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Challenges of analysing stochastic gene expression in bacteria using single-cell time-lapse experiments.

Essays Biochem 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Stochastic gene expression causes phenotypic heterogeneity in a population of genetically identical bacterial cells. Such non-genetic heterogeneity can have important consequences for the population fitness, and therefore cells implement regulation strategies to either suppress or exploit such heterogeneity to adapt to their circumstances. By employing time-lapse microscopy of single cells, the fluctuation dynamics of gene expression may be analysed, and their regulatory mechanisms thus deciphered. Read More

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Inter-species Variabilities of Droplet Transport, Size Change, and Deposition in Human and Rat Respiratory Systems: An Study.

J Aerosol Sci 2021 May 23;154. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

To speculate on human responses from animal studies, scale-up factors (body weight, lung volume, or lung surface area ratios) are currently used to extrapolate aerosol lung deposition from animal to human. However, those existing scale-up methods between animals and humans neglected two important inter-subject variability factors: (1) the effect of anatomical differences in respiratory systems from mouth/nose to peripheral lungs between human and rat, and (2) the effect of spatial distributions and temporal evolutions of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on droplet size change dynamics between the two species. To test the above-mentioned inter-species variability effects on droplet fates in pulmonary routes and generate correlations as a precise scale-up method for lung deposition estimation, this study simulated the transport of pure-water droplets in both human and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat respiratory systems. Read More

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Influence of tin (Sn) doping on CoO for enhanced photocatalytic dye degradation.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 19;277:130325. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Faculty of Engineering and Science, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, 5063, Norway.

Wastewater remediation is one of the special issues that have been discussed in recent years and one of the main pollutants was dyes which totally changes the water behavior. To eradicate the organic compounds from the wastewater and reuse it, there are numerous steps have been taken into consideration. Dye degradation via photocatalysis is one of the promising technique with good efficiency. Read More

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Perspective of mesenchymal transformation in glioblastoma.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 03 24;9(1):50. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cancer Research Institute and Ischemic/Hypoxic Disease Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03080, Korea.

Despite aggressive multimodal treatment, glioblastoma (GBM), a grade IV primary brain tumor, still portends a poor prognosis with a median overall survival of 12-16 months. The complexity of GBM treatment mainly lies in the inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity, which largely contributes to the treatment-refractory and recurrent nature of GBM. By paving the road towards the development of personalized medicine for GBM patients, the cancer genome atlas classification scheme of GBM into distinct transcriptional subtypes has been considered an invaluable approach to overcoming this heterogeneity. Read More

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Current approaches to management of high-risk multiple myeloma.

Am J Hematol 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

The median overall survival in multiple myeloma is rapidly approaching 10 years; however, in nearly a fifth of patients the prognosis remains poor. Therefore, the modern-day management of myeloma patients should be individualized, with a more intense and continuous approach in these high-risk patients. This includes first-line treatment based on multi-drug combinations employing the most effective drug combinations, upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (in eligible patients with tandem transplantation being a consideration), and maintenance based on proteasome inhibitor-based combinations. Read More

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Latina contraceptive decision-making and use: The importance of provider communication and shared decision-making for patient-centered care.

Patient Educ Couns 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Poor patient-provider communication, among other reasons, is a notable barrier to contraceptive decision-making among Latinas. Patient-centered approaches to contraceptive counseling that optimize communication align with shared decision-making (SDM) -which is associated with satisfaction and continued contraceptive use among various populations.

Objective: To examine associations of patient-provider communication and importance of SDM tenets with consistent contraceptive use among a population of Latinas. Read More

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'We always find things to learn from.' Lessons from the implementation of the global maternal sepsis study on research capacity: a qualitative study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Mar 8;21(1):208. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Research Institute for Health Sciences, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Background: Research capacity strengthening could be an indirect outcome of implementing a research project. The objective of this study was to explore the ability of the global maternal sepsis study (GLOSS), implemented in 52 countries, to develop and strengthen sexual and reproductive health research capacity of local participants in low- and middle- income participating countries.

Methods: We carried out a qualitative study employing grounded theory in sixteen countries in Africa and Latin America. Read More

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Fault reconstruction and resilient control for discrete-time stochastic systems.

ISA Trans 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Sino-German College of Intelligent Manufacturing, Shenzhen Technology University, Shenzhen, China.

In this paper, a novel resilient control technique is proposed for discrete-time stochastic Brownian systems with simultaneous unknown inputs and unexpected faults. Prior to previous work, the stochastic Brownian system under consideration is quite general, where stochastic perturbations exist in states, control inputs, uncertainties, and faults. Moreover, the unknown input uncertainties concerned cannot be fully decoupled. Read More

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February 2021

Hitting the Books: A Nationwide Analysis of Advanced Degrees in Academic Plastic Surgery Faculty.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Health System, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, South Pavilion, 14th Floor, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Objective: Plastic surgery is one of the most competitive and innovative fields in medicine. The role of the academic plastic surgeon continues to grow beyond clinical care, and many surgeons have pursued advanced degrees (AD) to expand their professional skillset. We present an analysis of ADs of academic plastic surgery faculty in the USA, with consideration of timing of AD attainment. Read More

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Crossing Academic Boundaries for Diagnostic Safety: 10 Complex Challenges and Potential Solutions From Clinical Perspectives and High-Reliability Organizing Principles.

Hum Factors 2021 Mar 3:18720821996187. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

14661500 Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: We apply the high-reliability organization (HRO) paradigm to the diagnostic process, outlining challenges to enacting HRO principles in diagnosis and offering solutions for how diagnostic process stakeholders can overcome these barriers.

Background: Evidence shows that healthcare is starting to organize for higher reliability by employing various principles and practices of HRO. These hold promise for enhancing safer care, but there has been little consideration of the challenges that clinicians and healthcare systems face while enacting HRO principles in the diagnostic process. Read More

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Causal relationship between the timing of menarche and young adult body mass index with consideration to a trend of consistently decreasing age at menarche.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(2):e0247757. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Genome and Health Big Data Laboratory, Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Younger age at menarche (AAM) is associated with higher body mass index (BMI) for young women. Considering that continuous trends in decreasing AAM and increasing BMI are found in many countries, we attempted to assess whether the observed negative association between AAM and young adult BMI is causal. We included 4,093 women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and Healthy twin Study (HTS) with relevant epidemiologic data and genome-wide marker information. Read More

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February 2021

Perceptions associated with the public attitudes toward epilepsy (PATE) scale: A mixed-method study.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Apr 11;117:107798. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: In epilepsy stigma, certain perceptions are culturally dependent and greatly influence a person's attitudes. Hence, we aimed to explore the perceptions associated with attitudes toward epilepsy in various urban subpopulations.

Method: This is a mixed-method study employing the Public Attitude Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale as the quantitative measure, followed by a semi-structured interview. Read More

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Translational Sleep Science in Behavioral Medicine: Introduction to this Special Issue.

Int J Behav Med 2021 Feb 10;28(1):1-5. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Center for Medical Psychology, Chaminade University Honolulu, Honolulu, HI, 96816, USA.

The consideration of sleep and circadian rhythms in the context of health is a relatively recent development in the history of the field of behavioral medicine. This special issue of the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine recognizes that sleep and circadian rhythms are fundamental to appreciating physiological, psychological, social, and environmental factors in the health and well-being of the population. The articles included in this issue draw attention to the breadth and saliency of sleep as a marker of health status and as a target of behavioral intervention to promote health. Read More

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February 2021

Hormonal Gender Reassignment Treatment for Gender Dysphoria.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2020 Oct;117(43):725-732

Medical Clinic I: Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pneumology and Allergology, Endocrinology and Diabetology, Nutritional Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: No data are available at present on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (trans-identity) in Germany. On the basis of estimates from the Netherlands, it can be calculated that approximately 15 000 to 25 000 persons in Germany are affected. Persons suffering from gender dysphoria often experience significant distress and have a strong desire for gender reassignment treatment. Read More

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October 2020

Microscale Cohesive-Friction-Based Finite Element Model for the Crack Opening Mechanism of Hooked-End Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete.

Authors:
Yassir M Abbas

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 1;14(3). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Civil Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, P. O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia.

The entire mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) are significantly dependent on the fiber-matrix interactions. In the current study, a finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate the pullout response of hooked-end SFRC employing cohesive-frictional interactions. Plain stress elements were adapted in the model to exemplify the fiber process constituents, taking into consideration the material nonlinearity of the hooked-end fiber. Read More

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February 2021

Senior clinical and business managers' perspectives on the influence of different funding mechanisms, and barriers and enablers to implementing models of employing General Practitioners in or alongside emergency departments: Qualitative study.

Health Policy 2021 Apr 22;125(4):482-488. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

PRIME Centre Wales, Division of Population Medicine, 8(th) Floor Neuadd Meirionnydd, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. Electronic address:

Purpose: Health policy in England has advocated the use of primary care clinicians at emergency departments to address pressures from rising attendances. This study explored senior managers' perspective son funding mechanisms used to implement the policy and experiences of success or challenges in introducing GPs in or alongside emergency departments.

Methods: The perspectives of senior clinical, business and finance managers with responsibility for emergency department services and on-site primary care service implementation were investigated in semi-structured interviews with 31 managers at 12 type-1 emergency departments in England and Wales (February 2018 - September 2019). Read More

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Ophthalmic nurse practitioner assessment of glaucoma: evaluating agreement within an initiative to enhance capacity in glaucoma clinics.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Manchester Royal Eye Hospital and Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust Manchester, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK.

Aims: A local service evaluation was conducted in order to compare clinical assessment measures and management decisions between an ophthalmic nurse practitioner and a reference standard glaucoma consultant, for patients referred into secondary care with suspected Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension.

Methods: One hundred patients were selected. A clinical pathway incorporating the assessment methods recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Glaucoma update 2017 (NG81) was delivered by a single ophthalmic nurse practitioner and the reference standard glaucoma consultant. Read More

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January 2021

Reorienting Oral Health Services to Prevention: Economic Perspectives.

J Dent Res 2021 Jan 21:22034520986794. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Faculty of Dentistry, Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, Kings College London, London, UK.

Despite the recognized need to change the emphasis of health services by shifting the balance from treatment to prevention, limited progress has been made in many settings. This is true in oral health, where evidence for preventive interventions that work has not been systematically exploited in oral health services. While reorienting health services is complex and context specific, economics can bring a helpful perspective in understanding and predicting the impact of changes in resource allocation, provider remuneration systems, and patient payments. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of gabapentin on hyperemesis gravidarum: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 01 29;3(1):100273. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Background: Hyperemesis gravidarum is a disabling disease of nausea, vomiting, and undernutrition in early pregnancy for which there are no effective outpatient therapies. Poor weight gain in hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with several adverse fetal outcomes including preterm delivery, low birthweight, small for gestational age, low 5-minute Apgar scores, and neurodevelopmental delay. Gabapentin is most commonly used clinically for treating neuropathic pain but also substantially reduces chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Read More

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January 2021

Spin-Flip Density Functional Theory for the Redox Properties of Organic Photoredox Catalysts in Excited States.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Feb 15;17(2):767-776. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Chemistry, Incheon National University, 119 Academy-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 22012, Republic of Korea.

Photoredox catalysts (PCs) have contributed to the advancement of organic chemistry by accelerating conventional reactions and enabling new pathways through the use of reactive electrons in excited states. With a number of successful applications, chemists continue to seek new promising organic PCs to achieve their objectives. Instead of labor-intensive manual experimentation, quantum chemical simulations could explore the enormous chemical space more efficiently. Read More

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February 2021

Identifying the prerequisites, facilitators, and barriers in improving adolescents' mental health literacy interventions: A systematic review.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 26;9:322. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health (Tehran Institute of Psychiatry) Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The present study aimed at identifying the prerequisites, facilitators, and barriers to adolescent mental health literacy interventions. To that end, databases PsycINFO, Science Direct, Scopus, Emerald, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were systematically searched, out of which 39 articles that had the inclusion criteria were analyzed by the content analysis. Databases searched from September 30, 2018, to October 10, 2018, with the keywords "health literacy," "mental health literacy," "mental disorders," adolescents, students, and more. Read More

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November 2020

Overall control herbal medicine in best consistency.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Feb 24;195:113867. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Xinjiang Fuwo Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shaya County, Xinjiang, 842200, China.

The standard preparation (SP) based on the quantitative fingerprint was proposed to control the quality of compound licorice tablets (CPLTs) in this paper, which is a great way to control the quality consistency nowadays. Here, taking China 145 batches of CPLTs from 9 manufacturers as samples to set up High Performance Liquid Chromatography fingerprints and CPLT-SP, and employing the systematically quantified fingerprint method (SQFM) combined five markers' contents to evaluate their quality. The results showed that all samples were qualified. Read More

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February 2021

Role of free-breathing motion-corrected late gadolinium enhancement technique for image quality assessment and LGE quantification.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Feb 31;135:109510. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai, China; Department of Medical Imaging, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the image quality and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) quantification between free-breathing motion-corrected and conventional breath-hold LGE method in a variety of cardiovascular diseases.

Materials And Methods: 149 consecutive patients underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance examination employing both free-breathing motion-corrected LGE and conventional breath-hold LGE method. Scan time, contrast-to-noise ratio, overall image quality score and LGE mass were measured and analyzed statistically. Read More

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February 2021

Ultra-sensitive phase measurement based on an SU(1,1) interferometer employing external resources and substract intensity detection.

Opt Express 2020 Dec;28(26):39443-39452

A new scheme has been proposed to realize the enhancement of phase sensitivity based on an SU(1,1) interferometer. Compared with the classical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the SU(1,1) interferometer is splitted and recombined by an optical parametric amplifier and the phase sensitivity can beat shot noise limit by adjusting the parametric strength. In this model, the inputs of the SU(1,1) interferometer are bright entangled twin beams generated from four wave mixing and the detection method is substract intensity difference with one of the twin beams entering into the interferometer. Read More

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December 2020

Pharmacogenomics, How to Deal with Different Types of Variants in Next Generation Sequencing Data in the Personalized Medicine Area.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 24;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Analysis and Bioanalysis of Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, 15-089 Białystok, Poland.

Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is the knowledge of diverse drug responses and effects in people, based on their genomic profiles. Such information is considered as one of the main directions to reach personalized medicine in future clinical practices. Since the start of applying next generation sequencing (NGS) methods in drug related clinical investigations, many common medicines found their genetic data for the related metabolizing/shipping proteins in the human body. Read More

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December 2020

Exploring the disparities in park accessibility through mobile phone data: Evidence from Fuzhou of China.

J Environ Manage 2021 Mar 25;281:111849. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Postdoctoral Research Station of Ecology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350007, China; College of Geographical Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350117, China. Electronic address:

Parks are a major public service infrastructure for urban residents. Due to the unbalance geographic distribution of public parks within an urban, residents may have uneven access to this service. Despite there has been an efflorescent literature references, there is no consensus on how to properly measure the accessibility of park. Read More

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Ecological risk assessment of microplastics in coastal, shelf, and deep sea waters with a consideration of environmentally relevant size and shape.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 2;270:116217. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Oil and POPs Research Group, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje 53201, Republic of Korea; Department of Ocean Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study assessed the ecological risk posed by microplastics in surface and subsurface seawaters in coastal, continental shelf, and deep-sea areas of South Korea. The target microplastics for risk assessment were specified as only non-spherical type microplastics in the size range 20-300 μm, because this type was predominantly observed in our study areas, and adverse biological effects have previously been reported. Exposure data for non-spherical microplastics were obtained from a previous study or were measured for microplastics of sizes down to 20 μm. Read More

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February 2021

Detection of White Matter Ultrastructural Changes for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Characterization: A Diagnostic Study from Dti-Derived Data.

Brain Sci 2020 Dec 16;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

ALS Center & Department of Neurology, "Maggiore della Carità" Hospital, University of Piemonte Orientale (UPO), Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy.

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows investigation at the microstructural level, employing techniques able to reveal white matter changes. In the current study, a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis, with a collection of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) indexes, was performed in ALS patients to correlate geno- and phenotype features with MRI data, to investigate an in-vivo correlation of different neuropathological patterns. All patients who underwent the MR-DTI analysis were retrospectively recruited. Read More

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December 2020

Intranasal Subunit Vaccination Strategies Employing Nanomaterials and Biomaterials.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 101 Science Drive, Durham, North Carolina 27708, United States.

Intranasal vaccines offer key advantages over traditional needle-based vaccines. They are simple to administer and painless and establish local immunity at mucosal surfaces. Owing to these advantages, they are particularly attractive for use in resource-limited locations of the world. Read More

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December 2020

A Proposal of a Method for Ready-Mixed Concrete Quality Assessment Based on Statistical-Fuzzy Approach.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 12;13(24). Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland.

Control of technical parameters obtained by ready-mixed concrete may be carried out at different stages of the development of concrete properties and by different participants involved in the construction investment process. According to the European Standard EN 206 "Concrete-Specification, performance, production and conformity", mandatory control of concrete conformity is conducted by the producer during production. As shown by the subject literature, statistical criteria set out in the standard, including the method for concrete quality assessment based on the concept of concrete family, continue to evoke discussions and raise doubts. Read More

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December 2020