16,541 results match your criteria concomitantly cells

Metformin facilitates mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular nanovesicles release and optimizes therapeutic efficacy in intervertebral disc degeneration.

Biomaterials 2021 May 6;274:120850. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are extracellular nanovesicles that deliver diverse cargoes to the cell and participate in cell communication. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs)-derived EVs are considered a therapeutic approach in musculoskeletal degenerative diseases, including intervertebral disc degeneration. However, limited production yield and unstable quality have impeded the clinical application of EVs. Read More

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C646 inhibits G2/M cell cycle-related proteins and potentiates anti-tumor effects in pancreatic cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10078. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan.

The activity of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) plays a central role in an epigenetic modification in cooperation with HDACs (histone deacetyl transferases). It is likely that malfunction of this enzymatic machinery controlling epigenetic modification is relevant to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. However, in pancreatic cancer, the clinical relevance of HAT activity and histone acetylation has remained unclear. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 uses a multipronged strategy to impede host protein synthesis.

Nature 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 pandemic. Coronaviruses developed varied mechanisms to repress host mRNA translation to allow the translation of viral mRNAs and concomitantly block the cellular innate immune response. Although different SARS-CoV-2 proteins are implicated in host expression shutoff, a comprehensive picture of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cellular gene expression is lacking. Read More

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Longitudinal analysis of humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Spike in convalescent individuals up to eight months post-symptom onset.

Cell Rep Med 2021 May 5:100290. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada.

With the recent approval of highly effective COVID-19 vaccines, functional and lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is currently under investigation as antibody levels in plasma were shown to decline during convalescence. Since the absence of antibodies does not equate to absence of immune memory, we evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B cells in convalescent individuals. Here we report a longitudinal assessment of humoral immune responses on 32 donors up to 8 months post-symptom onset. Read More

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DHCR24 Knock-Down Induced Tau Hyperphosphorylation at Thr181, Ser199, Thr231, Ser262, Ser396 Epitopes and Inhibition of Autophagy by Overactivation of GSK3β/mTOR Signaling.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 21;13:513605. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Accumulating evidences supported that knock-down of DHCR24 is linked to the pathological risk factors of AD, suggesting a potential role of DHCR24 in AD pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism link between DHCR24 and tauopathy remains unknown. Here, in order to elucidate the relationship between DHCR24 and tauopathy, we will focus on the effect of DHCR24 on the tau hyperphosphorylation at some toxic sites. Read More

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The effect of ochratoxin A on cytotoxicity and glucose metabolism in human esophageal epithelium Het-1A cells.

Toxicon 2021 May 7;198:80-92. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pathology, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China. Electronic address:

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin worldwide that causes major health risks. The esophageal epithelium is unavoidably exposed to food contaminated OTA after ingestion. Yet, few studies have involved in the putative effects of OTA on the cytotoxicity and glucose metabolism responses on esophageal epithelial cells. Read More

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Lysosomal alkalization to potentiate eradication of intraosteoblastic Staphylococcus aureus in the bone and joint infection setting.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

CIRI - Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Inserm, U1111, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Univ Lyon, F-69007, Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France; Centre de Référence pour la prise en charge des Infections ostéo-articulaires complexes (CRIOAc Lyon; www.crioac-lyon.fr), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; Service des maladies infectieuses et tropicales, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: Beyond intracellular penetration, acidic lysosomal pH might affect the intracellular activity of some antimicrobials. This study evaluated the ability of lysosomotropic alkalizing agents to potentiate antimicrobial eradication of intraosteoblastic S. aureus reservoir in the bone and joint infection (BJI) setting. Read More

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CD9-positive cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland are important supplier for prolactin-producing cells in the anterior lobe.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, 5-4-1 Shimorenjaku, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8612, Japan.

A supply of hormone-producing cells from stem/progenitor cells is critical to sustain the endocrine activity of the pituitary gland. In the adenohypophysis composing the anterior and intermediate lobe (AL and IL, respectively), stem/progenitor cells expressing sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) and S100β are located in the marginal cell layer (MCL) facing Rathke's cleft (primary niche) and the parenchyma of the AL (secondary niche). Our previous studies using mice and rats indicated that the tetraspanin superfamily CD9 and CD81 are expressed in S100β/SOX2-positive cells of primary and secondary niches (named CD9/CD81/S100β/SOX2-positive cell), and the cells located in the AL-side niches exhibit plasticity and multipotency. Read More

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Transient reprogramming of postnatal cardiomyocytes to a dedifferentiated state.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251054. Epub 2021 May 5.

Nanomedicine Lab, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

In contrast to mammals, lower vertebrates are capable of extraordinary myocardial regeneration thanks to the ability of their cardiomyocytes to undergo transient dedifferentiation and proliferation. Somatic cells can be temporarily reprogrammed to a proliferative, dedifferentiated state through forced expression of Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (OSKM). Here, we aimed to induce transient reprogramming of mammalian cardiomyocytes in vitro utilising an OSKM-encoding non-integrating vector. Read More

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New insight into the role of ANXA1 in melanoma progression: involvement of stromal expression in dissemination.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1600-1615. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INSERM, Imagerie Moléculaire et Stratégies Théranostiques UMR1240, 58 Rue Montalembert, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 63005, France.

ANXA1, first described in the context of inflammation, appears to be deregulated in many cancers and increased in melanomas compared with melanocytes. To date, few studies have investigated the role of ANXA1 in melanoma progression. Furthermore, this protein is expressed by various cell types, including immune and endothelial cells. Read More

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L-citrulline increases arginase II protein levels and arginase activity in hypoxic piglet pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

Pulm Circ 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):20458940211006289. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

The L-arginine precursor, L-citrulline, re-couples endothelial nitric oxide synthase, increases nitric oxide production, and ameliorates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs. L-arginine can induce arginase, which, in turn, may diminish nitric oxide production. Our major purpose was to determine if L-citrulline increases arginase activity in hypoxic piglet pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, and if so, concomitantly impacts the ability to increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase re-coupling and nitric oxide production. Read More

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Dexamethasone Induces Changes in Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells via and , but Not .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 30;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

AO Research Institute Davos, 7270 Davos Platz, Switzerland.

Despite the huge body of research on osteogenic differentiation and bone tissue engineering, the translation potential of in vitro results still does not match the effort employed. One reason might be that the protocols used for in vitro research have inherent pitfalls. The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone is commonly used in protocols for trilineage differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Read More

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Knockdown of Gastrin Promotes Apoptosis of Gastric Cancer Cells by Decreasing ROS Generation.

Biomed Res Int 2021 14;2021:5590037. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Immunology Department, School of Medicine, Qinghai University, Qinghai 810000, China.

Overexpressed gastrin is reported to promote oncogenesis and development of gastric cancer by inhibiting apoptosis of cancer cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our study is aimed at revealing the mechanism underlying the effect of gastrin on apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Gastrin-interfering cell line was constructed by stably transfecting gastrin-specific pshRNA plasmid to gastric cancer cell line BGC-823. Read More

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Resveratrol Prevents -Induced Leaky gut by Restoring Occludin and Claudin-5 in the Paracellular Leak Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 15;12:640572. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Medical Department, Division of Gastroenterology, Infectious Diseases, Rheumatology, Nutritional Medicine/Clinical Physiology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

is a bacterial human pathogen causing gastroenteritis and sequelae like irritable bowel syndrome. Epidemiologists count the human campylobacteriosis by as the most common foodborne zoonosis and bacterial diarrheal disease worldwide. Based on bioinformatics predictions for potential protective compounds in campylobacteriosis, the question was raised whether the plant-based polyphenol resveratrol is sufficient to attenuate intestinal epithelial damage induced by . Read More

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Guaiazulene Triggers ROS-Induced Apoptosis and Protective Autophagy in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2021 15;12:621181. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Oncology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide, yet effective treatment remains a clinical challenge. Guaiazulene (GYZ), a cosmetic color additive, has previously been characterized as a potential antitumor agent due to observed anticancer effects. However, the efficacy of GYZ in the treatment of NSCLC and the involved molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Read More

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Selective cell death in HIV-1-infected cells by DDX3 inhibitors leads to depletion of the inducible reservoir.

Nat Commun 2021 04 30;12(1):2475. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

An innovative approach to eliminate HIV-1-infected cells emerging out of latency, the major hurdle to HIV-1 cure, is to pharmacologically reactivate viral expression and concomitantly trigger intracellular pro-apoptotic pathways in order to selectively induce cell death (ICD) of infected cells, without reliance on the extracellular immune system. In this work, we demonstrate the effect of DDX3 inhibitors on selectively inducing cell death in latent HIV-1-infected cell lines, primary CD4+ T cells and in CD4+ T cells from cART-suppressed people living with HIV-1 (PLWHIV). We used single-cell FISH-Flow technology to characterise the contribution of viral RNA to inducing cell death. Read More

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New insights into spatio-temporal dynamics of mesenchymal progenitor cell ingress during peri-implant wound healing: Provided by intravital imaging.

Biomaterials 2021 Jun 20;273:120837. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Surface topography drives the success of orthopedic and dental implants placed in bone, by directing the biology occurring at the tissue-implant interface. Over the last few decades, striking advancements have been made in the development of novel implant surfaces that enhance bone anchorage to their surfaces through contact osteogenesis: the combination of the two phenomena of recruitment and migration of mesenchymal progenitor cells to the implant surface, and their differentiation into bone-forming cells. While the latter is generally understood, the mechanisms and dynamics underlying the migration and recruitment of such progenitor cells into the wound site have garnered little attention. Read More

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The Warburg Effect Occurs Rapidly in Stimulated Human Adult but Not Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:657261. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

TB Immunology Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, St James's Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

The Warburg effect, defined as increased glycolysis and decreased oxidative phosphorylation, occurs in murine macrophages following LPS stimulation and is required for activation. There are differences between human and murine macrophage metabolic responses to stimulation, with peak metabolite concentrations occurring earlier in humans than mice. Complex changes occur in the human immune system with age, resulting in the very young and the very old being more susceptible to infections. Read More

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Insights into Multifunctional Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Glioblastoma Treatment.

Molecules 2021 Apr 14;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Interdisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P., India.

Glioblastoma (GB) is an aggressive cancer with high microvascular proliferation, resulting in accelerated invasion and diffused infiltration into the surrounding brain tissues with very low survival rates. Treatment options are often multimodal, such as surgical resection with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The development of resistance of tumor cells to radiation in the areas of hypoxia decreases the efficiency of such treatments. Read More

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The Enigmatic Emerging Role of the C-Maf Inducing Protein in Cancer.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Univ Paris Est Creteil, INSERM, IMRB, F-94010 Creteil, France.

The C-Maf-Inducing protein (CMIP) was first described as overexpressed in T cell subpopulations of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) patients. Later, it was found concomitantly upregulated in podocytes. CMIP expression has also been reported in several types of cancer, including blood malignancies and solid tumors, in many cases accompanied by nephrotic syndrome. Read More

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CRISPR Co-Editing Strategy for Scarless Homology-Directed Genome Editing.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 3;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 has revolutionized genome editing by providing a simple and robust means to cleave specific genomic sequences. However, introducing templated changes at the targeted site usually requires homology-directed repair (HDR), active in only a small subset of cells in culture. To enrich for HDR-dependent edited cells, we employed a co-editing strategy, editing a gene of interest (GOI) concomitantly with rescuing an endogenous pre-made temperature-sensitive (ts) mutation. Read More

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SAHA is neuroprotective in in vitro and in situ models of retinitis pigmentosa.

Mol Vis 2021 2;27:151-160. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.

Purpose: Recent reports linking HDAC6 to mitochondrial turnover and neurodegeneration led us to hypothesize that an inhibitor such as Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA) may reduce mitochondrial damage found in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the eye. Here we tested the efficacy of SAHA for its ability to protect photoreceptors in in-vitro and in-situ models of RP. As the stressor, we focused on calcium overload. Read More

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Ubiquitous membrane-bound DNase activity in podosomes and invadopodia.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jul;220(7)

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

Podosomes and invadopodia, collectively termed invadosomes, are adhesive and degradative membrane structures formed in many types of cells and are well known for recruiting various proteases. However, another major class of degradative enzymes, deoxyribonuclease (DNase), remains unconfirmed and not studied in invadosomes. Here, using surface-immobilized nuclease sensor (SNS), we demonstrated that invadosomes recruit DNase to their core regions, which degrade extracellular double-stranded DNA. Read More

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Case Report: Interferon-γ Restores Monocytic Human Leukocyte Antigen Receptor (mHLA-DR) in Severe COVID-19 With Acquired Immunosuppression Syndrome.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:645124. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical, Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

Background: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II characterized by monocytes CD14+ expression of human leukocyte antigen receptors (HLA-DR), is essential for the synapse between innate and adaptive immune response in infectious disease. Its reduced expression is associated with a high risk of secondary infections in septic patients and can be safely corrected by Interferon-y (IFNy) injection. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) induces an alteration of Interferon (IFN) genes expression potentially responsible for the observed low HLA-DR expression in circulating monocytes (mHLA-DR). Read More

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Synergistic effects of autocrine motility factor and methyl jasmonate on human breast cancer cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 22;558:22-28. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Biomedical Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyungsan, 38430, South Korea. Electronic address:

Autocrine motility factor (AMF) stimulates the motility of cancer cells via an autocrine route and has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. Overexpression of AMF is correlated with the aggressive nature of breast cancer and is negatively associated with clinical outcomes. In contrast, AMF also has the ability to suppress cancer cells. Read More

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A two-tier junctional mechanism drives simultaneous tissue folding and extension.

Dev Cell 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Inserm, iBV, Nice, France. Electronic address:

During embryo development, tissues often undergo multiple concomitant changes in shape. It is unclear which signaling pathways and cellular mechanisms are responsible for multiple simultaneous tissue shape transformations. We focus on the process of concomitant tissue folding and extension that is key during gastrulation and neurulation. Read More

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Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 reduces cardiac steatosis and lipotoxicity via activation of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8781. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Suite 401 Veterinary medicine Bldg., Yuseong, Daejeon, 34134, Korea.

Obesity is implicated in cardiovascular disease and heart failure. When fatty acids are transported to and not adequately oxidized in cardiac cells, they accumulate, causing lipotoxicity in the heart. Since hepatic progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (Pgrmc1) suppressed de novo lipogenesis in a previous study, it was questioned whether cardiac Pgrmc1 protects against lipotoxicity. Read More

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Disruption of the HER3-PI3K-mTOR oncogenic signaling axis and PD-1 blockade as a multimodal precision immunotherapy in head and neck cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 04 22;12(1):2383. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has revolutionized head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment, but <20% of patients achieve durable responses. Persistent activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling circuitry represents a key oncogenic driver in HNSCC; however, the potential immunosuppressive effects of PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors may limit the benefit of their combination with ICB. Here we employ an unbiased kinome-wide siRNA screen to reveal that HER3, is essential for the proliferation of most HNSCC cells that do not harbor PIK3CA mutations. Read More

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IGF2BP2 knockdown inhibits LPS-induced pyroptosis in BEAS-2B cells by targeting caspase 4, a crucial molecule of the non-canonical pyroptosis pathway.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 8;21(6):593. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, P.R. China.

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) is a secreted protein that can bind to IGF2 and has been reported to promote inflammation. The data from the ENCORI database have predicted that IGF2BP2 can bind caspase 4, which mediates pyroptosis and promotes airway inflammation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. The present study investigated whether IGF2BP2 can regulate LPS-induced lung cell inflammation by targeting caspase 4. Read More

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Proteomic response of the marine ammonia-oxidising archaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus to iron limitation reveals strategies to compensate for nutrient scarcity.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Earth Sciences, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3AN, UK.

Dissolved iron (Fe) is vanishingly low in the oceans, with ecological success conferred to microorganisms that can restructure their biochemistry to maintain high growth rates during Fe scarcity. Chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) are highly abundant in the oceans, constituting ~30% of cells below the photic zone. Here we examine the proteomic response of the AOA isolate Nitrosopumilus maritimus to growth-limiting Fe concentrations. Read More

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