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Neonatal stroke enhances interaction of microglia-derived extracellular vesicles with microglial cells.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jun 18:105431. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Neurology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Microglial cells support brain homeostasis under physiological conditions and modulate brain injury in a context-dependent and brain maturation-dependent manner. Microglial cells protect neonatal brain from acute stroke. While microglial signaling via direct cell-cell interaction and release of variety of molecules is intensely studied, less is known about microglial signaling via release and uptake of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Read More

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Highly differentiated soil bacterial communities in Victoria Land macro-areas (Antarctica).

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy.

Ice-free areas of Victoria Land, in Antarctica, are characterized by different terrestrial ecosystems, that are dominated by microorganisms supporting highly adapted communities. Despite the unique conditions of these ecosystems, reports on their bacterial diversity are still fragmentary. From this perspective, 60 samples from 14 localities were analyzed. Read More

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Blue crab () population structure in southern New England tidal rivers: Patterns of shallow-water, unvegetated habitat use and quality.

Estuaries Coast 2021 Jul 25;44(5):1320-1343. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Roger Williams University, Department of Marine Biology, One Old Ferry Road, Bristol, RI 02809, USA.

The blue crab, , has a broad geographic distribution encompassing coastal waters of the eastern United States and Gulf of Mexico, but intraspecific patterns of habitat use and quality are lacking at northern latitudes. This study examined the population structure of blue crabs in the Seekonk and Taunton Rivers (Rhode Island and Massachusetts, USA): two tidally influenced rivers contiguous with the Narragansett Bay Estuary and dominated by shallow-water, unvegetated habitats. Crabs were collected fortnightly from May through August (2012-2016), and abundance- and growth-based metrics were used to assess riverine habitat use and quality. Read More

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Performance of machine learning classification models of autism using resting-state fMRI is contingent on sample heterogeneity.

Neural Comput Appl 2021 Apr 24;33(8):3299-3310. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Brain Development Imaging Lab (BDIL), Psychology, San Diego State University (SDSU), 6363 Alvarado Ct. Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92120, USA.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions. In fMRI studies, including most machine learning studies seeking to distinguish ASD from typical developing (TD) samples, cohorts differing in gender and symptom severity composition are often treated statistically as one "ASD group". Using resting-state functional connectivity (FC) data, we implemented random forest to build diagnostic classifiers in 4 ASD samples including a total of 656 participants (N = 306, N = 350, ages 6-18). Read More

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Spatial abundance and distribution of picocyanobacterial communities in two contrasting lakes revealed using environmental DNA metabarcoding.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jun;97(7)

Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax St East, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand.

Freshwater picocyanobacteria (Pcy) are important yet understudied components of lake ecosystems. Most previous studies have relied on cell abundances to assess Pcy dynamics in largely oligotrophic lakes, while little is known about spatial diversity and dynamics across different lake types. In the present study we assessed the horizontal-spatial abundance and community structure of Pcy in two contrasting (oligotrophic and hypertrophic) New Zealand lakes using epifluorescence microscopy and 16S rRNA metabarcoding. Read More

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The influence of moisture on the storage stability of co-amorphous systems.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jun 15:120802. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Co-amorphization has been utilized to improve the physical stability of the respective neat amorphous drugs. However, physical stability of co-amorphous systems is mostly investigated under dry conditions, leaving the potential influence of moisture on storage stability unclear. In this study, carvedilol-L-aspartic acid (CAR-ASP) co-amorphous systems at CAR to ASP molar ratios from 3:1 to 1:3 were investigated under non-dry conditions at two temperatures, i. Read More

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Including tree spatial extension in the evaluation of neighborhood competition effects in Bornean rain forest.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 6;11(11):6195-6222. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Plant Sciences University of Bern Bern Switzerland.

Classical tree neighborhood models use size variables acting at point distances. In a new approach here, trees were spatially extended as a function of their crown sizes, represented impressionistically as points within crown areas. Extension was accompanied by plasticity in the form of crown removal or relocation under the overlap of taller trees. Read More

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Multi-morbidity and blood pressure trajectories in hypertensive patients: A multiple landmark cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Jun 17;18(6):e1003674. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Deep Medicine, Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Our knowledge of how to better manage elevated blood pressure (BP) in the presence of comorbidities is limited, in part due to exclusion or underrepresentation of patients with multiple chronic conditions from major clinical trials. We aimed to investigate the burden and types of comorbidities in patients with hypertension and to assess how such comorbidities and other variables affect BP levels over time.

Methods And Findings: In this multiple landmark cohort study, we used linked electronic health records from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to compare systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels in 295,487 patients (51% women) aged 61. Read More

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Obstetrical outcomes of ART pregnancies in patients with male factor infertility.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizman Street, 6423906, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Purpose: Pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are associated with an increased incidence of obstetrical and neonatal complications. With the growing rate of male factor infertility, which is unique by not involving the maternal milieu, we aimed to assess whether obstetrical outcomes differed between IVF/ICSI pregnancies due to male factor infertility and those not due to male factor infertility.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of women receiving IVF/ICSI treatments at a single hospital over a five-year period was involved in the study. Read More

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A Service Evaluation of the Experiences of Patients With Functional Neurological Disorders Within the NHS.

Front Neurol 2021 31;12:656466. Epub 2021 May 31.

Atkinson Morley Regional Neuroscience Centre, St. George's University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Previous research into Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) has shown that there are significant barriers in providing patient-centred care. However, there has been no specific research into whether patient experiences of care for FND meet the current standards of care. This study aimed to investigate the types of problems experienced by FND patients, and whether these differed to patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Read More

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Investigation of the anisotropic confinement-dependent brittleness of a Utah coal.

Int J Rock Mech Min Sci (1997) 2020 Sep;8(2):274-290

Department of Geological Engineering, Montana Tech, Butte, MT, USA.

Changes of failure mechanism with increasing confinement, from extensional to shear-dominated failure, are widely observed in the rupture of intact specimens at the laboratory scale and in rock masses. In an analysis published in 2018, both unconfined and triaxial compressive tests were conducted to investigate the strength characteristics of 84 specimens of a Utah coal, including the spalling limits, the ratio of apparent unconfined compressive strength to unconfined compressive strength (UCS), the damage characteristics, and the post-yield dilatancy. These mechanical characteristics were found to be strongly anisotropic as a function of the orientation of the cleats relative to the loading direction, defined as the included angle. Read More

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September 2020

Schema therapy for violent PD offenders: a randomized clinical trial.

Psychol Med 2021 Jun 15:1-15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Violent criminal offenders with personality disorders (PD's) can cause immense harm, but are often deemed untreatable. This study aimed to conduct a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of long-term psychotherapy for rehabilitating offenders with PDs.

Methods: We compared schema therapy (ST), an evidence-based psychotherapy for PDs, to treatment-as-usual (TAU) at eight high-security forensic hospitals in the Netherlands. Read More

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The role of spatial separation of two talkers' auditory stimuli in the listener's memory of running speech: listening effort in a non-noisy conversational setting.

Int J Audiol 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Teaching and Research Area Work and Engineering Psychology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Objective: To investigate the role of the spatial position of conversing talkers, that is, spatially separated or co-located, in the listener's short-term memory of running speech and listening effort.

Design: In two experiments (between-subject), participants underwent a dual-task paradigm, including a listening (primary) task wherein male and female talkers spoke coherent texts. Talkers were either spatially separated or co-located (within-subject). Read More

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A songbird adjusts its heart rate and body temperature in response to season and fluctuating daily conditions.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 Aug 14;376(1830):20200213. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Radolfzell, Germany.

In a seasonal world, organisms are continuously adjusting physiological processes relative to local environmental conditions. Owing to their limited heat and fat storage capacities, small animals, such as songbirds, must rapidly modulate their metabolism in response to weather extremes and changing seasons to ensure survival. As a consequence of previous technical limitations, most of our existing knowledge about how animals respond to changing environmental conditions comes from laboratory studies or field studies over short temporal scales. Read More

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The importance of working memory capacity for improving speech in noise comprehension in children with hearing aid.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 May 24;147:110774. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: One of the most common complaints of hearing aid users is difficulty in receiving speech in noise which is very important for all hearing impaired specially children with limited auditory and language experiences. Since working memory plays a significant role in speech perception, especially in challenging auditory situations such as background noise, it is likely that differences in its performance and capacity may impair the ability to understand speech in noise in hearing aid users. Therefore, we aimed to compare memory capacity between two groups of children using hearing aids in both ears, who differed only in the ability to understand speech in noise. Read More

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Post-stress glucose consumption facilitates hormesis and resilience to severe stress.

Stress 2021 Jun 11:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Departmentof Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Oral ingestion of a glucose solution following severe stress is a simple and effective way of preventing several of the negative sequelae of stress in rats. Similar resilience is obtained through hormetic training - pre-exposure to mild-to-moderate stress prior to severe stress. Here, we examined whether hormetic training is facilitated when a glucose solution is available following each hormetic training session. Read More

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The effect of body posture on resting-state functional connectivity.

Brain Connect 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Stanford University, 6429, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California, United States;

Introduction: An important but under-investigated confound of functional MRI (fMRI) is body posture. Although it is well-established that body position changes cerebral blood flow, the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, intracranial pressure, and even the firing rate of certain cell types, there is currently no study that directly examines its effect on fMRI measurements. Moreover, fMRI is typically done in a supine position, which often does not correspond to how these processes are performed in everyday settings. Read More

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Investigation of the Relationship Between Frequency of Blast Exposure, mTBI History, and Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD 20889-5649, USA.

Introduction: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are common conditions among military personnel that frequently co-occur. This study investigated relationships between self-reported blast exposure, mTBI history, and current post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in a population of active duty service members (n = 202) from the Intensive Outpatient Program at the National Intrepid Center of Excellence.

Materials And Methods: Participants were divided into four mTBI groups (0, 1, 2, and 3+) and four blast exposure groups (0-10, 11-100, 101-1,000, and 1,000+). Read More

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Metabolomic Profiling Demonstrates Postprandial Changes in Fatty Acids and Glycerophospholipids Are Associated with Fasting Inflammation in Guatemalan Adults.

J Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Metabolic flexibility is the responsiveness to heterogeneous physiological conditions, such as food ingestion. A key unresolved question is how inflammation affects metabolic flexibility.

Objectives: Our study objective was to compare metabolic flexibility, specifically the metabolomic response to a standardized meal, by fasting inflammation status. Read More

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Redefining the oceanic distribution of Atlantic salmon.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12266. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Silkeborg, Denmark.

Determining the mechanisms driving range-wide reductions in Atlantic salmon marine survival is hindered by an insufficient understanding of their oceanic ecology and distribution. We attached 204 pop-up satellite archival tags to post-spawned salmon when they migrated to the ocean from seven European areas and maiden North American salmon captured at sea at West Greenland. Individuals migrated further north and east than previously reported and displayed increased diving activity near oceanographic fronts, emphasizing the importance of these regions as feeding areas. Read More

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Stem cells in the treatment of renal fibrosis: a review of preclinical and clinical studies of renal fibrosis pathogenesis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jun 10;12(1):333. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Nephrology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, No. 69 Dongsha Road, Shantou, 515041, China.

Renal fibrosis commonly leads to glomerulosclerosis and renal interstitial fibrosis and the main pathological basis involves tubular atrophy and the abnormal increase and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). Renal fibrosis can progress to chronic kidney disease. Stem cells have multilineage differentiation potential under appropriate conditions and are easy to obtain. Read More

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Herd clustering strategies and corresponding genetic evaluations based on social-ecological characteristics for a local endangered cattle breed.

Arch Anim Breed 2021 26;64(1):187-198. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Giessen, 35390 Giessen, Germany.

The accuracy of breeding values strongly depends on the population and herd structure, i.e., the number of animals considered in genetic evaluations and the size of contemporary groups (CGs). Read More

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Hand Pose Selection in a Bimanual Fine-Manipulation Task.

J Neurophysiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Learning Algorithms and Systems Laboratory (LASA), grid.5333.6École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Many daily tasks involve the collaboration of both hands. Humans dexterously adjust hand poses and modulate the forces exerted by fingers in response to task demands. Hand pose selection has been intensively studied in unimanual tasks, but little work has investigated bimanual tasks. Read More

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Contributions of implicit and explicit memories to sensorimotor adaptation of movement extent during goal-directed reaching.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University and Medical College of Wisconsin, Olin Engineering Center Rm 206, 1515 W. Wisconsin Ave, Milwaukee, WI, 53233, USA.

We examined how implicit and explicit memories contribute to sensorimotor adaptation of movement extent during goal-directed reaching. Twenty subjects grasped the handle of a horizontal planar robot that rendered spring-like resistance to movement. Subjects made rapid "out-and-back" reaches to capture a remembered visual target at the point of maximal reach extent. Read More

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A Novel Reactivity of Phosphanylalumane (>P-Al<): Reversible Addition of a Saturated Interelement Bond to Olefins.

Chemistry 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Kyoto University - Uji Campus: Kyoto Daigaku - Uji Campus, Institute for Chemical Research, Gokasho, 611-0011, Uji, JAPAN.

The reversible addition reactions of olefins with a phosphanylalumane, P-Al single bond species, were investigated. The P-Al bond added to ethylene and relatively small terminal alkenes (propylene and hex-1-ene) at room temperature to give the corresponding alkene-adducts. Heating of the terminal alkene-adducts released the corresponding alkenes and regenerated the P-Al bond, but no release of ethylene was observed even under vacuum conditions. Read More

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The effect of peer modelling and discussing modelled feedback principles on medical students' feedback skills: a quasi-experimental study.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Jun 8;21(1):332. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center for Innovation in Medical Education, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Teaching is an important professional skill for physicians and providing feedback is an important part of teaching. Medical students can practice their feedback skills by giving each other peer feedback. Therefore, we developed a peer feedback training in which students observed a peer that modelled the use of good feedback principles. Read More

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Interspecies competition between Scrippsiella acuminata and three marine diatoms: Growth inhibition and allelopathic effects.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 May 28;237:105878. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Interactions between Scrippsiella acuminata and three diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Skeletonema dohrnii, were investigated using bi-algal co-cultures and cell-free and sonicated-cell filtrates in this study. Volatile aldehydes in sonicated filtrates of the three diatoms were analyzed by GC/MS. Furthermore, effects of 2E, 4E-decadienal (2,4-D) on the growth and the photosynthetic efficiency of the four microalgal species were studied. Read More

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Distribution characteristics and controls of soil organic carbon at different spatial scales in China's Loess Plateau.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 5;293:112943. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China; State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, 712100, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Understanding the variations and controls of soil organic carbon (SOC) at different spatial scales can help in selecting edaphic and environmental covariates that enables us to model SOC more accurately. The present study investigated the distribution characteristics and controls of SOC content at various spatial scales, including a deep soil core (204.5 m) taken from land surface down to bedrock (plot scale), two toposequences with different slope aspects (slope scale), and eighty-six soil profiles along a north-south transect under different land uses (regional scale) in China's Loess Plateau. Read More

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Spatial abundance and distribution of picocyanobacterial communities in two contrasting lakes revealed using environmental DNA metabarcoding.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jun;97(7)

Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax St East, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand.

Freshwater picocyanobacteria (Pcy) are important yet understudied components of lake ecosystems. Most previous studies have relied on cell abundances to assess Pcy dynamics in largely oligotrophic lakes, while little is known about spatial diversity and dynamics across different lake types. In the present study we assessed the horizontal-spatial abundance and community structure of Pcy in two contrasting (oligotrophic and hypertrophic) New Zealand lakes using epifluorescence microscopy and 16S rRNA metabarcoding. Read More

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Drivers and implications of distance decay differ for ectomycorrhizal and foliar endophytic fungi across an anciently fragmented landscape.

ISME J 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Plant Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Fungal communities associated with plants often decrease in similarity as the distance between sampling sites increases (i.e., they demonstrate distance decay). Read More

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