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A search for new options to manage fecal incontinence.

Authors:
P-A Lehur

Tech Coloproctol 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Coloproctology Unit, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano, Switzerland.

Fecal incontinence (FI) is a highly prevalent condition known to substantially impair a patient's quality of life. Although a non-invasive treatment option, currently available anal plugs are poorly tolerated, not significantly effective and therefore not often used. We present a new disposable device based on an innovative concept that renews the interest for non-invasive "external" control of bowel content for FI patients. Read More

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October 2021

Determinants of Preventive Behaviors for COVID-19 in Japan.

Authors:
Motoko Kosugi

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 09 23;18(19). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

College of Engineering, Academic Institute, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Japan.

As of June 2021, there have been more than 13,000 deaths in Japan due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare show that the mortality rate of COVID-19 greatly varies by age. In this study, using data from a questionnaire survey, an investigation was carried out to find differences in anxiety and risk perception, attitudes toward risk, and the frequency of implementation of countermeasures to infection among age groups that are prone to a greater risk of mortality, as well as the main factors that determine the frequency of implementation. Read More

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September 2021

Dosimetric evaluation of different planning techniques based on flattening filter-free beams for central and peripheral lung stereotactic body radiotherapy.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Radiotherapy, Government Medical College Patiala, Sangrur Road, Patiala, Punjab, 147001, INDIA.

This study aimed to dosimetrically compare and evaluate the flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beam-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lungstereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). RANDO phantom computed tomography (CT) images were used for treatment planning. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were delineated in the central and peripheral lung locations. Read More

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October 2021

The Rehabilitation Training Simulation of High Difficulty Movement and Sports Strain Site Based on Big Data.

J Healthc Eng 2021 29;2021:2911025. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Hebei Sport University, Department of Winter Sport, Shijiazhuang 050041, China.

We study the rehabilitation training of damaged parts of ice and snow sports clock and ensure the physical safety of athletes. The results show that the RBF neural network updates the center, weight, and width of the radial basis function, and the predicted maximum compliance is 99%, and the minimum compliance is 93%. After many analysis times, the prediction results show that the difference between the predicted degree of conformity and the actual results is less than 8%. Read More

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September 2021

Spatiotemporal Distribution of Nanodroplet Vaporization in a Proton Beam Using Real-Time Ultrasound Imaging for Range Verification.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Medical Imaging, TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands.

The potential of proton therapy to improve the conformity of the delivered dose to the tumor volume is currently limited by range uncertainties. Injectable superheated nanodroplets have recently been proposed for ultrasound-based in vivo range verification, as these vaporize into echogenic microbubbles on proton irradiation. In previous studies, offline ultrasound images of phantoms with dispersed nanodroplets were acquired after irradiation, relating the induced vaporization profiles to the proton range. Read More

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October 2021

Comparison of non-coplanar optimization of static beams and arc trajectories for intensity-modulated treatments of meningioma cases.

Phys Eng Sci Med 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Medical Physics Department of the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Coimbra Francisco Gentil, EPE, Coimbra, Portugal.

Two methods for non-coplanar beam direction optimization, one for static beams and another for arc trajectories, were proposed for intracranial tumours. The results of the beam angle optimizations were compared with the beam directions used in the clinical plans. Ten meningioma cases already treated were selected for this retrospective planning study. Read More

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October 2021

Novel Clinically Weight-Optimized Dynamic Conformal Arcs (WO-DCA) for Liver SBRT: A Comparison with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT).

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2021 28;17:1053-1064. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Koc University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of shortening the duration of liver stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) without jeopardizing dosimetry or conformity by utilizing weight-optimized dynamic conformal arcs (WO-DCA) as opposed to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for tumors away from critical structures.

Methods: Nineteen patients with liver metastasis were included, previously treated with 50 Gy in 4 fractions with VMAT technique using two partial coplanar arcs of 6 MV beams delivered in high-definition multi-leaf collimator (HD-MLC). Two coplanar partial WO-DCA were generated on Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) for each patient; and MLC aperture around the planning target volume (PTV) was automatically generated at different margins for both arcs and maintained dynamically around the target during arc rotation. Read More

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September 2021

Salient knowledge that others are also evaluating reduces judgment extremity.

J Acad Mark Sci 2021 Sep 29:1-22. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E6 Canada.

As companies increasingly conduct marketing research online (e.g., through social networking sites or their brand community platforms), the knowledge that others are also filling out the same surveys becomes increasingly salient to respondents. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors for urinary tract infections in pregnant women attending ANC in some integrated health centers in the Buea Health District.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Oct 4;21(1):673. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, South West Region, Buea, Cameroon.

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most frequent infections after respiratory tract infections that affect humans, with over 150 million cases per year. The anatomy of the female urinary tract predisposes them to UTIs than men. More so, physiological and hormonal changes during pregnancy put pregnant woman at risk of UTIs. Read More

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October 2021

The Dynamic Changes of Transcription Factors During the Development Processes of Human Biparental and Uniparental Embryos.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 17;9:709498. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Previous studies have revealed that transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in biparental (BI) early human embryogenesis. However, the contribution of TFs during early uniparental embryo development is still largely unknown. Here we systematically studied the expression profiles of transcription factors in early embryonic development and revealed the dynamic changes of TFs in human biparental and uniparental embryogenesis by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Read More

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September 2021

Medially congruent total knee arthroplasty in valgus knee deformities yields satisfactory outcomes: a multicenter, international study.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Sezione di Chirurgia Protesica a Indirizzo Robotico, Unità di Traumatologia dello Sport, UOC Ortopedia e Traumatologia e Universita' degli Studi di Pavia, Fondazione Poliambulanza, Brescia, Italy.

Purpose: Postoperative instability represents one of the most common complications following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To prevent this outcome, valgus deformities have been historically treated using more constrained implants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of treating a moderate valgus deformity by combining a surgical technique used to release the postero-lateral soft tissue envelope with the use of a medially congruent (MC) TKA design without using classical, semi-constrained inserts. Read More

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October 2021

The Use of Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Angiography in Pediatric Surgery: A Systematic Review and Narrative Analysis.

Front Pediatr 2021 13;9:736242. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography (ICG-FA) is a validated non-invasive imaging technique used to assess tissue vascularization and guide intraoperative decisions in many surgical fields including plastic surgery, neurosurgery, and general surgery. While this technology is well-established in adult surgery, it remains sparsely used in pediatric surgery. Our aim was to systematically review and provide an overview of all available evidence on the perioperative use of indocyanine green fluorescence angiography in pediatric surgical patients. Read More

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September 2021

Knowledge and Practice towards Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of University Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 10;18(18). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Società Italiana per il Trattamento dell'Alcolismo e le sue Complicanze (SITAC), ASL Roma1, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Alcohol affects many human systems and is involved in the pathogenesis of other diseases. Particular attention must be paid to alcohol consumption among young people. It has been shown that 25% of young people's deaths are attributable to alcohol, and around 35 million people aged over 11 had consumed at least one alcoholic beverage in 2015. Read More

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September 2021

Dosimetric Validation of a System to Treat Moving Tumors Using Scanned Ion Beams That Are Synchronized With Anatomical Motion.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:712126. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the dosimetric performance of scanned ion beam deliveries with motion-synchronization to heterogenous targets.

Methods: A 4D library of treatment plans, comprised of up to 10 3D sub-plans, was created with robust and conventional 4D optimization methods. Each sub-plan corresponded to one phase of periodic target motion. Read More

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September 2021

Fast generation of lung SBRT plans with a knowledge-based planning model on ring-mounted Halcyon Linac.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Medical Physics Graduate Program, Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Purpose: To demonstrate fast treatment planning feasibility of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for centrally located lung tumors on Halcyon Linac via a previously validated knowledge-based planning (KBP) model to support offline adaptive radiotherapy.

Materials/methods: Twenty previously treated non-coplanar volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) lung SBRT plans (c-Truebeam) on SBRT-dedicated C-arm Truebeam Linac were selected. Patients received 50 Gy in five fractions. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient uncertainty quantification for Monte Carlo dose calculations using importance (re-)weighting.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Oct 7;66(20). Epub 2021 Oct 7.

German Cancer Research Center-DKFZ, Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg, Germany.

. To present an efficient uncertainty quantification method for range and set-up errors in Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. Further, we show that uncertainty induced by interplay and other dynamic influences may be approximated using suitable error correlation models. Read More

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October 2021

Treatment planning comparison between dynamic wave arc and volumetric modulated arc therapies for prostate-cancer treatment.

Med Dosim 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Hiroshima High-Precision Radiotherapy Cancer Center, 3-2-2, Futabanosato, Higashi-ku Hiroshima 732-0057, Japan; Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.

The aim of this study was to compare the quality of dynamic wave arc (DWA) and coplanar volumetric modulated arc therapy (co-VMAT) plans for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. The planning target volume (PTV)-rectum, a section of the PTV comprising the PTV minus that of the rectum, received 78 Gy in 39 fractions as the mean dose to the PTV-rectum. The DWA and co-VMAT plans were generated for each patient using the RayStation treatment planning system for the Vero4DRT system. Read More

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September 2021

Plan quality and consistency in spine radiosurgery treatment planning: comparison between automatic treatment planning with Elements Spine SRS and manual inverse planning with Varian Eclipse.

Med Dosim 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Medical Physics Division, Imaging Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Via Gallino 12, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Spine radiosurgery treatment planning can be a challenging task since a high radiation dose is delivered to target volumes close to the spinal cord, therefore a steep dose gradient is required. Plan quality is greatly influenced by the planner skills, so automatic treatment planning has been proposed to overcome this issue and assure high-quality plans. The Brainlab Elements Spine SRS treatment planning system is specially designed for spine radiosurgery treatments. Read More

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September 2021

Alcohol and Cannabis Cross Motives, Class Analysis, and Substance Use among Concurrent Users.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Sep 17:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

Substance use motives refer to an individual's reasons for engaging in substance use. Although the respective alcohol and cannabis literatures have linked specific substance-use motives to indices of use, less is known about motives in concurrent users, particularly examination of cross-motives (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

Single-isocenter stereotactic non-coplanar arc treatment of 200 patients with brain metastases: multileaf collimator size and setup uncertainties.

Strahlenther Onkol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Oncology, Radiotherapy Research Unit (52AA), Herlev & Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Borgmester Ib Juuls vej 7, 2730, Herlev, Denmark.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our 2 years' experience with single-isocenter, non-coplanar, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for brain metastasis (BM) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

Methods: A total of 202 patients treated with the VMAT SRS solution were analyzed retrospectively. Plan quality was assessed for 5 mm (120) and 2. Read More

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September 2021

Organ-on-a-chip: Determine feasibility of a human liver microphysiological model to assess long-term steroid metabolites in sports drug testing.

Drug Test Anal 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Center for Preventive Doping Research/Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

A fundamental challenge in preventive doping research is the study of metabolic pathways of substances banned in sport. However, the pharmacological predictions obtained by conventional in vitro or in vivo animal studies are occasionally of limited transferability to humans according to an inability of in vitro models to mimic higher order system physiology or due to various species-specific differences using animal models. A more recently established technology for simulating human physiology is the "organ-on-a-chip" principle. Read More

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September 2021

Development and Validation of a Scale for Interaction between Parents and Coaches of Middle and High School Golf Players.

Authors:
Jae-Wook Hwang

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 6;18(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Physical Education, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement tool for the interaction between parents and coaches of middle and high school golfers, and to verify its validity. A total of 563 parents participated in the study. Based on the results of preliminary item production, item analysis, reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, identification factor analysis, job uniformity analysis, and potential mean comparison analysis, the initial 70 items were constructed according to the conceptualization of parent-coach interactions. Read More

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September 2021

Contributions of the analysis of discarded cigarette packages in household waste in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate the illegal market.

Cad Saude Publica 2021 30;37(8):e00221020. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

The illicit trade of tobacco products, by enabling access to cheaper cigarettes, favors smoking initiation and hinders its cessation, minimizing the effects of price policy and taxes on reducing the demand for tobacco. This is especially the case among populations with lower income and schooling, where smoking is concentrated. Its confrontation requires multisectoral actions, aligned with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported by estimates of the illicit trade magnitude and the analysis of its characteristics. Read More

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September 2021

Fully automated planning and delivery of hippocampal-sparing whole brain irradiation.

Med Dosim 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, 60153 USA.

The goal of this study is to fully automate the treatment planning and delivery process of hippocampal-sparing whole brain irradiation (HS-WBRT) by combining a RapidPlan (RP) knowledge-based planning model and HyperArc (HA) technology. Additionally, this study compares the dosimetric performance of RapidPlan-HyperArc (RP-HA) treatment plans with RP plans and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Ten patients previously treated with HS-WBRT using conventional VMAT were re-planned using RP-HA technique and RP model for HS-WBRT. Read More

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September 2021

Parent-child communication and adolescent sexual decision making: An application of family communication patterns theory.

J Fam Psychol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Psychology.

Family communication patterns theory proposes two dimensions of family communication-conversation orientation and conformity orientation-that can impact adolescent decision making. The purpose of this study is to examine how family communication patterns, above and beyond the frequency of parent-child sexual communication, are associated with adolescents' (a) sexual self-efficacy, (b) intentions to communicate about sex with partners, and (c) intentions to use condoms. Participants were 452 U. Read More

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September 2021

Qualitative examination of simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use reasons, evaluations, and patterns among heavy drinking young adults.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Sep 2;35(6):638-649. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences.

Use of alcohol and cannabis together so their effects overlap (simultaneous use) is common among college students and associated with numerous negative consequences. The aim of this study was to gain insight into college students' recent simultaneous use events in order to inform future studies (i.e. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of the Educational Value of Distal Hypospadias Repair Videos on YouTube.

Urology 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.

Objective: To evaluate the quality of YouTube videos depicting distal hypospadias repair.

Methods: The search terms "distal hypospadias repair" were used to identify surgical videos on YouTube. Videos were sorted by view count and the top 34 videos were reviewed for baseline video characteristics, key surgical steps covered, and conformity to a modified LAParoscopic surgery Video Educational GuidelineS (LAP-VEGaS) checklist. Read More

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I'm not a little kid anymore! Reciprocal social influence in child-adult interaction.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Aug 25;8(8):202124. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Cognitive Architecture for Collaborative Technologies (CONTACT) Unit, Italian Institute of Technology, Via Enrico Melen, 83, 16152 Genoa, Italy.

Human decisions are often influenced by others' opinions. This process is regulated by social norms: for instance, we tend to reciprocate the consideration received from others, independently of their reliability as information sources. Nonetheless, no study to date has investigated whether and how reciprocity modulates social influence in child-adult interaction. Read More

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Improved clinical investigation and evaluation of high-risk medical devices: the rationale and objectives of CORE-MD (Coordinating Research and Evidence for Medical Devices).

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Health Technology Unit B6, Directorate General for Health (DG SANTE), European Commission, Brussels, Belgium.

In the European Union (EU) the delivery of health services is a national responsibility but there are concerted actions between member states to protect public health. Approval of pharmaceutical products is the responsibility of the European Medicines Agency, while authorising the placing on the market of medical devices is decentralised to independent 'conformity asssessment' organisations called notified bodies. The first legal basis for an EU system of evaluating medical devices and approving their market access was the medical device directives, from the 1990s. Read More

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Dynamical system model predicts when social learners impair collective performance.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(35)

Sunwater Institute, North Bethesda, MD 20852.

A key question concerning collective decisions is whether a social system can settle on the best available option when some members learn from others instead of evaluating the options on their own. This question is challenging to study, and previous research has reached mixed conclusions, because collective decision outcomes depend on the insufficiently understood complex system of cognitive strategies, task properties, and social influence processes. This study integrates these complex interactions together in one general yet partially analytically tractable mathematical framework using a dynamical system model. Read More

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