33,686 results match your criteria conditioned medium

Urocortin 3 overexpression reduces ER stress and heat shock response in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 2;11(1):15666. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Research Division, Dasman Diabetes Institute, P.O. Box 1180, 15462, Dasman, Kuwait.

The neuropeptide urocortin 3 (UCN3) has a beneficial effect on metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that UCN3 regulates insulin secretion and is dysregulated with increasing severity of obesity and diabetes. However, its function in the adipose tissue is unclear. Read More

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CC16-TNF-α negative feedback loop formed between Clara cells and normal airway epithelial cells protects against diesel exhaust particles exposure-induced inflammation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Aug 2;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266011, China.

CC16 is almost exclusively expressed in non-ciliated epithelial Clara cells, and widely used as a Clara cell marker. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the fine particulate matters produced by diesel engines, cause or exacerbate airway-related diseases. Our previous study documented that DEP inhibits the CC16 expression in the immortalized mouse Clara cell line through methylation of C/EBPα promoter. Read More

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The Conditioned Medium of Lactobacillus rhamnoides GG Regulates Microglia/Macrophage Polarization and Improves Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

Biomed Res Int 2021 10;2021:3376496. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated No.6 People's Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China.

Lactobacillus rhamnoides, a human intestinal colonizer, can act through various pathways to induce microglia/macrophages to produce cytokines and to polarize microglia/macrophages to different phenotypes to reduce the inflammatory response. In this article, we evaluated the treatment potential of the Lactobacillus rhamnoides GG conditioned medium (LGG-CM) in rat model with SCI (acute spinal cord injury), including functional, neurophysiological, and histological outcomes and the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. In our experiment, LGG-CM (30 mg/kg) was injected directly into the injury site in rats immediately after SCI. Read More

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RCAN1.4 suppresses the osteosarcoma growth and metastasis via interfering with the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway.

J Bone Oncol 2021 Oct 14;30:100383. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, PR China.

Calcipressin-1, also known as a regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), is one of the families of endogenous regulators of calcineurin activation and can specifically constrain the activity of calcineurin, but its function in osteosarcoma is still unknown. Firstly, we examined the protein level of RCAN1 in osteosarcoma specimens was lower than that of chondroma specimens. RCAN1. Read More

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October 2021

Gualou Guizhi Granule Suppresses LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response of Microglia and Protects against Microglia-Mediated Neurotoxicity in HT-22 via Akt/NF-B Signaling Pathways.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 22;2021:9957459. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

People's Hospital Affiliated of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Neuroinflammation plays a crucial part in the commencement and advancement of ischemic stroke. Gualou Guizhi granule (GLGZG) is known to well exhibit neuroprotective effect, but it is not known whether GLGZG can regulate the inflammatory process at the cellular level in BV2 microglia cells and protect against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in neurons. Herein, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of GLGZG on BV2 microglia cells and protection against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in neurons. Read More

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Mast cell chymase affects the functional properties of primary human airway fibroblasts: implications for asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Uppsala University, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Mast cells have a profound impact on allergic asthma. Under such conditions, mast cells undergo degranulation, resulting in the release of exceptionally large amounts of mast cell-restricted proteases. However, the role of these proteases in asthma is only partially understood. Read More

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Characterization of a hyaluronic acid and folic acid-based hydrogel for cisplatin delivery: Antineoplastic effect in human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jul 27;606:120899. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza, Italy.

We successfully prepared and characterized a hyaluronic acid- and folic acid-based hydrogel for the delivery of cisplatin (GEL-CIS) with the aim to induce specific and efficient incorporation of CIS into ovarian cancer (OC) cells, improve its antineoplastic effect and avoid CIS-resistance. The slow and controlled release of the drug from the polymeric network and its swelling degree at physiologic pH suggested its suitability for CIS delivery in OC. We compared here the effects of pure CIS to that of GEL-CIS on human OC cell lines, either wild type or CIS-resistant, in basal conditions and in the presence of macrophage-derived conditioned medium, mimicking the action of tumor-associated macrophages in vivo. Read More

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Molecular evaluation of five different isolation methods for extracellular vesicles reveals different clinical applicability and subcellular origin.

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 Jul 22;10(9):e12128. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly tested as therapeutic vehicles and biomarkers, but still EV subtypes are not fully characterised. To isolate EVs with few co-isolated entities, a combination of methods is needed. However, this is time-consuming and requires large sample volumes, often not feasible in most clinical studies or in studies where small sample volumes are available. Read More

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miRNA and long non-coding RNA transcriptional expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line-secreted extracellular vesicles.

Clin Exp Med 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Via Giuseppe Moruzzi 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-released vesicles acting as transporters of proteins, lipids and short/long non-coding RNA (miRNAs and lncRNAs). They are released by normal and pathological cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, studies focused on miRNAs and lncRNAs contained in EVs derived from HCC are limited. Read More

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The anti-melanogenic effects of 3-O-ethyl ascorbic acid via Nrf2-mediated α-MSH inhibition in UVA-irradiated keratinocytes and autophagy induction in melanocytes.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jul 24;173:151-169. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Nutrition, College of Health Care, China Medical University, Taichung, 406040, Taiwan. Electronic address:

3-O-ethyl ascorbic acid (EAA) is an ether-derivative of ascorbic acid, known to inhibit tyrosinase activity, and is widely used in skincare formulations. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying the EAA's effects are poorly understood. Here, the anti-melanogenic activity of EAA was demonstrated through Nrf2-mediated α-MSH inhibition in UVA-irradiated keratinocytes (HaCaT) and autophagy induction and inhibition of α-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis in melanocytes (B16F10). Read More

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[Macrophage migration inhibitory factor meditates MPP+/MPTP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in microglia cells].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Jul;41(7):972-979

Department of Neurology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital //Guangdong Neuroscience Institute, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Objective: To explore the mechanisms of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)/nucleus factor-κB (NF-κB) in mediating 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP +)/1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced activation of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in microglials and the its effects on neurons.

Methods: Murine microglial cell line Bv-2 was infected with a lentivirus carrying MIF shRNA for MIF knockdown and then treated with MPP+. The total protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, p65 and p65 in the cell nuclei and cytoplasm were detected. Read More

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Gastric Cancer Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit NK Cell Function through mTOR Signalling to Promote Tumour Growth.

Stem Cells Int 2021 29;2021:9989790. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

The dysfunction of natural killer (NK) cells has been increasingly reported in malignancies, especially in solid tumours. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit pleiotropic functions that include mediating immune cell exhaustion which is implicated in cancer progression. However, the association of MSCs derived from gastric cancer (gastric cancer mesenchymal stem cells: GCMSCs) with the dysfunction of NK cells remains poorly understood. Read More

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Proteomic Analysis Reveals Commonly Secreted Proteins of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, and Synovial Membrane to Show Potential for Cartilage Regeneration in Knee Osteoarthritis.

Stem Cells Int 2021 28;2021:6694299. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei Sarang Hospital, Seoul 06698, Republic of Korea.

Paracrine factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reportedly modulate inflammation and reparative processes in damaged tissues and have been explored for knee osteoarthritis (OA) therapy. Although various studies have reported the effects of paracrine factors in knee OA, it is not yet clear which paracrine factors directly affect the regeneration of damaged cartilage and which are secreted under various knee OA conditions. In this study, we cultured MSCs derived from three types of tissues and treated each type with IL-1 and TNF- or not to obtain conditioned medium. Read More

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Methylene blue-mediated Photodynamic Therapy in human retinoblastoma cell lines.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Jul 16;222:112260. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the retinal precursor cells and one of the rarest types of pediatric tumor, often occurring in the earliest years of life. Symptoms are conditioned by tumor size and location; one of the most recurrent symptoms is a white reflex in the pupillary area, called leukocoria or cat's eye reflex. In the present work, we studied the in vitro effectiveness of Photodynamic treatment (Pdt) in two types of human retinoblastoma, Y79 and WERI-Rb cell lines, using methylene blue (MB), a photosensitizer (PS) from the phenothiazine group. Read More

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Mu Opioid Receptor (Oprm1) Copy Number Influences Nucleus Accumbens Microcircuitry and Reciprocal Social Behaviors.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455

The mu opioid receptor regulates reward derived from both drug use and natural experiences, including social interaction, through actions in the nucleus accumbens. Here, we studied nucleus accumbens microcircuitry and social behavior in male and female mice with heterozygous genetic knockout of the mu opioid receptor (Oprm1+/-). This genetic condition models the partial reduction of mu opioid receptor signaling reported in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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Evaluation of MC3T3-E1 Cell Osteogenesis in Different Cell Culture Media.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 20;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan.

Many biomaterials have been evaluated using cultured cells. In particular, osteoblast-like cells are often used to evaluate the osteocompatibility, hard-tissue-regeneration, osteoconductive, and osteoinductive characteristics of biomaterials. However, the evaluation of biomaterial osteogenesis-inducing capacity using osteoblast-like cells is not standardized; instead, it is performed under laboratory-specific culture conditions with different culture media. Read More

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Ipragliflozin Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy Associated with Perirenal Adipose Expansion in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 8;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, University of Yamanashi Hospital, Chuo 4093898, Japan.

Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors inhibit the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We determined whether changes in perirenal fat (PRAT) by a SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin (Ipra) contribute to the suppression of DN development. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were used as a DN model and were treated with or without Ipra for 6 weeks. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:695900. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Optical and Biophysical Systems, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia.

Preclinical and clinical studies with various stem cells, their secretomes, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) indicate their use as a promising strategy for the treatment of various diseases and tissue defects, including neurodegenerative diseases such as spinal cord injury (SCI) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are so far the best candidates for use in regenerative medicine. Here we review the effects of the implantation of MSCs (progenitors of mesodermal origin) in animal models of SCI and ALS and in clinical studies. Read More

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Adipocytes and Stromal Cells Regulate Brown Adipogenesis Through Secretory Factors During the Postnatal White-to-Brown Conversion of Adipose Tissue in Syrian Hamsters.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:698692. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized tissue that regulates non-shivering thermogenesis. In Syrian hamsters, interscapular adipose tissue is composed primarily of white adipocytes at birth, which is converted to BAT through the proliferation and differentiation of brown adipocyte progenitors and the simultaneous disappearance of white adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of brown adipogenesis during postnatal BAT formation in hamsters. Read More

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GLP-2 Is Locally Produced From Human Islets and Balances Inflammation Through an Inter-Islet-Immune Cell Crosstalk.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 5;12:697120. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) shows robust protective effects on β-cell survival and function and GLP-1 based therapies are successfully applied for type-2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Another cleavage product of pro-glucagon, Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2; both GLP-1 and GLP-2 are inactivated by DPP-4) has received little attention in its action inside pancreatic islets. In this study, we investigated GLP-2 production, GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) expression and the effect of GLP-2R activation in human islets. Read More

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The human amniotic fluid stem cell secretome triggers intracellular Ca oscillations, NF-κB nuclear translocation and tube formation in human endothelial colony-forming cells.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Lazzaro Spallanzani", Laboratory of General Physiology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Second trimester foetal human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS) have been shown to possess remarkable cardioprotective paracrine potential in different preclinical models of myocardial injury and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. The hAFS secretome, namely the total soluble factors released by cells in their conditioned medium (hAFS-CM), can also strongly sustain in vivo angiogenesis in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and stimulates human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), the only truly recognized endothelial progenitor, to form capillary-like structures in vitro. Preliminary work demonstrated that the hypoxic hAFS secretome (hAFS-CM ) triggers intracellular Ca oscillations in human ECFCs, but the underlying mechanisms and the downstream Ca -dependent effectors remain elusive. Read More

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Optic Nerve Engraftment of Neural Stem Cells.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Jul;62(9):30

Hamilton Glaucoma Center, Shiley Eye Institute and Viterbi Family Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States.

Purpose: To evaluate the integrative potential of neural stem cells (NSCs) with the visual system and characterize effects on the survival and axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs).

Methods: For in vitro studies, primary, postnatal rat RGCs were directly cocultured with human NSCs or cultured in NSC-conditioned media before their survival and neurite outgrowth were assessed. For in vivo studies, human NSCs were transplanted into the transected rat optic nerve, and immunohistology of the retina and optic nerve was performed to evaluate RGC survival, RGC axon regeneration, and NSC integration with the injured visual system. Read More

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ADAM9-Responsive Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery in Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Center of Experimental and Molecular Medicine, University of Amsterdam and Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the worst survival rate of all cancers. This poor prognosis results from the lack of efficient systemic treatment regimens, demanding high-dose chemotherapy that causes severe side effects. To overcome dose-dependent toxicities, we explored the efficacy of targeted drug delivery using a protease-dependent drug-release system. Read More

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Regulation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Adipocytes by Macrophages Activated by Low-dose Lipopolysaccharide.

Anticancer Res 2021 Aug;41(8):4071-4076

Research Institute for Healthy Living, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

Background/aim: Increased expression of inflammatory cytokine genes through cell interactions in tissues may cause chronic inflammation, leading to the development of lifestyle-related diseases. Since the activation of inflammatory cytokine genes in monocytes/macrophages by co-culturing with cancer cells or adipocytes was suppressed by pre-treatment with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we hypothesized that low-dose LPS-activated macrophages may regulate the expression of immune response-related genes in other cells.

Materials And Methods: Phorbol myristate acetate-treated human monocytes (THP-1) were activated by LPS. Read More

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Isoginkgetin treatment attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency and depression-like behaviors through downregulating p38/NF-κB signaling pathway and suppressing microglia-induced apoptosis.

J Psychopharmacol 2021 Jul 19:2698811211032473. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Research Institute for Marine Drugs and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China.

Background: Microglia activation-induced neuroinflammation may contribute to the etiology of depression. containing high concentration of isoginkgetin could effectively treat mental diseases in ancient times. However, the therapeutic role, peculiarly in the brain-immune modulation in depression is still unclear. Read More

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Febuxostat reduces muscle wasting in tumor-bearing mice with LM8 osteosarcoma cells via inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation.

Free Radic Res 2021 Jul 19:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mie university Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan.

Cachexic condition due to malignant tumors has been a challenging problem. The aim of this study is to analyze effects of febuxostat on both and models of the wasting of skeletal muscles, due to LM8 osteosarcoma cells. C2C12 myotubes were incubated in the conditioned medium of LM8. Read More

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The central nervous system can directly regulate breast cancer progression and blockage by quercetin.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):999

Department of Breast, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Neuroinflammation involving the central nervous system (CNS), such as depression, is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer and cancer-specific mortality due to breast cancer. It is of great significance to learn about the regulatory process of CNS in breast cancer progression.

Methods: We established a depressive MMTV-PyVT mouse model. Read More

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Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Activation of Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts and Facilitate Invasion and Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer by Carrying miR-630.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 30;9:652322. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Ovarian cancer (OC) is a lethal gynecological malignancy. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial media in cell-to-cell communication by carrying microRNAs (miRs). The current study aims to investigate the underlying mechanism of miR-630 carried by OC cell-derived EVs in regard to invasion and metastasis of OC cells. Read More

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Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in Single Blastocyst Conditioned Medium as a Biomarker for Predicting Implantation Outcome of Embryo.

Front Immunol 2021 30;12:679839. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Reproductive Immunology for Peri-Implantation, Shenzhen Zhongshan Institute for Reproduction and Genetics, Fertility Center, Shenzhen Zhongshan Urology Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Background: It is highly desirable to develop new strategies based on secretomics to more accurately selection of embryos with the highest developmental potential for transfer. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been reported to promote embryo development and pregnancy establishment. However, the predictive value of GM-CSF in single blastocyst selection remains unclear. Read More

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