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Novel Antidiabetic Strategies and Diabetologists' Views in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease worldwide with high prevalence, especially in individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Among individuals with type 2 diabetes, the severe insulin resistant subgroup has the greatest risk of NAFLD, likely due to dysfunctional adipose tissue mass but also genetic factors, and may progress earlier to inflammatory and profibrotic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH has been associated with increased liver-related as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Keeping the ICRP recommendations fit for purpose.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozersk, RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has embarked on a review and revision of the System of Radiological Protection that will update the 2007 General Recommendations in ICRP Publication 103. This is the beginning of a process that will take several years, involving open and transparent engagement with organisations and individuals around the world. While the System is robust and has performed well, it must adapt to address changes in science and society to remain fit for purpose. Read More

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Team-based Learning to Promote the Development of Metacognitive Awareness and Monitoring in Pharmacy Students.

Am J Pharm Educ 2021 Feb 2;85(2):848112. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Wayne State University, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Detroit, Michigan.

To evaluate the metacognitive abilities of pharmacy students and determine whether introducing the concept along with team-based learning (TBL) enhances metacognition. Pharmacy students completed a Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) and a low-stakes pretest during the first class that evaluated students' knowledge about the therapeutic concepts that would be taught through TBL. The same questions were administered on the comprehensive final examination for the course. Read More

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February 2021

SLAP tears and return to sport and work: current concepts.

J ISAKOS 2021 Jul 11;6(4):204-211. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.

Superior labrum, anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions are common and identified in up to 26% of shoulder arthroscopies, with the greatest risk factor appearing to be overhead sporting activities. Symptomatic patients are treated with physical therapy and activity modification. However, after the failure of non-operative measures or when activity modification is precluded by athletic demands, SLAP tears have been managed with debridement, repair, biceps tenodesis or biceps tenotomy. Read More

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Neurotoxicity of mercury: an old issue with contemporary significance.

Adv Neurotoxicol 2021 2;5:239-262. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal.

Mercury exerts a variety of toxic effects, depending on the specific compound and route of exposure. However, neurotoxicity in virtue of its consequence to health causes the greatest concern for toxicologists. This is particularly true regarding fetal development, where neurotoxic effects are much more severe than in adults, and the toxicity threshold is lower. Read More

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February 2021

Measuring the Interactions Between Health Demand, Informatics Supply, and Technological Applications in Digital Medical Innovation for China: Content Mapping and Analysis.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 Jul 6;9(7):e26393. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

National Institute of Health Data Science, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: There were 2 major incentives introduced by the Chinese government to promote medical informatics in 2009 and 2016. As new drugs are the major source of medical innovation, informatics-related concepts and techniques are a major source of digital medical innovation. However, it is unclear whether the research efforts of medical informatics in China have met the health needs, such as disease management and population health. Read More

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ICF linking of patient-reported therapy goals for children with acquired upper extremity impairment.

J Hand Ther 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200, USA.

Background: Patient reported outcome measures are used to evaluate hand therapy outcomes. Yet, limited evidence is available regarding the outcomes children desire from hand therapy.

Purpose: To determine the desired treatment outcomes of children with acquired upper extremity impairments. Read More

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Social isolation, social support and loneliness as independent concepts, and their relationship with health-related quality of life among older women.

Aging Ment Health 2021 Jul 5:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.

To assess whether social isolation, social support, and loneliness are independently associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Retrospective analysis including 10,517 women aged 70-75 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). Social isolation, social support (Duke Social Support Index), and loneliness (single item) were investigated for their association with standardised HRQoL (physical [PCS] and mental [MCS] components of the SF-36® questionnaire). Read More

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Current perspectives on dental adhesion: (3) Adhesion to intraradicular dentin: Concepts and applications.

Jpn Dent Sci Rev 2020 Nov 17;56(1):216-223. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Federal University of Santa Catarina, Health Sciences Center, Department of Dentistry, Florianópolis, Brazil.

Adhesion science is one of the greatest contributions to restorative dentistry. Adhesion not only established the current principles of tissue preservation, but also allowed for the production of more hermetic and long-lasting restorations. Although adhesive strategies are routinely used in most clinical situations, adhesion to root dentin is still a major challenge. Read More

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November 2020

Making sense of "buzzword" as a term through co-occurrences analysis.

Heliyon 2021 Jun 4;7(6):e07208. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho-Maklay Str., Moscow, Russian Federation.

The study argues that while the existing research on buzzwords mainly involves the functional and pragmatic analysis of their individual specimen, such as "engagement", "synergy" or "development", an alternative approach can be implemented to look into the nature and immediate implications behind the term in question. The suggested approach involves investigating the occurrences of the term proper as opposed to analysing individual buzzwords. The authors hypothise and demonstrate that linguistic context of the term "buzzword", i. Read More

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Reducing the Impact of Tinnitus on Children and Adolescents' Lives: A Mixed-Methods Concept Mapping Study.

Int J Pediatr 2021 31;2021:5534192. Epub 2021 May 31.

Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, Australia.

Objectives: To generate a conceptual framework describing what is done to reduce the impact of chronic tinnitus on the lives of children and adolescents.

Design: Views and experiences of 32 adults from two participant groups informed this concept mapping study: (i) a tinnitus group (adults who experienced tinnitus during childhood/adolescence, and primary carers of children/adolescents with tinnitus) and (ii) a clinicians' group (clinicians who provided care for children/adolescents with tinnitus). Participants produced statements describing what is done to reduce the impact of chronic tinnitus on the lives of children and adolescents who experience it. Read More

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Air pollution and life expectancy in Europe: Does investment in renewable energy matter?

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 16;792:148480. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

University of Oviedo, Department of Economics, Campus del Cristo s/n, 33006 Oviedo, Spain. Electronic address:

This study examines the relationship between health and air pollution using a novel approach that allows differentiation between potential and observed health. It also permits an analysis of those factors that may contribute towards reducing any differences between the latter concepts. To this end, a panel data from 29 European countries for the periods 2005 and 2018 is used. Read More

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The Equipment of the Tyrolean Iceman: Innovation versus Adaptation in the Cultural Evolution of Prehistoric Technologies.

J Anthropol Sci 2021 Jun 4;99. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Psychology, University of Pécs, Ifjúság Str. 6. H-7624 Pécs, Hungary.

This study argues that the equipment of the Tyrolean Iceman offers a unique perspective for understanding the macroevolutionary-scale functional continuity between later Pleistocene and Holocene human technologies. The Iceman was discovered in 1991 in the Ötztal Alps and can be dated to around 3300 BC, corresponding to the North Italian early Copper Age. In his gear there are several technologies which are rarely found at prehistoric archaeological sites, including archery equipment, a complete set of clothing, and a personal tool kit. Read More

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Maximizing the Smile Symmetry in Facial Paralysis Reconstruction: An Algorithm Based on Twenty Years' Experience.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Jun 1;37(3):360-369. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Over the last two decades, the senior author (B.H.) has had an extensive experience with facial paralysis reconstruction. Read More

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An overview of health challenges in alternative poultry production systems.

Poult Sci 2021 Jul 27;100(7):101173. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. Electronic address:

Due to consumer demand and changing welfare standards on health, ecology, equity, and safety concepts, poultry production has changed markedly over the past 20 y. One of the greatest changes to poultry production standards is now offering poultry limited access to the outdoors in alternative and organic poultry production operations. Although operations allowing access to the outdoors are still only a small portion of commercial poultry production, it may impact the gastrointestinal (GIT) health of the bird in different ways than birds raised under conventional management systems. Read More

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ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: New frontiers in calf and heifer nutrition-From conception to puberty.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Aug 28;104(8):8341-8362. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Animal Biosciences, Animal Science and Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 1Y2. Electronic address:

Dairy calf nutrition is traditionally one of the most overlooked aspects of dairy management, despite its large effect on the efficiency and profitability of dairy operations. Unfortunately, among all animals on the dairy farm, calves suffer from the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. These challenges have catalyzed calf nutrition research over the past decade to mitigate high incidences of disease and death, and improve animal health, growth, welfare, and industry sustainability. Read More

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General Concepts in Theranostics.

PET Clin 2021 Jul;16(3):313-326

Department of Radiology, Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Department of Radiology and Oncology, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Theranostics describes the pairing of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic agents with common specific targets. Nuclear medicine is the greatest theranostics protagonist, relying on radioactive tracers for imaging biologic phenomena and delivering ionizing radiation to the tissues that take up those tracers. The concept has gained importance with the growth of personalized medicine, allowing customized management for diseases, refining patient selection, better predicting responses, reducing toxicity, and estimating prognosis. Read More

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The 'hub and spoke model' for the management of surgical patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UK.

During the on-going COVID-19 pandemic a number of key public health services have been severely impacted. These include elective surgical services due to the synergetic resources required to provide both perioperative surgical care whilst also treating acute COVID-19 patients and also the poor outcomes associated with surgical patients who develop COVID-19 in the perioperative period. This article discusses the important principles and concepts for providing important surgical services during the COVID-19 pandemic based on the model of the RMCancerSurgHub which is providing surgical cancer services for a population of approximately 2 million people across London during the pandemic. Read More

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Metabolomic Expression of Laryngeal and Hindlimb Muscles in Adult versus Senescent Rats.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 May 27:34894211014692. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Objectives: (1) Determine the feasibility of obtaining a global, unbiased metabolomic profile on laryngeal muscle in a rat model; (2) evaluate the impact of biological aging on the laryngeal metabolome; and (3) characterize biochemical expression differences between aged and non-aged laryngeal and hindlimb muscle.

Methods: Thyroarytenoid laryngeal muscle and plantaris hindlimb muscle were harvested from 5 young adult (9 months old) and 5 older adult (32 months old) F344BN rats. Tissue was processed and analyzed using LC-MS methods. Read More

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Unifying Concepts in Electro- and Thermocatalysis toward Hydrogen Peroxide Production.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 21;143(21):7940-7957. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

We examine relationships between HO and HO formation on metal nanoparticles by the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the thermochemical direct synthesis of HO. The similar mechanisms of such reactions suggest that these catalysts should exhibit similar reaction rates and selectivities at equivalent electrochemical potentials (μ̅), determined by reactant activities, electrode potential, and temperature. We quantitatively compare the kinetic parameters for 12 nanoparticle catalysts obtained in a thermocatalytic fixed-bed reactor and a ring-disk electrode cell. Read More

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Visual Influences on Auditory Behavioral, Neural, and Perceptual Processes: A Review.

J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

In a naturalistic environment, auditory cues are often accompanied by information from other senses, which can be redundant with or complementary to the auditory information. Although the multisensory interactions derived from this combination of information and that shape auditory function are seen across all sensory modalities, our greatest body of knowledge to date centers on how vision influences audition. In this review, we attempt to capture the state of our understanding at this point in time regarding this topic. Read More

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related liver fibrosis: mechanisms, treatment and prevention.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):729

Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry (IFMPEGKC), RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

Liver fibrosis is the excessive expression and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the liver. Fibrotic scarring occurs as the consequence of chronic injury and inflammation. While the successful treatment of hepatitis B and C reduced the burden of liver disease related to viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are nowadays the leading causes of hepatic fibrosis worldwide. Read More

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THE YEAR IN REVIEW: MECHANICAL VENTILATION DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC.

Authors:
Richard H Kallet

Respir Care 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care. University of California, San Francisco at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center, San Francisco, California.

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents the greatest medical crisis encountered in the young history of critical care and respiratory care. During the early months of the pandemic, when little was known about the virus, the acute hypoxemic respiratory failure it caused did not appear to fit conveniently or consistently into our classification of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This not only re-ignited a half-century's long simmering debate over taxonomy, but also fueled similar debates over how PEEP and lung-protective ventilation should be titrated, as well as the appropriate role of non-invasive ventilation in ARDS. Read More

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Hesitancy to Return to the Pre-pandemic Routine.

J Ration Emot Cogn Behav Ther 2021 May 4:1-17. Epub 2021 May 4.

1St Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, General Hospital "Papageorgiou", Ring Road Thessaloniki, N. Efkarpia, 54603 Thessaloníki, Greece.

The goal of the present study was to explore COVID-19 related hesitancy, which represents the inability of people to return to previous levels of functioning after a major medical crisis like the current pandemic. A new questionnaire was developed to evaluate participants' hesitancy. The study was conducted online in November, 2020, using convenience sampling. Read More

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A Q-method approach to perceptions of professional reasoning in occupational therapy undergraduates.

BMC Med Educ 2021 May 7;21(1):264. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain.

Background: Professional reasoning provides a firm basis for the development of teaching and assessment strategies to support the acquisition of skills by healthcare students. Nevertheless, occupational therapy educators should use diverse methods of learning assessment to examine student learning outcomes more fully with an evaluation that supports the overall complexity of the process, particularly learners' subjective experience. The aim of this article is to identify the range of perspectives among occupational therapy undergraduates regarding terms or concepts that are key for improving their professional reasoning. Read More

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A CURE for Meat: Comparing Bacterial Contaminants on Different Ground Beef Sources Emphasizes Process of Science and Quantitative Reasoning.

J Microbiol Biol Educ 2021 31;22(1). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biology, Western Oregon University, Monmouth, OR 97361.

To broaden and emphasize the educational benefits of research to more biology majors in a course setting, we developed and assessed a microbiology-focused course-based undergraduate research experience that utilizes culture-based bacterial enumeration to compare contamination present on different ground beef sources (conventional vs. organic). During the final 3 weeks of the quarter, students learned and practiced common microbiology techniques like dilution math, selective and differential media-based identification, and statistical analysis to evaluate data and test hypotheses. Read More

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Reverse engineering of ceramic anthropomorphic figurines from the Tumaco archaeological tradition in southwest Colombia.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0250230. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Archeology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Traditional studies of archaeological ceramics in Colombia have been largely based on visual and stylistic analyses. Here we introduce frameworks and concepts of reverse engineering as a complementary strategy to develop hypotheses about ceramic manufacture, as a first step to the address possible cross-craft relationships and broader sociocultural parameters affecting technical traditions. Our case study is focused on ceramic figurines recovered from two archaeological sites in southwest Colombia (Inguapí and La Cocotera), both dated to the period of greatest cultural and technological development of the Tumaco tradition (350 BC-AD 350). Read More

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Using an Information Package to Reduce Patients' Risk of Renal Damage: Protocol for a Randomized Feasibility Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Apr 30;10(4):e29161. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of General Practice and Rural Health, Otago Medical School - Dunedin Campus, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a common cause of renal damage, especially when taken together with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-i) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) plus a diuretic - a combination known as the "triple whammy." New Zealand patients are at high risk of the "triple whammy" because they can easily purchase NSAIDs without a prescription and in nonpharmacy retail settings (eg, the supermarket), there is no legal requirement to include patient information sheets with medication, and direct-to-consumer drug advertising is permitted. A patient information package has been developed for those at greatest risk of the "triple whammy," consisting of a printable PDF and an interactive online learning activity. Read More

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Animal Harms and Food Production: Informing Ethical Choices.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Philosophy, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA.

Ethical food choices have become an important societal theme in post-industrial countries. Many consumers are particularly interested in the animal welfare implications of the various foods they may choose to consume. However, concepts in animal welfare are rapidly evolving towards consideration of all animals (including wildlife) in contemporary approaches such as "One Welfare". Read More

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