14,689 results match your criteria considering cost

Socio-economic drivers of rising CO emissions at the sectoral and sub-regional levels in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 19;290:112617. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A, 2361, Austria. Electronic address:

As the world's largest inland shipping channel, the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) is strategic to China's sustainable development where policymakers are increasingly emphasizing not only this region's economic development but also its CO emission reduction targets. To achieve emission targets in the YREB region, it is essential to identify the driving forces of its CO emissions. However, existing studies are not very refined and only examine the overall effects of drivers on CO emission changes, while neglecting the sub-regional and sectoral level effects across China. Read More

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Soybean herbage yield, nutritional value and profitability under integrated manures management.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 16;93(1):e20181384. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Poonch Rawalakot (AJK), Rawalakot-12350, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Organic manures are more preferred and environmentally friendly than chemical fertilizers for minimally contaminating soil, water and environmental resources, but the determination of right source of organic manures continues to remain an unexplored aspect. Considering the important issue, a multi-year field trial was carried out to determine the response of forage soybean to four sources of nutrients such as chemical fertilizers (IF), poultry litter (PL), bovine's farm yard slurry (BFYS) and sewage sludge (SS) and their seven binary combinations (PL+BFYS, PL+SS, PL+IF, BFYS+SS, BFYS+IF, SS+IF and PL+BFYS+SS). Supplementation of organic manures with mineral fertilizers remained superior to their sole application, particularly BFYS + IF was found significantly (p≤0. Read More

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Occipital Nerve Stimulation for Refractory Chronic Cluster Headache: A Cost-Effectiveness Study.

Neuromodulation 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Université Côte d'Azur, CHU de Nice, Nice, France.

Introduction: Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is proposed to treat refractory chronic cluster headache (rCCH), but its cost-effectiveness has not been evaluated, limiting its diffusion and reimbursement.

Materials And Methods: We performed a before-and-after economic study, from data collected prospectively in a nation-wide registry. We compared the cost-effectiveness of ONS associated with conventional treatment (intervention and postintervention period) to conventional treatment alone (preintervention period) in the same patients. Read More

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Testicular cancer follow-up costs in Germany from 2000 to 2015.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Fifth Department of Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, Mannheim, 68167, Germany.

Purpose: Advances in testicular cancer screening and therapy increased 10-year survival to 97% despite a rising incidence; eventually expanding the population of survivors requiring follow-up. We analyzed 10-year follow-up costs after testicular cancer treatment in Germany during 2000, 2008, and 2015.

Methods: Testicular cancer follow-up guidelines were extracted from the European Association of Urology. Read More

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Mobile Health Apps and Health Management Behaviors: Cost-Benefit Modeling Analysis.

Rita Mano

JMIR Hum Factors 2021 Apr 22;8(2):e21251. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Human Services, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Rising criticism about the risks associated with the use of mobile health apps necessitates a critical perspective to assess the use of these apps. A cost-benefit approach involving several moderating factors can be used to detect technology effects and individual-level push and pull factors related to health attitudes, lifestyle, and health management behaviors.

Objective: We introduce a cost-benefit perspective to examine how health attitudes related to mobile health apps and health situational factors (health crises, health changes, and hospitalization) affect the likelihood of adopting lifestyle and health management behaviors among app users. Read More

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Rapid nanopore-based DNA sequencing protocol of antibiotic-resistant bacteria for use in surveillance and outbreak investigation.

Microb Genom 2021 Apr;7(4)

Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.

Outbreak investigations are essential to control and prevent the dissemination of pathogens. This study developed and validated a complete analysis protocol for faster and more accurate surveillance and outbreak investigations of antibiotic-resistant microbes based on Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) DNA whole-genome sequencing. The protocol was developed using 42 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) isolates identified from former well-characterized outbreaks. Read More

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A Systematic Review of Nurse-Led Antiretroviral Medication Adherence Intervention Trials: How Nurses Have Advanced the Science.

J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Crystal Chapman Lambert, PhD, CRNP, ACRN, is an Associate Professor, School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Brooke Galland, BS, is a Master's Entry to Nursing Student, School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Maithe Enriquez, APRN, PhD, FAAN, is a Professor, Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri Health, Columbia, Missouri, USA. Nancy R. Reynolds, PhD, RN, ANP, FAAN, is a Professor, School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Abstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential to achieving viral suppression and improving health and clinical outcomes in persons living with HIV. Despite the effectiveness of ART and many promising evidence-based ART adherence interventions, viral suppression rates continue to be less than optimal. Nurses play pivotal roles in HIV care management, yet their role in the development and delivery of evidence-based adherence interventions has received little attention. Read More

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Single-Dilution COVID-19 Antibody Test with Qualitative and Quantitative Readouts.

mSphere 2021 Apr 21;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to place an immense burden on societies and health care systems. A key component of COVID-19 control efforts is serological testing to determine the community prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and quantify individual immune responses to prior SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. Here, we describe a laboratory-developed antibody test that uses readily available research-grade reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 exposure in patient blood samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Read More

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Optimal vial sizes for infliximab injection: a simulation study of Japanese demographic data.

Int J Pharm Pract 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto, Japan.

Objectives: Drug wastage costs in the medical field must be reduced, particularly for expensive biological drugs. In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has developed specific criteria for the divided use of injectable vials and vial sharing of anticancer injection drugs to reduce drug wastage. This study investigates the optimal vial size for infliximab infusion to reduce drug wastage in Japan. Read More

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Health Economic Aspects of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapies for Hematological Cancers: Present and Future.

Hemasphere 2021 Feb 28;5(2):e524. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Since 2018, 2 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies received approval from the European Medicine Agency, with list prices around 320 000 Euro (€) (EUR) per treatment. These high prices raise concerns for patient access and the sustainability of healthcare systems. We aimed to estimate the costs and budget impact associated with CAR T-cell therapies for current and future indications in hematological cancers from 2019 to 2029. Read More

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February 2021

The performance of iPad-based noise-field perimeter versus Humphrey Field Analyser in detecting glaucomatous visual field loss.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: To conduct a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of visual field fast (VFF), a free iPad-based noise-field perimeter, in detecting glaucomatous scotomas versus the clinical-standard Humphrey visual field (HVF) test. VFF confronts subjects with a screen of flickering stimulus, allowing the immediate perception of scotomas.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of 66 glaucoma patients (66 eyes) and 30 healthy controls (30 eyes). Read More

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Screening for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea in primary health care: systematic reviews on effectiveness and patient preferences.

Syst Rev 2021 Apr 19;10(1):118. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 11405 87 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1C9, Canada.

Background: We conducted systematic reviews on the benefits and harms of screening compared with no screening or alternative screening approaches for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in non-pregnant sexually active individuals, and on the relative importance patients' place on the relevant outcomes. Findings will inform recommendations by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.

Methods: We searched five databases (to January 24, 2020), trial registries, conference proceedings, and reference lists for English and French literature published since 1996. Read More

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[Economic burden of diabetic patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.]

Recenti Prog Med 2021 Apr;112(4):302-310

Faculty of Economics, Economic Evaluation and HTA (EEHTA), CEIS, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Roma - Institute for Leadership and Management in Health, Kingston University London, London, UK.

Objectives: The analysis aimed to quantify the number and costs of patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or with risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease from the Regional Health Service (RHS) perspective of the Marche region.

Materials And Methods: A cost of illness (COI) model was developed to estimate the economic burden associated with diabetes and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Data were extrapolated from the administrative database of the Marche region and specific inclusion criteria for enrolling patients were adapted from DECLARE-TIMI 58 clinical trial. Read More

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Breaking the Passivation: Sodium Borohydride Synthesis by Reacting Hydrated Borax with Aluminium.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

South China University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, CHINA.

A significant obstacle in the large-scale applications of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) for hydrogen storage is its high cost. Herein, we report a new method to synthesize NaBH4 by ball milling hydrated sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) with low-cost Al or Al88Si12, instead of Na, Mg or Ca. An effective strategy is developed to facilitate mass transfer during the reaction by introducing NaH to enable the formation of NaAlO2 instead of dense Al2O3 on Al surface, and by using Si as a milling additive to prevent agglomeration and also break up passivation layers. Read More

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The legal feasibility of adopting a sugar-sweetened beverage tax in seven sub-Saharan African countries.

Glob Health Action 2021 Jan;14(1):1884358

SAMRC/Wits Centre for Health Economics and Decision Science - Priority Cost Effective Lessons for Systems Strengthening (PRICELESS SA), School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

: A number of countries have adopted sugar-sweetened beverage taxes to prevent non-communicable diseases but there is variance in the structures and rates of the taxes. As interventions, sugar-sweetened beverage taxes could be cost-effective but must be compliant with existing legal and taxation systems.: To assess the legal feasibility of introducing or strengthening taxation laws related to sugar-sweetened beverages, for prevention of non-communicable diseases in seven countries: Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Read More

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January 2021

Threshold effects of COVID-19-confirmed cases on change in pollutants changes: evidence from the Chinese top ten cities.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Economics and Management, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao, 266580, People's Republic of China.

A more comprehensive understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on changes in pollution could serve us to better deal with the environmental challenges caused by the pandemic. Existing studies mainly focused on the linear impact of the pandemic on the pollutants without considering the impact of other factors. To fill the research gap, the nonlinear relationship between pandemic and pollutants with considering the temperature factor was explored by developing panel threshold regression approach. Read More

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Nanofabrication Techniques: Challenges and Future Prospects.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Oct;21(10):4981-5013

Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, South Korea.

Nanofabrication of functional micro/nano-features is becoming increasingly relevant in various electronic, photonic, energy, and biological devices globally. The development of these devices with special characteristics originates from the integration of low-cost and high-quality micro/nano-features into 3D-designs. Great progress has been achieved in recent years for the fabrication of micro/nanostructured based devices by using different imprinting techniques. Read More

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October 2021

Achievable productivities of certain CAM plants: basis for high values compared with C and C plants.

Park S Nobel

New Phytol 1991 Oct;119(2):183-205

Department of Biology and Laboratory of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA.

CAM species, which taxonomically are at least five times more numerous than C species, often grow-slowly, as is the case for various short-statured cacti and many epiphytes in several families, However, slow growth is not a necessary corollary of the CAM photosynthetic pathway, as can be appreciated by considering the energetics of CO fixation. For every CO fixed photosynthetically, C plants require 3 ATP and 2 NADPH, whereas the extra enzymatic reactions and compartmentation complexity for C plants require 4 or 5 ATP and 2 NADPH, and CAM plants require 5.5-6. Read More

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October 1991

The costs of reproduction in plants.

New Phytol 2002 Sep;155(3):321-348

Ecology unit, Departamento Biología Organismos & Sistemas, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33071 Oviedo, Spain.

This review reports on the processes associated with costs of reproduction, including some theoretical considerations, definitions and methodological aspects, followed by a list of the situations where costs are difficult to find. Despite some exceptions, case studies, examined by trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history traits, generally support the predictions of the cost of reproduction hypothesis. The cost of reproduction as an evolutionary determinant of sexual dimorphism in life history traits in dioecious species was specifically tested, considering that the higher cost of reproduction in females has driven the life history traits related to sexual dimorphism. Read More

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September 2002

Transient behavior of non-toxic natural and hybrid multi-layer desiccant composite materials for water extraction from atmospheric air.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, 13133, Jordan.

Producing clean water via renewable solar energy and available low-cost natural resources is one of paramount issues for the near future sustainable cleaner production theme to promote civilization. This work investigates the transient behavior of a solar-driven clean water extraction system from air by various desiccant natural and hybrid composite materials. Different single composite desiccant materials, hybrid single composite desiccant material, and hybrid multi-layers composite desiccant materials were examined using an efficient design of a solar glass box with four glass faces and square base setup. Read More

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Corona and Coffee on your commute: A spatial analysis of COVID-19 mortality and commuting flows in England in 2020.

Eur J Public Health 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Health Organization, Policy and Economics (HOPE) Group, Centre for Primary Care and Health Services Research, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M139PL, United Kingdom.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic forced governments to implement lockdown policies to curb the spread of the disease. These policies explicitly encouraged homeworking, hence reducing the number of commuters with the implicit assumption that restricting peoples' movement reduces risk of infection for travellers and other people in their areas of residence and work. Yet, the spatial interrelation of different areas has been rarely addressed both in the public discourse and in early accounts of the various consequences of COVID-19. Read More

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Proposition of Belief and Practice Theory for Men Undergoing Infertility Treatment: A Hospital Based Study in Mumbai, India.

Front Sociol 2020 28;5:43. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India.

The paper aims to understand the treatment seeking behavior and the experiences of men with male factor infertility. A cross-sectional study was conducted at consented hospitals/infertility centers in Mumbai, India in purview of the fact that men are not considered as important as a part of infertility treatment as women. An infertile man is defined here as one who is diagnosed with primary or secondary infertility, undergoing infertility treatment, irrespective of the fertility status of his wife. Read More

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Design for Systems-Based Metabolic Engineering for the Bioconversion of Valuable Compounds From Industrial By-Products.

Front Genet 2021 26;12:633073. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Grupo de Diseño de Productos y Procesos, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

Selecting appropriate metabolic engineering targets to build efficient cell factories maximizing the bioconversion of industrial by-products to valuable compounds taking into account time restrictions is a significant challenge in industrial biotechnology. Microbial metabolism engineering following a rational design has been widely studied. However, it is a cost-, time-, and laborious-intensive process because of the cell network complexity; thus, it is important to use tools that allow predicting gene deletions. Read More

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Guideline for the use of immunobiologicals in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) in Brazil.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Severe uncontrolled chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps has a negative impact on an individual's quality of life. Therefore, new biologics have emerged for use in specific phenotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis, changing the paradigms of its treatment.

Objective: To review the current status of biologic treatment indications in chronic rhinosinusitis. Read More

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Determination of the composition and properties of PET bottles: Evidence of the empirical approach from Perm, Russia.

Waste Manag Res 2021 Apr 17:734242X211011222. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Department of Environmental Engineering, Novi Sad, Serbia.

Efficient collection systems and information about the characteristics and quality of collected secondary plastic waste flows are of fundamental importance for the development of circular economies. In order to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of separate collection systems for plastic packaging, especially polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, characteristic of the collected PET bottles in street mesh containers were studied in the city of Perm, Russia. The share of extraneous fractions was assessed and differentiation was carried out by volume, type of product, label presence, shape, content of solid and liquid impurities and colour. Read More

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Determinants of smallholder farmers' choice on mulch film thickness in rural China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Agricultural mulch film pollution has become a prevailing concern. Studies have shown that the thickness of mulch film is a key factor affecting mulch film recycling, but research about farmers' choice on mulch film thickness is lacking. Based on survey data from 2025 households in five Chinese provinces in 2018, the Heckman two-stage model was used to analyze the influencing factors of farmers' choice on mulch film thicknesses. Read More

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Water and Soil Pollution: Ecological Environmental Study Methodologies Useful for Public Health Projects. A Literature Review.

Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Analytical Epidemiology and Health Impact Unit, Fondazione IRCCS "Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori", Milan, Italy.

Health risks at population level may be investigated with different types of environmental studies depending on access to data and funds. Options include ecological studies, case-control studies with individual interviews and human sample analysis, risk assessment or cohort studies. Most public health projects use data and methodologies already available due to the cost of ad-hoc data collection. Read More

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Estimating costs of hepatitis B vaccination in infants: experimental evidence of the expanded program on immunization in Southern Iran.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Health costs have increased significantly around the world, and cost assessments have become important. This study aimed to collect cost of the resources used in the national hepatitis B immunization program in Southern Iran.

Methods: Costs were calculated by investigating the available documents as well as consulting with knowledgeable personnel. Read More

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Assessing recurrence of depression using a zero-inflated negative binomial model: A secondary analysis of lifelog data.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 1;300:113919. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine / School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan.

When studying recurrence of depression, researchers should pay attention to cases where physicians' assessment corresponds to the patients' perception. However, they should also focus on potential signs of recurrence when the recurrence is suspected by the physicians but not the patients (false-negative zeros). Because false negatives can delay diagnosis and treatment, we aimed to investigate "sitting idly" as a predictor influencing no alert sign of recurrence and estimated the counts of recurrence of depression. Read More

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Optimal design of sin taxes in the presence of nontaxable sin goods.

Health Econ 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Banco Central del Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Sin good consumption entails health damage, which is in general not fully perceived by individuals, what results in its overconsumption. One way to tackle this problem is to tax these unhealthy goods. However, not all the individual choices that affect health status can be easily observed and effectively taxed by the government. Read More

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