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Prediction of biomechanical responses of human lumbar discs - a stochastic finite element model analysis.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2021 Jun 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton, MA, USA.

Background: Accurate biomechanical investigation of human intervertebral discs (IVDs) is difficult because of their complicated structural and material features.

Aim: To investigate probabilistic distributions of the biomechanical responses of the IVD by considering varying nonlinear structural and material properties using a stochastic finite element (FE) model.

Methods: A FE model of a L3-4 disc was reconstructed, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), annular matrix and fibers. Read More

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A Simple Method for Simulating Dementia Onset and Death within an Existing Demographic Model.

Med Decis Making 2021 Jun 14:272989X211016810. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA.

Background: Dementia is a common disease that has an impact on both the affected individual and family members who provide caregiving. Simulation models can assist in setting policy that anticipates public health needs by predicting the demand for and availability of care.

Objective: We developed a relatively simple method for simulating the onset of dementia that can be used in combination with an existing microsimulation model. Read More

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Effects of stereopsis on vection, presence and cybersickness in head-mounted display (HMD) virtual reality.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12373. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), Kensington, Australia.

Stereopsis provides critical information for the spatial visual perception of object form and motion. We used virtual reality as a tool to understand the role of global stereopsis in the visual perception of self-motion and spatial presence using virtual environments experienced through head-mounted displays (HMDs). Participants viewed radially expanding optic flow simulating different speeds of self-motion in depth, which generated the illusion of self-motion in depth (i. Read More

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Lateral Elbow Laxity Is Affected by the Integrity of the Radial Band of the Lateral Collateral Ligament Complex: A Cadaveric Model With Sequential Releases and Varus Stress Simulating Everyday Activities.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Jun 11:3635465211018208. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

UOC 1° Clinica Ortopedica, ASST Centro Specialistico Ortopedico Traumatologico Gaetano Pini-CTO, Milan, Italy.

Background: An elongation of the radial lateral collateral complex (R-LCL) can provoke symptomatic minor instability of the lateral elbow leading to lateral elbow pain. Biomechanical models investigating the effects of elongation and partial or complete lesions of the R-LCL on lateral elbow stability are lacking.

Purpose: To evaluate how partial and complete R-LCL release affects radiocapitellar joint stability in a setting of controlled varus load and progressive soft tissue release. Read More

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Does Subcrestal Position Affect Insertion Torque of Different Implant Designs at Different Bone Densities? An In Vitro Model Study.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2021 May-Jun;36(3):460-467

Purpose: To evaluate the insertion torque at the equicrestal and subcrestal positions of three implant designs in synthetic polyurethane blocks simulating different bone conditions.

Materials And Methods: Overall, 72 implants with three different designs (two conical and one cylindrical) were inserted at equicrestal and subcrestal positions (-2 mm) into polyurethane blocks simulating the anterior (0.32 g/cm) and posterior (0. Read More

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Data on the in-vitro digestibility of acid gels prepared from brewers' spent grain protein isolates.

Data Brief 2021 Aug 21;37:107160. Epub 2021 May 21.

Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), 5 avenue des Hauts Fourneaux, L-4362, Esch-sur-Alzette, LUXEMBOURG.

Brewers' Spent Grain (BSG) is the primary waste of the beer brewing process, which comprises a plethora of nutritionally appealing ingredients such as proteins, dietary fibres, essential lipids and micronutrients. In our previous study [1], the acid-induced gelation capacity of BSG protein isolate as influenced by the thermal pre-treatment severity was systematically investigated. In the present work, we aimed at providing a dataset outlining the gastrointestinal fate of the acid gels under simulating pre-absorptive digestion conditions adopting the INFOGEST static in-vitro digestion protocol. Read More

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Perceptual Evaluation of Vocal Fold Vibratory Asymmetry.

Laryngoscope 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Objectives: Laryngeal vibratory asymmetry occurring with paresis may result in a perceptually normal or abnormal voice. The present study aims to determine the relationships between the degree of vibratory asymmetry, acoustic measures, and perception of sound stimuli.

Study Design: Animal Model of Voice Production, Perceptual Analysis of Voice. Read More

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Hemolysis estimation in turbulent flow for the FDA critical path initiative centrifugal blood pump.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 73019, USA.

Hemolysis in medical devices and implants has been a primary concern over the past fifty years. Turbulent flow in particular can cause cell trauma and hemolysis in such devices. In this work, the effects of turbulence on red blood cell (RBC) damage are examined by simulating the flow field through a centrifugal blood pump that has been identified as a case study through the critical path initiative of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Read More

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Forecasting water temperature in lakes and reservoirs using seasonal climate prediction.

Water Res 2021 May 24;201:117286. Epub 2021 May 24.

Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona, Spain; Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain.

Seasonal climate forecasts produce probabilistic predictions of meteorological variables for subsequent months. This provides a potential resource to predict the influence of seasonal climate anomalies on surface water balance in catchments and hydro-thermodynamics in related water bodies (e.g. Read More

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Dynamic nutrient removal potential of a novel submerged macrophyte Rotala rotundifolia, and its growth and physiological response to reduced light available.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 5;293:112965. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, 325035, China.

Rotala rotundifolia is a novel submerged macrophyte able to survive across the winter under temperature as low as 4 °C. Dynamic nutrient removal potential of R. rotundifolia was estimated using the Eco-tank system simulating natural eutrophic waters. Read More

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Meeting the unmet needs of clinicians from AI systems showcased for cardiology with deep-learning-based ECG analysis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(24)

Biomedical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 3200003, Israel

Despite their great promise, artificial intelligence (AI) systems have yet to become ubiquitous in the daily practice of medicine largely due to several crucial unmet needs of healthcare practitioners. These include lack of explanations in clinically meaningful terms, handling the presence of unknown medical conditions, and transparency regarding the system's limitations, both in terms of statistical performance as well as recognizing situations for which the system's predictions are irrelevant. We articulate these unmet clinical needs as machine-learning (ML) problems and systematically address them with cutting-edge ML techniques. Read More

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Particle fractionation controls release from solid manure.

Heliyon 2021 May 25;7(5):e07038. Epub 2021 May 25.

Ecohydrology Research Group, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and Water Institute, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.

Bacteria transport through soil is a complex process particularly when the cells are released from solid manures and co-transported with particles. This study focuses on understanding of the release from different particle fractions (0.25-, 0. Read More

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Redox mediators accelerate electrochemically-driven solubility cycling of molecular transition metal complexes.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 10;11(36):9836-9851. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill North Carolina 27599-3290 USA

The solubility of molecular transition metal complexes can vary widely across different redox states, leaving these compounds vulnerable to electron transfer-initiated heterogenization processes in which oxidation or reduction of the soluble form of the redox couple generates insoluble molecular deposits. These insoluble species can precipitate as suspended nanoparticles in solution or, under electrochemical conditions, as an electrode-adsorbed material. While this electrochemically-driven solubility cycling is technically reversible, the reverse electron transfer to regenerate the soluble redox couple state is a practical challenge if sluggish electron transfer kinetics result in a loss of electronic communication between the molecular deposits and the electrode. Read More

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September 2020

Estimation of Granger causality through Artificial Neural Networks: applications to physiological systems and chaotic electronic oscillators.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 18;7:e429. Epub 2021 May 18.

Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy.

One of the most challenging problems in the study of complex dynamical systems is to find the statistical interdependencies among the system components. Granger causality (GC) represents one of the most employed approaches, based on modeling the system dynamics with a linear vector autoregressive (VAR) model and on evaluating the information flow between two processes in terms of prediction error variances. In its most advanced setting, GC analysis is performed through a state-space (SS) representation of the VAR model that allows to compute both conditional and unconditional forms of GC by solving only one regression problem. Read More

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A Comparison of Two Probes to Determine Rectum Optical Properties.

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 2021 Mar 12;11628. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104.

Tissue optical properties are crucial for determining the light dose delivered to the tumor. Two probes are compared: the two-catheter probe is based on transmittance measurement between one point source and one isotropic detector inside parallel catheters spaced at 0.5 cm along a 1-inch diameter transparent cylinder; and a 1-inch trans-rectal diffuse optical tomography (DOT) probe designed for prostate measurements, using a multiple fiber-array with source-detector separations of 1. Read More

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Evolutionary Rescue as a Mechanism Allowing a Clonal Grass to Adapt to Novel Climates.

Front Plant Sci 2021 17;12:659479. Epub 2021 May 17.

Institute of Botany, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia.

Filing gaps in our understanding of species' abilities to adapt to novel climates is a key challenge for predicting future range shifts and biodiversity loss. Key knowledge gaps are related to the potential for evolutionary rescue in response to climate, especially in long-lived clonally reproducing species. We illustrate a novel approach to assess the potential for evolutionary rescue using a combination of reciprocal transplant experiment in the field to assess performance under a changing climate and independent growth chamber assays to assess growth- and physiology-related plant trait maxima and plasticities of the same clones. Read More

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The brain penetrant PPARγ agonist leriglitazone restores multiple altered pathways in models of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jun;13(596)

Minoryx Therapeutics S.L., Barcelona 08302, Spain.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a potentially fatal neurometabolic disorder with no effective pharmacological treatment, is characterized by clinical manifestations ranging from progressive spinal cord axonopathy [adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN)] to severe demyelination and neuroinflammation (cerebral ALD-cALD), for which molecular mechanisms are not well known. Leriglitazone is a recently developed brain penetrant full PPARγ agonist that could modulate multiple biological pathways relevant for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, and particularly for X-ALD. We found that leriglitazone decreased oxidative stress, increased adenosine 5'-triphosphate concentration, and exerted neuroprotective effects in primary rodent neurons and astrocytes after very long chain fatty acid-induced toxicity simulating X-ALD. Read More

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Fibrinogen-mimicking, multiarm nanovesicles for human thrombus-specific delivery of tissue plasminogen activator and targeted thrombolytic therapy.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 2;7(23). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, UK.

Clinical use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in thrombolytic therapy is limited by its short circulation time and hemorrhagic side effects. Inspired by fibrinogen binding to activated platelets, we report a fibrinogen-mimicking, multiarm nanovesicle for thrombus-specific tPA delivery and targeted thrombolysis. This biomimetic system is based on the lipid nanovesicle coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) terminally conjugated with a cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptide. Read More

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A Milk Foodomics Investigation into the Effect of Growth under Cold Chain Conditions.

Foods 2021 May 24;10(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department for Sustainable Food Process (DiSTAS), Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy.

is a psychrotrophic species associated with milk spoilage because of its lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Consequently, monitoring or its antecedent activity in milk is critical to preventing quality defects of the product and minimizing food waste. Therefore, in this study, untargeted metabolomics and peptidomics were used to identify the changes in milk related to activity by simulating the low-temperature conditions usually found in milk during the cold chain. Read More

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Optimization of an Untargeted DART-HRMS Method Envisaging Identification of Potential Markers for Saffron Authenticity Assessment.

Foods 2021 May 29;10(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Institute of Science of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy, Via G. Amendola 126/O, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Saffron is one of the most expensive agricultural products in the world and as such, the most commonly adulterated spice, with undeclared plant-based surrogates or synthetic components simulating color and morphology. Currently, saffron quality is certificated in the international trade market according to specific ISO guidelines, which test aroma, flavor, and color strength. However, it has been demonstrated that specific adulterants such as safflower, marigold, or turmeric up to 20% () cannot be detected under the prescribed approach; therefore, there is still a need for advanced and sensitive screening methods to cope with this open issue. Read More

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Environmental Salinity Modifies Mucus Exudation and Energy Use in European Sea Bass Juveniles.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, University of Barcelona (UB), 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

The European sea bass () is a euryhaline marine teleost that can often be found in brackish and freshwater or even in hypersaline environments. Here, we exposed sea bass juveniles to sustained salinity challenges for 15 days, simulating one hypoosmotic (3‰), one isosmotic (12‰) and one hyperosmotic (50‰) environment, in addition to control (35‰). We analyzed parameters of skin mucus exudation and mucus biomarkers, as a minimally invasive tool, and plasma biomarkers. Read More

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Low-Cost Biobased Coatings for AM60 Magnesium Alloys for Food Contact and Harsh Environment Applications.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 6;22(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Via Michel 11, 28100 Alessandria, Italy.

Low-cost, environmentally friendly and easily applicable coating for Mg alloys, able to resist in real world conditions, are studied. Coatings already used for other metals (aluminum, steel) and never tested on Mg alloy for its different surface and reactivity were deposited on AM60 magnesium alloys to facilitate their technological applications, also in presence of chemically aggressive conditions. A biobased PA11 powder coating was compared to synthetic silicon-based and polyester coatings, producing lab scale samples, probed by drop deposition tests and dipping in increasingly aggressive, salty, basic and acid solutions, at RT and at higher temperatures. Read More

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Modelling of Electrowetting-Induced Droplet Detachment and Jumping over Topographically Micro-Structured Surfaces.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 21;12(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece.

Detachment and jumping of liquid droplets over solid surfaces under electrowetting actuation are of fundamental interest in many microfluidic and heat transfer applications. In this study we demonstrate the potential capabilities of our continuum-level, sharp-interface modelling approach, which overcomes some important limitations of convectional hydrodynamic models, when simulating droplet detachment and jumping dynamics over flat and micro-structured surfaces. Preliminary calculations reveal a considerable connection between substrate micro-topography and energy efficiency of the process. Read More

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Exploring the Effects of Immersive Virtual Reality Environments on Sensory Perception of Beef Steaks and Chocolate.

Foods 2021 May 21;10(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Department of Food Quality and Sensory Science, D15 KN3K Dublin, Ireland.

Virtual reality (VR) technology is emerging as a tool for simulating different eating environments to better understand consumer sensory response to food. This research explored the impact of different environmental contexts on participants' hedonic ratings of two different food products: beef steaks, and milk chocolate, using VR as the context-enhancing technology. Two separate studies were conducted. Read More

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Ileo-Colon Targeting of the Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Celecoxib Using a pH-Dependent Coating in Combination with Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery or Solid Dispersion Systems.

Pharmaceutics 2021 May 15;13(5). Epub 2021 May 15.

Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, University of Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands.

Targeting celecoxib to the ileo-colonic region could be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of colon cancer. Ileo-colonic targeting can be achieved by using pH-dependent coating systems such as ColoPulse. Celecoxib has poor aqueous solubility, which may jeopardize optimal treatment. Read More

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Photon bubble turbulence in cold atom gases.

Nat Commun 2021 May 28;12(1):3240. Epub 2021 May 28.

Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Turbulent radiation flow is commonplace in systems with strong, incoherent, light-matter interactions. In astrophysical contexts, photon bubble turbulence is considered a key mechanism behind enhanced radiation transport, and its importance has been widely asserted for a variety of high energy objects such as accretion disks and massive stars. Here, we show that analogous conditions to those of dense astrophysical objects can be obtained in large clouds of cold atoms, prepared in a laser-cooling experiment, driven close to a sharp electronic resonance. Read More

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Structural changes of bacterial cellulose due to incubation in conditions simulating human plasma in the presence of selected pathogens.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 5;266:118153. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemistry, Technology and Biotechnology of Food, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12 St. 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland. Electronic address:

Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a natural biomaterial with a wide range of medical applications. However, it cannot be used as a biological implant of the circulatory system without checking whether it is biodegradable under human plasma conditions. This work aimed to investigate the BNC biodegradation by selected pathogens under conditions simulating human plasma. Read More

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Effects of two different doses of carbohydrate ingestion on taekwondo-related performance during a simulated tournament.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 May 27;18(1):40. Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Health and Human Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.

Background: Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion enhances exercise performance; however, the efficacy of CHO intake on repeated bouts of exercise simulating a taekwondo tournament is unknown. Therefore, the purpose was to compare the effects of two different doses of CHO on a sports-specific kicking test during a simulated taekwondo tournament compared to placebo (PLA).

Methods: In a double-blind, randomized-placebo controlled, cross-over trial, eleven junior male professional taekwondo athletes (age: 16 ± 0. Read More

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Vibrotactile Feedback Rendering of Patterned Textures Using a Waveform Segment Table Method.

IEEE Trans Haptics 2021 May 27;PP. Epub 2021 May 27.

Vibrotactile feedback is a common form of rendered haptic feedback used for simulating stylus-texture interaction. Most state-of-the-art stylus-texture interaction vibrotactile feedback synthesizing methods are oriented toward generating signal with resemblance in spectrum in frequency domain. In this paper we set our foot backward and explore more about record-and-playback method for a subset of textures: those that have obvious spatial pattern, which constitutes a significant proportion of man-made textures we interact with in daily life. Read More

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Establishing the twig method for investigations on pollen characteristics of allergenic tree species.

Int J Biometeorol 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

TUM School of Life Sciences, Department of Life Science Systems, Technical University of Munich, 85354, Freising, Germany.

The twig method in climate chambers has been shown to successfully work as a proxy for outdoor manipulations in various experimental setups. This study was conducted to further establish this method for the investigation of allergenic pollen from tree species (hazel, alder, and birch). Direct comparison under outdoor conditions revealed that the cut twigs compared to donor trees were similar in the timing of flowering and the amount of pollen produced. Read More

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