179,384 results match your criteria conservation


Animal-eRNAdb: a comprehensive animal enhancer RNA database.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Agricultural Bioinformatics, College of Informatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P.R. China.

Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs transcribed from enhancers. As the markers of active enhancers, eRNAs play important roles in gene regulation and are associated with various complex traits and characteristics. With increasing attention to eRNAs, numerous eRNAs have been identified in different human tissues. Read More

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September 2021

Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity of beta-defensin from the Chinese spiny frog (Quasipaa spinosa).

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Sep 19:104264. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui, 323000, China. Electronic address:

The β-defensins are important components of the vertebrate innate immune system. While mammalian β-defensins have wide-ranging antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities, those of amphibians remain largely uncharacterised. In this study, β-defensin cDNA was identified from the skin transcriptome of the Chinese spiny frog Quasipaa spinosa. Read More

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September 2021

Prey partitioning and livestock consumption in the world's richest large carnivore assemblage.

Curr Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Institute of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Large mammalian carnivores have undergone catastrophic declines during the Anthropocene across the world. Despite their pivotal roles as apex predators in food webs and ecosystem dynamics, few detailed dietary datasets of large carnivores exist, prohibiting deep understanding of their coexistence and persistence in human-dominated landscapes. Here, we present fine-scaled, quantitative trophic interactions among sympatric carnivores from three assemblages in the Mountains of Southwest China, a global biodiversity hotspot harboring the world's richest large-carnivore diversity, derived from DNA metabarcoding of 1,097 fecal samples. Read More

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September 2021

Allosteric Control of Structural Mimicry and Mutational Escape in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Complexes with the ACE2 Decoys and Miniprotein Inhibitors: A Network-Based Approach for Mutational Profiling of Binding and Signaling.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Keck Center for Science and Engineering, Department of Computational and Data Sciences, Schmid College of Science and Technology, Chapman University, One University Drive, Orange, California 92866, United States.

We developed a computational framework for comprehensive and rapid mutational scanning of binding energetics and residue interaction networks in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein complexes. Using this approach, we integrated atomistic simulations and conformational landscaping of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein complexes with ensemble-based mutational screening and network modeling to characterize mechanisms of structure-functional mimicry and resilience toward mutational escape by the ACE2 protein decoy and de novo designed miniprotein inhibitors. A detailed analysis of structural plasticity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins obtained from atomistic simulations of conformational landscapes and sequence-based profiling of the disorder propensities revealed the intrinsically flexible regions that harbor key functional sites targeted by circulating variants. Read More

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September 2021

Mapping and modeling human-black bear interactions in the Catskills region of New York using resource selection probability functions.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(9):e0257716. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, United States of America.

Black bears (Ursus americanus) are an iconic and common species throughout much of the United States and people regularly interact with these large predators without conflict. However, negative interactions between people and bears can manifest in conflicts that can hinder conservation efforts. Black bears are highly attracted to anthropogenic sources of food, and negative interactions with people are primarily a product of trash mismanagement. Read More

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September 2021

A natural history museum visitor survey of perception, attitude and knowledge (PAK) of microbes and antibiotics.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(9):e0257085. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

American Museum of Natural History, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, New York, NY, United States of America.

A kiosk-based survey at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in 2016-2018 allowed us to assess public knowledge of antibiotics and public attitudes toward microbes in museum goers. Over 22,000 visitors from 172 countries and territories answered several carefully designed questions about microbes and antibiotics. These visitors also entered age, gender, and country demographic data that allowed for stratification along these demographic and geographic divisions. Read More

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September 2021

Biosynthesis, regulation, and biological significance of fumonisins in fungi: current status and prospects.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2021 Sep 22:1-13. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Fumonisins are one of the most important mycotoxin classes due to their widespread occurrence and potential health threat to humans and animals. Currently, most of the research focuses on the control of fumonisin contamination in the food supply chain. In recent years, significant progress in biochemistry, enzymology, and genetic regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis has been achieved using molecular technology. Read More

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September 2021

Altruistic bet-hedging and the evolution of cooperation in a Kalahari bird.

Sci Adv 2021 Sep 22;7(39):eabe8980. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK.

[Figure: see text]. Read More

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September 2021

Rice ACID PHOSPHATASE 1 regulates Pi stress adaptation by maintaining intracellular Pi homeostasis.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Microelement Research Center, College of Resources & Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, P. R. China.

The concentration and homeostasis of intracellular phosphate (Pi) are crucial for sustaining cell metabolism and growth. During short-term Pi starvation, intracellular Pi is maintained relatively constant at the expense of vacuolar Pi. After the vacuolar stored Pi is exhausted, the plant cells induce the synthesis of intracellular acid phosphatase (APase) to recycle Pi from expendable organic phosphate (Po). Read More

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September 2021

Multi-species prey dynamics influence local survival in resident and wintering generalist predators.

Oecologia 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

BiBio Research Group, Natural Sciences Museum of Granollers, Francesc Macià 51, 08402, Granollers, Spain.

Stochasticity in food availability influences vital rates such as survival and fertility. Life-history theory predicts that in long-lived organisms, survival should be buffered against environmental stochasticity showing little temporal variability. Furthermore, to optimize survival prospects, many animal species perform migrations to wintering areas where food availability is larger. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular mechanisms of endomembrane trafficking in plants.

Plant Cell 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, 9052, Ghent, Belgium.

Endomembrane trafficking is essential for all eukaryotic cells. The best-characterized membrane trafficking organelles include the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, early and recycling endosomes, multivesicular body (MVB) or late endosome (LE), lysosome/vacuole, and plasma membrane (PM). Even although historically plants have given rise to cell biology, our understanding of membrane trafficking has mainly been shaped by the much more studied mammalian and yeast models. Read More

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September 2021

Evolution of a cytoplasmic determinant: evidence for the biochemical basis of functional evolution of the novel germ line regulator oskar.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Germ line specification is essential in sexually reproducing organisms. Despite their critical role, the evolutionary history of the genes that specify animal germ cells is heterogeneous and dynamic. In many insects, the gene oskar is required for the specification of the germ line. Read More

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September 2021

A Draft Genome Assembly for the Eastern Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Virginia Museum of Natural History, 21 Starling Avenue, Martinsville, Virginia 24112, USA. 276.634.4177.

The eastern fox squirrel, Sciurus niger, exhibits marked geographic variation in size and coat color, is a model organism for studies of behavior and ecology, and a potential model for investigating physiological solutions to human porphyrias. We assembled a genome using Illumina HiSeq, PacBio SMRT, and Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing platforms. Together, the sequencing data resulted in a draft genome of 2. Read More

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September 2021

Gonadal characterization of the Amazonian fish Serrapinnus kriegi (Characidae: Cheirodontinae).

Braz J Biol 2021 20;83:e249158. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará - UNIFESSPA, Grupo de Estudos da Reprodução de Peixes Amazônicos - GERPA, Laboratório de Neurociências e Comportamento "Frederico Guilherme Graeff" - LaNeC, Marabá, PA, Brasil.

The knowledge of the testicular and ovarian morphology of a particular fish species is of paramount importance. Such analyze enables the development of studies and techniques aiming the improvement of their reproduction, management, commercialization and even their conservation. This study performed the ovarian and testicular characterization of the ornamental Amazon fish Serrapinnus kriegi. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of pyrimethanil fungicide on Chironomidae community structure.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 20;93(suppl 3):e20200860. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Hidráulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos (EESC), Av. Trabalhador Sãocarlense, 400, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

The use of agrochemicals in agriculture may impact aquatic ecosystems, particularly influencing the stream insect communities. Among aquatic insects, the family Chironomidae is the most abundant and species-diverse insect group found in freshwater ecosystems. However, in the southern hemisphere, studies with Chironomidae are still sparse, compared to Europe and North America. Read More

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September 2021

Drivers of nest survival in the Tawny-bellied Seedeater Sporophila hypoxantha (Aves: Thraupidae): time-specific factors are more related to success than ecological variables.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 20;93(suppl 3):e20191458. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Evolução da Biodiversidade, Escola de Ciências, Av. Ipiranga, 6681, 90619-900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Tawny-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila hypoxantha) is an endangered (in Brazil) grassland dependent species, whose breeding success remains poorly known hampering conservation measures on its breeding grounds. Here we analyze the nest survival of the species in relation to temporal and environmental variables over three breeding seasons in hilly dry grasslands in southern Brazil. The apparent nest success was 40%, and MARK survival 20%. Read More

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September 2021

Chromosome-scale assembly and whole-genome sequencing of 266 giant panda roundworms provide insights into their evolution, adaptation and potential drug targets.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

College of Wildlife and Protected Area, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, China.

Helminth diseases have long been a threat to the health of humans and animals. Roundworms are important organisms for studying parasitic mechanisms, disease transmission and prevention. The study of parasites in the giant panda is of importance for understanding how roundworms adapt to the host. Read More

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September 2021

High quality haplotype-resolved genome assemblies of Populus tomentosa Carr., a stabilized interspecific hybrid species that is widespread in Asia.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA.

Populus has a wide ecogeographical range spanning the Northern Hemisphere, and interspecific hybrids are common. Populus tomentosa Carr. is widely distributed and cultivated in the eastern region of Asia, where it plays multiple important roles in forestry, agriculture, conservation, and urban horticulture. Read More

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September 2021

Plasticity of microglia.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, U.K.

Microglial cells are the scions of foetal macrophages which invade the neural tube early during embryogenesis. The nervous tissue environment instigates the phenotypic metamorphosis of foetal macrophages into idiosyncratic surveilling microglia, which are generally characterised by a small cell body and highly ramified motile processes that constantly scan the nervous tissue for signs of changes in homeostasis and allow microglia to perform crucial homeostatic functions. The surveilling microglial phenotype is evolutionarily conserved from early invertebrates to humans. Read More

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September 2021

The relationship between personality, season, and wounding receipt in zoo-housed Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): A multi-institutional study.

Am J Primatol 2021 Sep 21:e23332. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Lester E. Fisher Center for the Study and Conservation of Apes, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

It is important to those managing Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in captive settings to understand predictors of wounding. While studies have demonstrated that season (breeding or nonbreeding) and sex predict rates of wounding received by zoo-housed Japanese macaques, we investigated whether individual differences in personality ratings also might explain some of the observed interindividual variance in wounding. Such patterns were previously observed in rhesus macaques (M. Read More

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September 2021

New drought-adaptive loci underlying candidate genes on wheat chromosome 4B with improved photosynthesis and yield responses.

Physiol Plant 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES)-Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Flag leaf serves as an essential source of assimilates during grain filling, thereby contributing to grain yield up to 48%. Thus, high-throughput phenotyping of flag leaves is crucial to determine their physiological and genetic basis of yield formation and drought adaptation. Here, we utilized 200 wheat cultivars to identify drought-adaptive loci underlying candidate genes associated with flag leaf biomass and photosynthesis-related traits using a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Read More

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September 2021

Effects of increasing dietary inclusion of camelina cake on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Jul 26;5(3):txab140. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

West Central Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota, Morris, MN, 56267, USA.

The objective of this experiment was to determine the dietary inclusion rate of camelina cake (CC) that would support the growth performance of growing-finishing pigs similar to that of a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Pigs ( = 192; BW = 35.2 kg; Duroc x (Yorkshire x Landrace)), balanced for sex and initial weight, were assigned to pens (8 pigs/pen) and pens were assigned randomly to one of four dietary treatments (6 pens/treatment). Read More

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Advancing urban ethnopharmacology: a modern concept of sustainability, conservation and cross-cultural adaptations of medicinal plant lore in the urban environment.

Conserv Physiol 2021 16;9(1):coab073. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Ethnopharmacology and Natural Product Research Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, Presidency University, 86/1 College Street, Kolkata, 700073, West Bengal, India.

The discipline 'urban ethnopharmacology' emerged as a collection of traditional knowledge, ancient civilizations, history and folklore being circulated since generations, usage of botanical products, palaeobotany and agronomy. Non-traditional botanical knowledge increases the availability of healthcare and other essential products to the underprivileged masses. Intercultural medicine essentially involves 'practices in healthcare that bridge indigenous medicine and western medicine, where both are considered as complementary'. Read More

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September 2021

COVID-19 disruption reveals mass-tourism pressure on nearshore sea turtle distributions and access to optimal breeding habitat.

Evol Appl 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

National Marine Park of Zakynthos Zakynthos Greece.

Quantifying the extent to which animals detect and respond to human presence allows us to identify pressure (disturbance) and inform conservation management objectively; however, obtaining baselines against which to compare human impact is hindered in areas where human activities are already well established. For example, Zakynthos Island (Greece, Mediterranean) receives around 850,000 visitors each summer, while supporting an important loggerhead sea turtle rookery (~300 individuals/season). The coronavirus (COVID-19)-driven absence of tourism in May-June 2020 provided an opportunity to evaluate the distribution dynamics of this population in the absence (2020) vs. Read More

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COVID-19, media coverage of bats and related Web searches: a turning point for bat conservation?

Mamm Rev 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e Biologia dei Sistemi Università degli Studi di Torino Via Accademia Albertina 13 10123 Torino Italy.

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic, is genomically similar to a SARS-like beta-coronavirus found in Asian rhinolophid bats. This evolutionary relationship impressed the global media, which then emphasised bats as key actors in the spillover that resulted in the pandemic. In this study, we highlight changes in the traditional and new media coverage of bats and in Internet search volumes that occurred since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Read More

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"Phytopathological strolls" in the dual context of COVID-19 lockdown and IYPH2020: Transforming constraints into an opportunity for public education about plant pathogens.

Plant Pathol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) Paris France.

The experience presented here relates to 2020, a particularly timely year for plant disease-related communication (International Year of Plant Health, IYPH2020), but also a unique year because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our goal was to illustrate the diversity and beauty of fungal plant pathogens through a naturalist approach that could be followed by any amateur. We achieved this end through "phytopathological strolls", in which we observed and determined the origin of symptoms on diseased plants found in our garden, in the local streets, and in nearby open spaces, and shared this matter with a broad public. Read More

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Nature, COVID-19, disease prevention, and climate change.

Authors:
Thomas E Lovejoy

Biol Conserv 2021 Sep 9;261:109213. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive MSN2B3, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA.

When COVID-19 arrived, usual human activity around the world paused or slowed, and nature responded to the opportunity. Even in major urban areas, people remarked on the clearer, crisper, star- brightened night skies. This issue's collection of interesting papers provides insights into ways the natural world responded, but it would seem worthwhile to take a step back and frame that phenomenon in its intellectual and epidemiological context. Read More

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September 2021

Tetraploids expanded beyond the mountain niche of their diploid ancestors in the mixed-ploidy grass Festuca amethystina L.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 21;11(1):18735. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

One promising area in understanding the responses of plants to ongoing global climate change is the adaptative effect of polyploidy. This work examines whether there is a coupling between the distribution of cytotypes and their biogeographical niche, and how different niches will affect their potential range. The study uses a range of techniques including flow cytometry, gradient and niche analysis, as well as distribution modelling. Read More

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September 2021

Palaeoclimate has a major effect on the diversity of endemic species in the hotspot of mountain biodiversity in Tajikistan.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 21;11(1):18684. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Botanical Garden, Center for Biological Diversity Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Prawdziwka 2, 02-976, Warszawa, Poland.

In a period of ongoing climate changes, identifying drivers of overall and endemic species diversity is a key element in constructing new ecological patterns and determining the main goals of conservation. Such studies are especially crucial if they concern biodiversity hotspot areas. In this study, we explore patterns and drivers of plant endemism (the proportion of endemic plant species to overall plant species richness; PE) in Tajikistan. Read More

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September 2021

DNA metabarcoding reveals the dietary composition in the endangered black-faced spoonbill.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 21;11(1):18773. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Extensive loss of natural wetlands caused by changes in land use largely diminishes the food resources essential for the survival of migratory waterbirds. Globally, the decline in waterbird populations in East Asia is the most serious, with 64% of these populations showing a decreasing trend. In this study, we applied DNA metabarcoding to examine the spatiotemporal variations and diversities in the dietary compositions of migratory waterbirds in a natural/artificial wetland complex in Asia. Read More

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September 2021