identified. Read More

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Ecology, evolution, and epidemiology of zoonotic and vector-borne infectious diseases in French Guiana: Transdisciplinarity does matter to tackle new emerging threats.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 May 15;93:104916. Epub 2021 May 15.

ESPACE-DEV (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Université de la Réunion, Université des Antilles, Université de Guyane, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France; International Joint Laboratory "Sentinela" Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Universidade de Brasília, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Rio de Janeiro RJ-21040-900, Brazil.

French Guiana is a European ultraperipheric region located on the northern Atlantic coast of South America. It constitutes an important forested region for biological conservation in the Neotropics. Although very sparsely populated, with its inhabitants mainly concentrated on the Atlantic coastal strip and along the two main rivers, it is marked by the presence and development of old and new epidemic disease outbreaks, both research and health priorities. Read More

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The therapeutic potential of inorganic polyphosphate: A versatile physiological polymer to control coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

Theranostics 2021 15;11(13):6193-6213. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

ERC Advanced Investigator Grant Research Group at the Institute for Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is advancing rapidly. In particular, the number of severe courses of the disease is still dramatically high. An efficient drug therapy that helps to improve significantly the fatal combination of damages in the airway epithelia, in the extensive pulmonary microvascularization and finally multiorgan failure, is missing. Read More

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Gaseous Mediators as a Key Molecular Targets for the Development of Gastrointestinal-Safe Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacology.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:657457. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Physiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the most widely used classes of drugs and play a pivotal role in the therapy of numerous inflammatory diseases. However, the adverse effects of these drugs, especially when applied chronically, frequently affect gastrointestinal (GI) tract, resulting in ulceration and bleeding, which constitutes a significant limitation in clinical practice. On the other hand, it has been recently discovered that gaseous mediators nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (HS) and carbon monoxide (CO) contribute to many physiological processes in the GI tract, including the maintenance of GI mucosal barrier integrity. Read More

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Current clinical applications and potential perspective of micro-computed tomography in cardiovascular imaging: A systematic scoping review.

Hellenic J Cardiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

First Department of Cardiology, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, St. Kiriakidi 1, 54636, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) constitutes an emerging imaging technique, which can be utilized in cardiovascular medicine to study in-detail the microstructure of heart and vessels. This paper aims to systematically review the clinical utility of micro-CT in cardiovascular imaging and propose future applications of micro-CT imaging in cardiovascular research. A systematic scoping review was conducted by searching for original studies written in English according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for scoping reviews. Read More

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Simultaneous remediation and fertility improvement of heavy metals contaminated soil by a novel composite hydrogel synthesized from food waste.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 20;275:129984. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

The State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, 200092, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, 1515 North Zhongshan Rd. (No. 2), Shanghai, 200092, PR China. Electronic address:

Soil contamination by heavy metals constitutes a serious global environmental problem, and numerous remediation technologies have been developed. In this study, a novel soil remediation agent, namely composite hydrogel (leftover rice-g-poly(acrylic acid)/montmorillonite/Urea, LR-g-PAA/MMT/urea), was prepared based on free radical polymerization cross-linking technology. Experimental results indicated that the LR-g-PAA/MMT/urea dosage increased from 0% to 10%, the oxidizable state proportions of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in contaminated soil increased from 8. Read More

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"Web-based, second-best togetherness": Psychosocial group intervention with children of Holocaust survivors during COVID-19.

Authors:
Irit V Felsen

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):171-180

Department of Psychology, Columbia University.

Evidence from multiple samples of trauma-exposed populations across the globe suggests that intergenerational trauma constitutes a biopsychological risk factor which manifests itself throughout the life cycle of offspring of trauma survivors. Prior empirical studies have shown that adult children of Holocaust survivors (OHS, also referred to in select quotes as 2G for "Second Generation") are vulnerable to life-threatening situations. This study aimed to examine the reactions of OHS to the COVID-19 pandemic, which posed a serious threat to the lives of many, in particular to older adults. Read More

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Novel approach for Monte Carlo simulation of the new COVID-19 spread dynamics.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 08 7;92:104896. Epub 2021 May 7.

National Technical University of Athens, Physics Department, Greece.

A Monte Carlo simulation in a novel approach is used for studying the problem of the outbreak and spread dynamics of the new COVID-19 pandemic in this work. In particular, our goal was to generate epidemiological data based on natural mechanism of transmission of this disease assuming random interactions of a large-finite number of individuals in very short distance ranges. In the simulation we also take into account the stochastic character of the individuals in a finite population and given densities of people. Read More

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Prospective inference of bioprocess cell viability through chemometric modeling of fluorescence multiway data.

Biotechnol Prog 2021 May 10:e3173. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratorio de Desarrollo Analítico y Quimiometría (LADAQ), Cátedra de Química Analítica I, Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, Santa Fe, Argentina.

In this investigation, the fermentation step of a standard mammalian cell-based industrial bioprocess for the production of a therapeutic protein was studied, with particular emphasis on the evolution of cell viability. This parameter constitutes one of the critical variables for bioprocess monitoring since it can affect downstream operations and the quality of the final product. In addition, when the cells experiment an unpredictable drop in viability, the assessment of this variable through classic off-line methods may not provide information sufficiently in advance to take corrective actions. Read More

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Multiple sclerosis is linked to MAPK overactivity in microglia.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department Biomedical Sciences of Cells & Systems, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Reassessment of published observations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suggests a microglial malfunction due to inappropriate (over)activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway ERK (MAPK). These observations regard biochemistry as well as epigenetics, and all indicate involvement of this pathway. Recent preclinical research on neurodegeneration already pointed towards a role of MAPK pathways, in particular MAPK. Read More

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News from Mars: Two-Tier Paradox, Intracellular PCR, Chimeric Junction Shift, Dark Matter mRNA and Other Remarkable Features of Mammalian RNA-Dependent mRNA Amplification. Implications for Alzheimer's Disease, RNA-Based Vaccines and mRNA Therapeutics.

Ann Integr Mol Med 2021 ;2:131-173

Division of Molecular Medicine, Children's Hospital, USA.

Molecular Biology, a branch of science established to examine the flow of information from "letters" encrypted into DNA structure to functional proteins, was initially defined by a concept of DNA-to-RNA-to-Protein information movement, a notion termed the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology. RNA-dependent mRNA amplification, a novel mode of eukaryotic protein-encoding RNA-to-RNA-to-Protein genomic information transfer, constitutes the extension of the Central Dogma in the context of mammalian cells. It was shown to occur in cellular circumstances requiring exceptionally high levels of production of specific polypeptides, e. Read More

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January 2021

Neurovascular coupling (NVC) in newborns using processed EEG versus amplitude-EEG.

Sci Rep 2021 May 3;11(1):9426. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

There is a critical need for development of real time physiological biomarkers for birth asphyxia that constitutes a major global public health burden. Our recent study (Scientific Reports, V10:9183, 2020) established a novel non-invasive neurovascular coupling (NVC) assessment in newborns using dynamic wavelet transform coherence (WTC) analysis irrespective of different aEEG algorithms. As an extended study, the current paper examines whether the variability in processed EEG and amplitude-EEG (aEEG) outputs would impact the determination of NVC in newborns with encephalopathy. Read More

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AI-Based Estimation of End-Systolic Elastance From Arm-Pressure and Systolic Time Intervals.

Front Artif Intell 2021 14;4:579541. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Laboratory of Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular Technology, Institute of Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Left ventricular end-systolic elastance (E) is a major determinant of cardiac systolic function and ventricular-arterial interaction. Previous methods for the E estimation require the use of the echocardiographic ejection fraction (EF). However, given that EF expresses the stroke volume as a fraction of end-diastolic volume (EDV), accurate interpretation of EF is attainable only with the additional measurement of EDV. Read More

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Bispecific NKG2D-CD3 and NKG2D-CD16 Fusion Proteins as Novel Treatment Option in Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:653081. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Cluster of Excellence iFIT (EXC 2180) "Image-Guided and Functionally Instructed Tumor Therapies", University of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) constitutes a rare group of heterogeneous malignancies. Effective treatment options for most subtypes of STS are still limited. As a result, especially in metastatic disease, prognosis is still dismal. Read More

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A phase 1 study of the pan-bromodomain and extraterminal inhibitor mivebresib (ABBV-075) alone or in combination with venetoclax in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California-Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous malignancy driven by genetic and epigenetic factors. Inhibition of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins, epigenetic readers that play pivotal roles in the regulation of genes relevant to cancer pathogenesis, constitutes a novel AML treatment approach.

Methods: In this first-in-human study of the pan-BET inhibitor mivebresib as monotherapy (MIV-mono) or in combination with venetoclax (MIV-Ven), the safety profile, efficacy, and pharmacodynamics of mivebresib were determined in patients with relapsed/refractory AML (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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