1,405 results match your criteria conditions robustly

From theory to practice in pattern-oriented modelling: identifying and using empirical patterns in predictive models.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Forest Growth and Computer Science, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, 01062, Germany.

To robustly predict the effects of disturbance and ecosystem changes on species, it is necessary to produce structurally realistic models with high predictive power and flexibility. To ensure that these models reflect the natural conditions necessary for reliable prediction, models must be informed and tested using relevant empirical observations. Pattern-oriented modelling (POM) offers a systematic framework for employing empirical patterns throughout the modelling process and has been coupled with complex systems modelling, such as in agent-based models (ABMs). Read More

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Color-complexity enabled exhaustive color-dots identification and spatial patterns testing in images.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251258. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Statistics, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.

Our computational developments and analyses on experimental images are designed to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical spraying via unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Our evaluations are in accord with the two perspectives of color-complexity: color variety within a color system and color distributional geometry on an image. First, by working within RGB and HSV color systems, we develop a new color-identification algorithm relying on highly associative relations among three color-coordinates to lead us to exhaustively identify all targeted color-pixels. Read More

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An Elastic Mineralized 3D Electrospun PCL Nanofibrous Scaffold for Drug Release and Bone Tissue Engineering.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2021 Apr 23;4(4):3639-3648. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Iowa Institute for Oral Health Research, University of Iowa College of Dentistry, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Complex shaped and critical-sized bone defects have been a clinical challenge for many years. Scaffold-based strategies such as hydrogels provide localized drug release while filling complex defect shapes, but ultimately possess weaknesses in low mechanical strength alongside a lack of macroporous and collagen-mimicking nanofibrous structures. Thus, there is a demand for mechanically strong, extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking scaffolds that can robustly fit complex shaped critical sized defects and simultaneously provide localized, sustained, multiple growth factor release. Read More

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Continuous Classification of Locomotion in Response to Task Complexity and Anticipatory State.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 22;9:628050. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Walker Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States.

Objective: Intent recognition in lower-extremity assistive devices (e.g., prostheses and exoskeletons) is typically limited to either recognition of steady-state locomotion or changes of terrain (e. Read More

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Structure, scale and emergence.

Stud Hist Philos Sci 2021 Feb 15;85:44-53. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Philosophy, Durham University, 50 Old Elvet Durham, DH1 3HN, UK. Electronic address:

In this paper I consider the structures that chemists and physicists attribute at the molecular scale to substances and materials of various kinds, and how they relate to structures and processes at other scales. I argue that the structure of a substance is the set of properties and relations which are preserved across all the conditions in which it can be said to exist. In short, structure is abstraction. Read More

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February 2021

EEG-based auditory attention decoding using speech-level-based segmented computational models.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Southern University of Science and Technology, No.1088 Xueyuan Blvd., Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518055, CHINA.

Objective: Auditory attention in complex scenarios can be decoded by electroencephalography (EEG)-based cortical speech-envelope tracking. The relative root-mean-square (RMS) intensity is a valuable cue for the decomposition of speech into distinct characteristic segments. To improve auditory attention decoding (AAD) performance, this work proposed a novel segmented AAD approach to decode target speech envelopes from different RMS-level-based speech segments. Read More

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Modulation of visually guided action by the image and familiar sizes of real-world objects.

J Vis 2021 May;21(5)

Cognitive, Linguistic, & Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

In daily life, two aspects of real-world object size perception-the image size of an object and its familiar size in the real world-are highly correlated. Thus, whether these two aspects of object size differently affect goal-directed action (e.g. Read More

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Isolation of Adult Human Astrocyte Populations from Fresh-frozen Cortex using Fluorescence-Activated Nuclei Sorting.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 16(170). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pathology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai;

The complexity of human astrocytes remains poorly defined in primary human tissue, requiring better tools for their isolation and molecular characterization. Fluorescence-activated nuclei sorting (FANS) can be used to successfully isolate and study human neuronal nuclei (NeuN+) populations from frozen archival tissue, thereby avoiding problems associated with handling fresh tissue. However, efforts to similarly isolate astroglia from the non-neuronal (NeuN-) element are lacking. Read More

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Automated Quantitative Analysis of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Intellesis Machine-Learning.

Front Neurosci 2021 16;15:617221. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: An increase in blood brain barrier permeability commonly precedes neuro-inflammation and cognitive impairment in models of dementia. Common methods to estimate capillary permeability have potential confounders, or require laborious and subjective semi-manual analysis.

New Method: Here we used snap frozen mouse and rat brain sections that were double-immunofluorescent labeled for immunoglobulin G (IgG; plasma protein) and laminin-α4 (capillary basement membrane). Read More

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The Redox Modulating Sonlicromanol Active Metabolite KH176m and the Antioxidant MPG Protect Against Short-Duration Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Sonlicromanol is a phase IIB clinical stage compound developed for treatment of mitochondrial diseases. Its active component, KH176m, functions as an antioxidant, directly scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and redox activator, boosting the peroxiredoxin-thioredoxin system. Here, we examined KH176m's potential to protect against acute cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), compare it with the classic antioxidant N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG), and determine whether protection depends on duration (severity) of ischemia. Read More

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Pyroluria: Fact or Fiction?

J Altern Complement Med 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Psychology, Speech and Hearing, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

The term "Mauve factor" (pyrroluria) dates back to 1958 when Dr. Abram Hoffer defined the condition as elevated levels of pyrroles in the urine, currently called hydroxyhemepyrrolin-2-one (HPL). It was suggested that the raised pyrrole levels lead to depletions in zinc and vitamin B, which, in turn, were hypothesized to result in a range of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. Read More

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Adaptive Neural Decoder for Prosthetic Hand Control.

Front Neurosci 2021 8;15:590775. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, United States.

The overarching goal was to resolve a major barrier to real-life prosthesis usability-the rapid degradation of prosthesis control systems, which require frequent recalibrations. Specifically, we sought to develop and test a motor decoder that provides (1) highly accurate, real-time movement response, and (2) unprecedented adaptability to dynamic changes in the amputee's biological state, thereby supporting long-term integrity of control performance with few recalibrations. To achieve that, an adaptive motor decoder was designed to auto-switch between algorithms in real-time. Read More

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How is epigenetics predicted to contribute to climate change adaptation? What evidence do we need?

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 Jun 19;376(1826):20200119. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne 3800, Australia.

Transgenerational effects that are interpreted in terms of epigenetics have become an important research focus at a time when rapid environmental changes are occurring. These effects are usually interpreted as enhancing fitness extremely rapidly, without depending on the slower process of natural selection changing DNA-encoded (fixed) genetic variants in populations. Supporting evidence comes from a variety of sources, including environmental associations with epialleles, cross-generation responses of clonal material exposed to different environmental conditions, and altered patterns of methylation or frequency changes in epialleles across time. Read More

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A distributional perspective on the gavagai problem in early word learning.

Cognition 2021 Apr 11:104680. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, United States of America.

Word learning entails the mapping of an auditory word-form to its appropriate grammatical category (e.g., noun, verb, adjective), but before that mapping can occur, the naïve learner must infer which of the myriad of possible referents of that word was intended by the speaker. Read More

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A Model-Based Approach for Pulse Selection from Electrodermal Activity.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 6;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Objective: We present a statistical model for extracting physiologic characteristics from electrodermal activity (EDA) data in observational settings.

Methods: We used insight about the integrate-and-fire physiology of sweat gland bursts, which predicts inverse Gaussian (IG) inter-pulse interval structure. At the core of our model-based paradigm is a subject-specific amplitude threshold selection process for EDA pulses based on the statistical properties of four right-skewed models including the IG. Read More

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Hormonal fine-tuning of clock in decidual region of mouse placenta by dopamine, melatonin, insulin, leptin and ghrelin.

Placenta 2021 Mar 27;108:55-63. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Biological Rhythms, Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Introduction: The maternal part of the rodent placenta harbors a circadian clock which robustly responds to glucocorticoids, however, its sensitivity to other hormones has not been elucidated. In this study, we tested five selected hormones (dopamine, melatonin, insulin, leptin and ghrelin) for their effectiveness to affect the clock in decidual region of mouse placenta in vitro.

Methods: We administered the hormones or corresponding vehicles at various time points over 24 h to organotypic placental explants of mPer2 mice containing the decidua basalis (DB) region and monitored their effects on amplitude, period, median expression level (mesor) and phase of PER2-driven bioluminescence rhythms. Read More

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Competition between perceptual grouping cues in an indirect objective task.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Apr 22:17470218211010486. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Departamento de Psicología Básica I, Facultad de Psicología, UNED, Madrid, Spain.

The integration between Gestalt grouping cues has been a relatively unexplored issue in vision science. The present work introduces an objective indirect method based on the to determine the rules that govern the dominance dynamics of the competition between both intrinsic (Experiment 1: proximity vs luminance similarity) and extrinsic grouping cues (Experiment 2: common region vs connectedness) by means of objective measures of grouping (reaction times and accuracy). Prior to the main task, a novel objective equating task was introduced with the aim of equating the grouping strength of the cues for the visuomotor system. Read More

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Sex-specific associations of basal steroid hormones and neuropeptides with Conduct Disorder and neuroendocrine mediation of environmental risk.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Apr 1;49:40-53. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. The stress hormone system has frequently been investigated as a neurobiological correlate of CD, while other interacting neuroendocrine biomarkers of sex hormone or neuropeptide systems have rarely been studied, especially in females. We examined multiple basal neuroendocrine biomarkers in female and male adolescents with CD compared to healthy controls (HCs), and explored whether they mediate effects of environmental risk factors on CD. Read More

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Angiogenesis in the Normal Adrenal Fetal Cortex and Adrenocortical Tumors.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 1;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (I3S), Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.

Angiogenesis plays an important role in several physiological and pathological processes. Pharmacological angiogenesis modulation has been robustly demonstrated to achieve clinical benefits in several cancers. Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are rare tumors that often have a poor prognosis. Read More

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Aging Regulated Through a Stability Model of Insulin/Insulin Growth Factor Receptor Function.

Marc Tatar

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 11;12:649880. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

Mutations of the insulin-like receptor in extend lifespan. New research suggests this receptor operates in two modes. The first extends lifespan while slowing reproduction and reducing growth. Read More

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Dementia with Lewy bodies-associated ß-synuclein mutations V70M and P123H cause mutation-specific neuropathological lesions.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr;30(3-4):247-264

Department of Neurology, University Medicine Göttingen, Göttingen 37073, Germany.

Beta (ß)-synuclein (ß-Syn) has long been considered to be an attenuator for the neuropathological effects caused by the Parkinson's disease-related alpha (α)-synuclein (α-Syn) protein. However, recent studies demonstrated that overabundant ß-Syn can form aggregates and induce neurodegeneration in central nervous system (CNS) neurons in vitro and in vivo, albeit at a slower pace as compared with α-Syn. Here, we demonstrate that ß-Syn mutants V70M, detected in a sporadic case of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and P123H, detected in a familial case of DLB, robustly aggravate the neurotoxic potential of ß-Syn. Read More

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Decisive Conditions for Strategic Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.

medRxiv 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

While vaccines that protect against SARS-CoV-2 are being approved, the number of available doses is limited as it may take months until the production of vaccines can meet the actual demand. The majority of available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines elicits strong immune responses when administered as prime-boost regimens. Since the immunological response to the first ("prime") injection may provide already a substantial reduction in infectiousness and protection against severe disease, it may be more effective-under certain conditions-to vaccinate as many people as possible with only one shot, instead of administering a person a second ("boost") shot. Read More

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Effect of fluid contamination on reverse torque values in implant-abutment connections under oral conditions.

J Adv Prosthodont 2021 Feb 23;13(1):65-70. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Implant mechanical complications, including screw loosening, can influence dental implant success. It has been shown that torque values are affected by contamination occurred in implant-abutment (I/A) interface. This study aimed to examine the effects of blood, saliva, fluoride and chlorhexidine contamination on reverse torque values (RTVs) of abutment screws in oral conditions. Read More

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February 2021

A network-based analysis and experimental validation of traditional Chinese medicine Yuanhu Zhitong Formula in treating neuropathic pain.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 19;274:114037. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Yuanhu Zhitong Formula (YZF) consists of traditional Chinese herbs Corydalis Rhizoma (Corydalis yanhusuo (Y.H.Chou & Chun C. Read More

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SFRmaker and Linesink-Maker: Rapid Construction of Streamflow Routing Networks from Hydrography Data.

Ground Water 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Water Science Center, Michigan, 5840 Enterprise Drive, Lansing, MI, 48911, USA.

Groundwater models have evolved to encompass more aspects of the water cycle, but the incorporation of realistic boundary conditions representing surface water remains time-consuming and error-prone. We present two Python packages that robustly automate this process using readily available hydrography data as the primary input. SFRmaker creates input for the MODFLOW SFR package, while Linesink-maker creates linesink string input for the GFLOW analytic element program. Read More

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In Vitro 3D Models of Tunable Stiffness.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2294:27-42

The Garvan Institute of Medical Research and The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.

Three-dimensional models of spheroid formation have been routinely used in the cancer field to test the colony forming capacity of malignant cells in an in vitro setting. Use of such a model provides a robust surrogate for in vivo testing, enabling large-scale interrogation into the effect of certain treatment conditions. This adapted protocol describes a high throughput and readily accessible composite alginate hydrogel system for spheroid formation, within a biomechanically tunable three-dimensional environment. Read More

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January 2021

A substantia innominata-midbrain circuit controls a general aggressive response.

Neuron 2021 May 18;109(9):1540-1553.e9. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Neurobiology and Department of Neurology of Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China; NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, MOE Frontier Science Center for Brain Research and Brain-Machine Integration, School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Although aggressive behaviors are universal and essential for survival, "uncontrollable" and abnormal aggressive behaviors in animals or humans may have severe adverse consequences or social costs. Neural circuits regulating specific forms of aggression under defined conditions have been described, but how brain circuits govern a general aggressive response remains unknown. Here, we found that posterior substantia innominata (pSI) neurons responded to several aggression-provoking cues with the graded activity of differential dynamics, predicting the aggressive state and the topography of aggression in mice. Read More

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Estimation of respiratory rate and effort from a chest-worn accelerometer using constrained and recursive principal component analysis.

Physiol Meas 2021 May 11;42(4). Epub 2021 May 11.

Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

. Measurement of respiratory rate and effort is useful in various applications, such as the diagnosis of sleep apnea and early detection of patient deterioration in medical conditions, such as infections. A chest-worn accelerometer may be an easy and non-intrusive method, provided it is accurate and robust. Read More

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Children hospitalised with four common viral diseases showed epidemiological differences but few socio-economic variations.

Acta Paediatr 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aim: This study explored the differences in demographic and socio-economic factors between children hospitalised due to four common viral infections.

Methods: Demographic data were obtained from Statistics Sweden on >3000 children admitted to Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital in 2009-2014 with rotavirus, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or chickenpox. We compared demographic and socio-economic factors between case groups using logistic regression with rotavirus cases as reference. Read More

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Machine learning-based classification of mitochondrial morphology in primary neurons and brain.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 4;11(1):5133. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

The mitochondrial network continually undergoes events of fission and fusion. Under physiologic conditions, the network is in equilibrium and is characterized by the presence of both elongated and punctate mitochondria. However, this balanced, homeostatic mitochondrial profile can change morphologic distribution in response to various stressors. Read More

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