3,403 results match your criteria constituent materials

Stretchable Inorganic GaN-Nanowire Photosensor with High Photocurrent and Photoresponsivity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Electronic and Information Materials Engineering, Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, and Research Center of Advanced Materials Development, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, South Korea.

To effectively implement wearable systems, their constituent components should be made stretchable. We successfully fabricated highly efficient stretchable photosensors made of inorganic GaN nanowires (NWs) as light-absorbing media and graphene as a carrier channel on polyurethane substrates using the pre-strain method. When a GaN-NW photosensor was stretched at a strain level of 50%, the photocurrent was measured to be 0. Read More

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Self-assembly of Amphiphilic Porphyrins to Construct Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Photodynamic Therapy.

Chemistry 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Techn. Inst. Phys & Chem, No.29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, 100190, Beijing, CHINA.

Hydrophobic photosensitizers greatly affect the cell permeability and enrichment in tumours. They cannot be used directly for clinical applications because they always reunite in water, preventing their circulation in the blood and accumulation in tumour cells. As a result, amphiphilic photosensitizers are highly desirable. Read More

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Polymer Self-Assembly Induced Enhancement of Ice Recrystallization Inhibition.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, CV4 7AL Coventry, U.K.

Ice binding proteins modulate ice nucleation/growth and have huge (bio)technological potential. There are few synthetic materials that reproduce their function, and rational design is challenging due to the outstanding questions about the mechanisms of ice binding, including whether ice binding is essential to reproduce all their macroscopic properties. Here we report that nanoparticles obtained by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) inhibit ice recrystallization (IRI) despite their constituent polymers having no apparent activity. Read More

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Vacuum brazing of AlO and 3D printed Ti6Al4V lap-joints using high entropy driven AlZnCuFeSi filler.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 30;11(1):9345. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, 16499, Korea.

In this work, we studied the brazing characteristics of AlO and 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V alloys using a novel equiatomic AlZnCuFeSi high entropy alloy filler (HEAF). The HEAF was prepared by mechanical alloying of the constituent powder and spark plasma sintering (SPS) approach. The filler microstructure, wettability and melting point were investigated. Read More

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UPLC-PDA-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS fingerprint of purified flavonoid enriched fraction of ; antioxidant properties, anticholinesterase activity and in studies.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):444-456

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Context: (Lam.) Oken (Crassulaceae) is used traditionally to treat many ailments.

Objectives: This study characterizes the constituents of flavonoid-rich fraction (BPFRF) and investigates their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity using and approaches. Read More

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December 2021

Understanding the scaling of boson peak through elastic heterogeneity insensitive to bending rigidity in polymer glasses.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Osaka University Graduate School of Engineering Science School of Engineering Science, 1-3, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531, JAPAN.

Amorphous materials exhibit peculiar mechanical and vibrational properties, including non-affine elastic responses and excess vibrational states, i.e., the so-called boson peak. Read More

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Toxicity, mutagenicity and trace metal constituent of Termitomyces schimperi (Pat.) R. Heim (Lyophyllaceae) and kaolin, a recipe used traditionally in cancer management in Cote d'Ivoire.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 28;276:114147. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, PO Box LG 43 Legon, Accra, Ghana. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Some local communities in Cote d'Ivoire use the mushroom Termitomyces schimperi combined with kaolin (TSK) to manage various cancers in patients. However, there is a paucity of data on toxicity, mutagenicity and trace metal constituent of TSK.

Aim Of The Study: We sought to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicities, mutagenic potential, and trace metal constituents of TSK. Read More

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Symbiotic assembly of peptide nano-mosaics at solid interfaces.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr;13(16):7735-7743

Molecular Engineering and Sciences Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

The spontaneous co-organization of distinct biomolecules at interfaces enables many of Nature's hierarchical organizations involving both hard and soft materials. Engineering efforts to mimic such hybrid complexes rely on our ability to rationally structure biomolecules at inorganic interfaces. Control over the nanoscale structure of patterned biomolecules remains challenging due to difficulties in controlling the multifarious interactions involved. Read More

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Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-ray Tomography.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

The applications of polymeric sponges are varied, ranging from cleaning and filtration to medical applications. The specific properties of polymeric foams, such as pore size and connectivity, are dependent on their constituent materials and production methods. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) offer complementary information about the structure and properties of porous media. Read More

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Preparation of Cemented Oil Shale Residue-Steel Slag-Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Backfill and Its Environmental Impact.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 19;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Civil Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000, China.

A new environmentally friendly cemented oil shale residue-steel slag-ground granulated blast furnace slag backfill (COSGB) was prepared using oil shale residue (OSR), steel slag (SS) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as constituent materials. Based on univariate analysis and the Box-Behnken design (BBD) response surface method, the three responses of the 28 days unconfined compressive strength (UCS), slump and cost were used to optimize the mix ratio. Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), the reaction products, microscopic morphology and pore structure of the specimens with the optimal mix ratio at different curing ages were analyzed. Read More

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Natural Fibres as a Sustainable Reinforcement Constituent in Aligned Discontinuous Polymer Composites Produced by the HiPerDiF Method.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Bristol Composites Institute, School of Civil, Aerospace, and Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen's Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR, UK.

Sustainable fibre reinforced polymer composites have drawn significant attention in many industrial sectors as a means for overcoming issues with end-of-life regulations and other environmental concerns. Plant based natural fibres are considered to be the most suitable reinforcement for sustainable composites since they are typically from renewable resources, are cheap, and are biodegradable. In this study, a number of plant based natural fibres-curaua, flax, and jute fibres-are used to reinforce epoxy, poly(lactic acid) (PLA), and polypropylene (PP) matrices to form aligned discontinuous natural fibre reinforced composites (ADNFRC). Read More

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Design of Experiment on Concrete Mechanical Properties Prediction: A Critical Review.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kangar 01000, Malaysia.

Concrete mix design and the determination of concrete performance are not merely engineering studies, but also mathematical and statistical endeavors. The study of concrete mechanical properties involves a myriad of factors, including, but not limited to, the amount of each constituent material and its proportion, the type and dosage of chemical additives, and the inclusion of different waste materials. The number of factors and combinations make it difficult, or outright impossible, to formulate an expression of concrete performance through sheer experimentation. Read More

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Effect of Synergistic Action of Bovine Lactoferrin with Antibiotics on Drug Resistant Bacterial Pathogens.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 2;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain P.O. Box 15551, United Arab Emirates.

: The multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogenic infection is one of the chief worldwide public health threat to humanity. The development of novel antibiotics against MDR Gram negative bacteria has reduced over the last half century. Research is in progress regarding the treatment strategies that could be engaged in combination with antibiotics to extend the duration of these life-saving antibacterial agents. Read More

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Highly Strain-Tunable Interlayer Excitons in MoS/WSe Heterobilayers.

Nano Lett 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States.

Interlayer excitons in heterobilayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have generated enormous interest due to their permanent vertical dipole moments and long lifetimes. However, the effects of mechanical strain on the optoelectronic properties of interlayer excitons in heterobilayers remain relatively uncharacterized. Here, we experimentally demonstrate strain tuning of Γ- interlayer excitons in molybdenum disulfide and tungsten diselenide (MoS/WSe) wrinkled heterobilayers and obtain a deformation potential constant of ∼107 meV/% uniaxial strain, which is approximately twice that of the intralayer excitons in the constituent monolayers. Read More

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Direct observation of chemical short-range order in a medium-entropy alloy.

Nature 2021 Apr 28;592(7856):712-716. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Center for Alloy Innovation and Design (CAID), State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Complex concentrated solutions of multiple principal elements are being widely investigated as high- or medium-entropy alloys (HEAs or MEAs), often assuming that these materials have the high configurational entropy of an ideal solution. However, enthalpic interactions among constituent elements are also expected at normal temperatures, resulting in various degrees of local chemical order. Of the local chemical orders that can develop, chemical short-range order (CSRO) is arguably the most difficult to decipher and firm evidence of CSRO in these materials has been missing thus far. Read More

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The CdTiO/BaTiO superlattice interface from first principles.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Materials Genome Institute, International Center for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China. and State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

The oxide interface has been studied extensively in the past decades and exhibits different physical properties from the constituent bulks. Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, we investigated the interface of CdTiO3/BaTiO3 (CTO/BTO) superlattice with ferroelectric BaTiO3. In this case, the conduction bands of CdTiO3 are composed of Cd-5s orbitals with low electron effective mass and nondegenerate dispersion, and thus expected to have high mobility. Read More

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The catalytic performance of CuZrAlY amorphous ribbons in the degradation of AO II dye wastewater.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, 110870, China.

Metallic glasses (MGs) with unique disordered atomic stacking structures exhibit excellent catalytic performance in wastewater treatment. The catalytic degradation of Orange II (AO II) aqueous solutions by four CuZr-based MG ribbons under such processing parameters as pH values, the dosage of ribbons, and temperature was investigated in this paper. The catalytic performance of the MG ribbons was characterized by using the degradation efficiency of the dye wastewater. Read More

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Three-Dimensional Printing of Self-Assembled Dipeptides.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 26;13(17):20573-20580. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China.

Peptide-based materials are emerging as smart building blocks for nanobiodevices due to the programmability of their properties via the molecular constituents or arrangements. Many clever molecular self-assembly approaches have been devised to produce peptide crystalline structures. However, their freeform shaping remains a challenge due to the intrinsic self-assembly nature. Read More

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General Trends in Core-Shell Preferences for Bimetallic Nanoparticles.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund, Sweden.

Surface segregation phenomena dictate core-shell preference of bimetallic nanoparticles and thus play a crucial role in the nanoparticle synthesis and applications. Although it is generally agreed that surface segregation depends on the constituent materials' physical properties, a comprehensive picture of the phenomena on the nanoscale is not yet complete. Here we use a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations on 45 bimetallic combinations to determine the general trend on the core-shell preference and the effects of size and composition. Read More

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A hybrid topological and shape-matching approach for structure analysis.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(15):154502

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, India.

Properties of crystalline and amorphous materials are characterized by the underlying long-range and local crystalline order. Deformations and defects are structural hallmarks of plasticity, ice formation, and crystal growth mechanisms. Partitioning topological networks into constituent crystal building blocks, which is the basis of topological identification criteria, is an intuitive approach for classification in both bulk and confinement. Read More

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Investigation of in vitro odonto/osteogenic capacity of cannabidiol on human dental pulp cell.

J Dent 2021 Apr 16;109:103673. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Graduate Periodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, MI, 48208, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Vital pulp treatment (VPT) maintains tooth vitality with certain dental materials by protecting pulp from noxious stimulation and promoting repair through enhancing cell proliferation/differentiation, migration, and inducing odontogenesis. As a non-psychotropic cannabis constituent, cannabidiol (CBD) possesses the properties of analgesic, anti-inflammation, and osteogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that CBD may induce the odonto/osteogenesis of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), a critical feature using as effective pulp capping agent for VPT. Read More

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Controllable morphology of electrospun nanofiber membranes with tunable groove structure and the enhanced filtration performance for ultrafine particulates.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology, Beijing, CHINA.

As researchers are striving to develop high-performance filtration membranes with hierarchical micro/nano structures, the challenges and costs of processing often limit creative innovation. Here, we propose a polyethersulfone/polyacrylonitrile (PES/PAN) nanofiber membrane with groove structure by electrospinning and post-processing. The resulted membrane can form a groove structure on the surface of the fiber after being soaked in chloroform, thereby increasing the collision probability and extending the retention time of ultrafine particulates and improving the filtration efficiency. Read More

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Strain fields in twisted bilayer graphene.

Nat Mater 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Van der Waals heteroepitaxy allows deterministic control over lattice mismatch or azimuthal orientation between atomic layers to produce long-wavelength superlattices. The resulting electronic phases depend critically on the superlattice periodicity and localized structural deformations that introduce disorder and strain. In this study we used Bragg interferometry to capture atomic displacement fields in twisted bilayer graphene with twist angles <2°. Read More

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A study of dopant incorporation in Te-doped GaAsSb nanowires using a combination of XPS/UPS, and C-AFM/SKPM.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8329. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Nanoengineering, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27401, USA.

We report the first study on doping assessment in Te-doped GaAsSb nanowires (NWs) with variation in Gallium Telluride (GaTe) cell temperature, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). The NWs were grown using Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with a GaTe captive source as the dopant cell. Te-incorporation in the NWs was associated with a positive shift in the binding energy of the 3d shells of the core constituent elements in doped NWs in the XPS spectra, a lowering of the work function in doped NWs relative to undoped ones from UPS spectra, a significantly higher photoresponse in C-AFM and an increase in surface potential of doped NWs observed in SKPM relative to undoped ones. Read More

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Highly efficient photosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide in ambient conditions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, 510275 Guangzhou, China;

Photosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide (HO) in ambient conditions remains neither cost effective nor environmentally friendly enough because of the rapid charge recombination. Here, a photocatalytic rate of as high as 114 μmol⋅g⋅h for the production of HO in pure water and open air is achieved by using a Z-scheme heterojunction, which outperforms almost all reported photocatalysts under the same conditions. An extensive study at the atomic level demonstrates that Z-scheme electron transfer is realized by improving the photoresponse of the oxidation semiconductor under visible light, when the difference between the Fermi levels of the two constituent semiconductors is not sufficiently large. Read More

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Ultralow Thermal Conductivity in Diamondoid Structures and High Thermoelectric Performance in (CuAg)(InGa)Te.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 13;143(15):5978-5989. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.

Owing to the diversity of composition and excellent transport properties, the ternary I-III-VI type diamond-like chalcopyrite compounds are attractive functional semiconductors, including as thermoelectric materials. In this family, CuInTe and CuGaTe are well investigated and achieve maximum values of ∼1.4 at 950 K and an average of 0. Read More

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Antidiabetic effect of seeds extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: a statistical evaluation.

J Investig Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.

Undoubtedly, identification of the chemical composition of organic extracts or secondary metabolites of plant materials and evaluation of their potential bioactivity are among the main objectives of natural products-based investigations. In the present study, we report the chemical composition and antidiabetic activity of (Family Fabaceae) seeds extract (SPE) for the first time. First, the plant seeds were macerated in ethanol. Read More

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Synthesis of beta-tricalcium phosphate catalyst from Herring fishbone for the transesterification of parsley seed oil.

Environ Technol 2021 May 2:1-13. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Chemical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

The transesterification of parsley seed oil using a heterogeneous catalyst prepared from Herring fishbone (HFB) was investigated in this study. The fishbone was calcined at 900C for 4 h to convert the calcium phosphate in the bone to beta-tricalcium phosphate. The prepared catalyst was then characterized by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to determine its morphology and elemental composition. Read More

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Modulation of Interfacial Thermal Transport between Fumed Silica Nanoparticles by Surface Chemical Functionalization for Advanced Thermal Insulation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 11;13(15):17404-17411. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-856, Japan.

Since solid-state heat transport in a highly porous nanocomposite strongly depends on the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) between constituent nanomaterials, further suppression of the TBC is important for improving performance of thermal insulators. Here, targeting a nanocomposite fabricated by stamping fumed silica nanoparticles, we perform a wide variety of surface functionalizations on fumed silica nanoparticles by a silane coupling method and investigate the impact on the thermal conductivity (). The of the silica nanocomposite is approximately 20 and 9 mW/m/K under atmospheric and vacuum conditions at the material density of 0. Read More

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Self-Isolated Raman Lasing with a Chiral Dielectric Metasurface.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):123201

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

The light sources that power photonic networks are small and scalable, but they also require the incorporation of optical isolators that allow light to pass in one direction only, protecting the light source from damaging backreflections. Unfortunately, the size and complex integration of optical isolators makes small-scale and densely integrated photonic networks infeasible. Here, we overcome this limitation by designing a single device that operates both as a coherent light source and as its own optical isolator. Read More

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