338,899 results match your criteria concept


Community engagement and vulnerability in infectious diseases: A systematic review and qualitative analysis of the literature.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jul 21;284:114246. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Nivel - Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Otterstraat 118-124, 3513, CR, Utrecht, Netherlands; ARQ Psychotrauma Centre, Nienoord 5, 1112, XE, Diemen, the Netherlands; Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712, TS, Groningen, the Netherlands.

The global response to infectious diseases has seen a renewed interest in the use of community engagement to support research and relief efforts. From a perspective rooted in the social sciences, the concept of vulnerability offers an especially useful analytical frame for pursuing community engagement in a variety of contexts. However, few have closely examined the concept of vulnerability in community engagement efforts, leading to a need to better understand the various theories that underline the connections between the two. Read More

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Smoking cessation strategies used by former menthol cigarette smokers after a menthol ban.

Addict Behav 2021 Jul 13;123:107046. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Menthol cigarettes were banned in Ontario, Canada on January 1st, 2017. We used concept mapping, a mixed-method approach, to describe how menthol cigarette smokers quit smoking after the Ontario menthol ban.

Methods: Pre-ban daily and non-daily menthol cigarette smokers who reported smoking abstinence 24 months after the ban (n = 62; 53. Read More

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Experimental realization of a π/2 vortex mode converter for electrons using a spherical aberration corrector.

Ultramicroscopy 2021 Jun 27;229:113340. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Wien, Austria; University Service Centre for Transmission Electron Microscopy (USTEM), TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Wien, Austria.

In light optics, beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be produced by employing a properly-tuned two-cylinder-lens arrangement, also called π/2 mode converter. It is not possible to convey this concept directly to the beam in an electron microscope due to the non-existence of cylinder lenses in commercial transmission electron microscopes (TEMs). A viable work-around are readily-available electron optical elements in the form of quadrupole lenses. Read More

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Liposomal valinomycin mediated cellular K leak promoting apoptosis of liver cancer cells.

J Control Release 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Most cancer therapies are suffering from side effects to varying degrees, which might compromise the body functions and long-term health of patients. Balancing treatment efficacy and side effects has become a priority. Inspired by the concept that cellular ion homeostasis can lead to apoptosis, we developed a novel therapeutic strategy by incorporating the K transporter valinomycin into liposomes (Lipo-VM). Read More

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Studies in Ecological Rationality.

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Center for Adaptive Rationality, Max Planck Institute for Human Development.

Ecological rationality represents an alternative to classic frameworks of rationality. Extending on Herbert Simon's concept of bounded rationality, it holds that cognitive processes, including simple heuristics, are not per se rational or irrational, but that their success rests on their degree of fit to relevant environmental structures. The key is therefore to understand how cognitive and environmental structures slot together. Read More

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Pain in children undergoing tonsillotomy with alternating ibuprofen and paracetamol - a prospective observational study.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ruhr-University Bochum, St. Elisabeth-Hospital Bochum, Head & Neck Surgery, Germany.

Background: The optimal pain therapy for children undergoing tonsillotomy remains unknown. Our aim was to evaluate a standard pain therapy including the alternating application of ibuprofen and paracetamol.

Methods: Pain intensity of 81 in-patients after tonsillotomy aged 2 - 12 years was evaluated three times daily (mean observation 3. Read More

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Unified platform for genetic and serological detection of COVID-19 with single-molecule technology.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(7):e0255096. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

The COVID-19 pandemic raises the need for diverse diagnostic approaches to rapidly detect different stages of viral infection. The flexible and quantitative nature of single-molecule imaging technology renders it optimal for development of new diagnostic tools. Here we present a proof-of-concept for a single-molecule based, enzyme-free assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Bipolar Depression: A Historical Perspective of the Current Concept, with a Focus on Future Research.

Harv Rev Psychiatry 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

From the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET); Institute of Cognitive and Translational Neuroscience (INCyT), INECO Foundation, Favaloro University (Dr. Martino); Psychiatric Emergencies Hospital Torcuato de Alvear (Dr. Valerio) (all Buenos Aires, Argentina).

Abstract: The aim of this narrative review is to trace the origin of the concept of bipolar depression and to expose some of its limitations. Bipolar depression is a broad clinical construct including experiences ranging from traditional melancholic and psychotic episodes ascribed to "manic-depressive insanity," to another heterogeneous group of depressive episodes originally described in the context of binary models of unipolar depression (e.g. Read More

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Shifting the Mindset: Incorporating Mindfulness Practice in the Graduate Online Nursing Classroom and Beyond.

Authors:
Holly B Bradley

Nurs Educ Perspect 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

About the Author Holly B. Bradley, DNP, MS, ANP-BC, APRN, is a clinical assistant professor, Graduate Program Online, Sacred Heart University Davis & Henley College of Nursing, Fairfield, Connecticut. For more information, contact her at

Abstract: The concept of using mindfulness techniques in an online nursing education environment is an idea that has limited research. We have utilized some mindfulness exercises to facilitate course interaction and guide how faculty and students can foster an engaged, mutually beneficial environment in the classroom and beyond to leadership positions in the clinical setting. Faculty utilize these techniques to enhance teaching in the online environment. Read More

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Tolcapone in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

University of Chicago, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, Chicago, Illinois, USA Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton; and Southern Health NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK.

Objective: Despite the availability of evidence-based treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), not all patients experience sufficient benefit or are able to tolerate them. Tolcapone is a catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) enzyme inhibitor that augments cortical dopaminergic transmission. Conduct a proof of concept study to examine whether a COMT inhibitor would reduce OCD symptoms to a greater extent than placebo. Read More

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Granger Causality Inference in EEG Source Connectivity Analysis: A State-Space Approach.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jul 26;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

This article addresses the problem of estimating brain effective connectivity from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals using a Granger causality (GC) characterized on state-space models, extended from the conventional vector autoregressive (VAR) process. The scheme involves two main steps: model estimation and model inference to estimate brain connectivity. The model estimation performs a subspace identification and active source selection based on group-norm regularized least-squares. Read More

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Soft Tissue Filler Therapy and Informed Consent-A Canadian Review.

J Cutan Med Surg 2021 Jul 26:12034754211032542. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

113536 Bennett Jones LLP, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Soft Tissue Filler (STF) Therapy for cosmetic facial rejuvenation is associated with known complications. The manifestation of these known complications can lead to patients commencing civil litigation actions or making complaints to provincial regulatory authorities and alleging that the practitioner failed to obtain the patient's informed consent to the therapy. Data provided by the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA) on medical-legal cases arising from the provision of STF therapy between 2005 and 2019 are presented. Read More

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Environmental Health Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: A Visual Overview and a Renewed Call for Coordination.

Authors:
Rachel M Shaffer

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 3980 15th Avenue, Seattle, 98195, United States.

In the United States (U.S.), chemical evaluations and assessments are conducted by seven federal agencies responding to distinct statutory requirements and focusing on different exposure scenarios. Read More

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Interfacial Protection Engineering of Sodium Nanoparticles toward Dendrite-Free and Long-Life Sodium Metal Battery.

Small 2021 Jul 26:e2102400. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, P. R. China.

The instability of interfacial solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer of metallic sodium (Na) anode during cycles results in the rapid capacity decay of sodium metal batteries (SMBs). Herein, the concept of interfacial protection engineering of Na nanoparticles (Na-NPs) is proposed first to achieve stable, dendrite-free, and long-life SMB. Employing an ion-exchange strategy, conformal Sn-Na alloy-SEI on the interface of Na-NPs is constructed, forming [email protected] Read More

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Arsenene Nanodots with Selective Killing Effects and their Low-Dose Combination with ß-Elemene for Cancer Therapy.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 26:e2102054. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Center for Nanomedicine and Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Arsenical drugs have achieved hallmark success in treating patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, but expanding their clinical utility to solid tumors has proven difficult with the contradiction between the therapeutic efficacy and the systemic toxicity. Here, leveraging efforts from materials science, biocompatible PEGylated arsenene nanodots ([email protected]) with high monoelemental arsenic purity that can selectively and effectively treat solid tumors are synthesized. The intrinsic selective killing effect of [email protected] is closely related to high oxidative stress in tumor cells, which leads to an activated valence-change of arsenic (from less toxic As to severely toxic oxidation states), followed by decreased superoxide dismutase activity and massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Read More

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IRTA1 positivity helps identify a MALT lymphoma-like subset of primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas, largely but not exclusively defined by IgM expression.

J Cutan Pathol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: It has been proposed that primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas (PCMZL) include a MALT lymphoma-like IgM+ subset and a class-switched subset which is unlike most other MALT lymphomas. Whether expression of the MALT lymphoma-associated biomarkers IRTA1 and MNDA would support this concept and whether they might help explain why some patients have both subtypes is uncertain.

Methods: Twenty-five PCMZLs from 21 patients were stained for IRTA1 by in situ hybridization and for MNDA by immunohistochemistry. Read More

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Complementary use of the Ecosystem Service Concept and Multi-criteria Decision Analysis in Water Management.

Environ Manage 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Finnish Environment Institute, SYKE, Latokartanonkaari 11, 00790, Helsinki, Finland.

The ecosystem service (ES) concept has increasingly been applied in environmental planning, while there are several decades of experience in applying multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) in complex planning situations. The aim of this article is to assess how the ES concept has been used in water management projects together with MCDA and to examine the experiences gained and make recommendations to overcome any identified challenges. Our conclusions are based on a systematic analysis of 23 articles that were selected among 206 articles focused on water-related studies using, for example, the terms multi-criteria and ecosystem services in the title, abstract or keywords. Read More

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Clinical and histological features of fixed drug eruption: a single-centre series of 73 cases with comparison between bullous and non-bullous forms.

Eur J Dermatol 2021 Jun;31(3):372-380

Pathology department, Henri Mondor hospital, AP-HP, 94010 Créteil Cedex, France, Intensive care unit, Henri Mondor hospital, AP-HP, 94010 Créteil Cedex, France, Reference centre for toxic bullous diseases and severe cutaneous adverse reactions TOXIBUL, Créteil, France.

The clinical and pathological aspects of fixed drug eruption (FDE) have been described based on a few case series. To compare bullous FDE (BFDE) and non-bullous FDE (NBFDE) and to determine whether BFDE can be histologically distinguished from other dermatoses presenting with an apoptotic pan-epidermolysis. In this retrospective monocentre study (2005-2016), FDE was classified as BFDE or NBFDE and localized (one anatomical site) or generalized (≥ two sites; GBFDE). Read More

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Exploiting dentine matrix proteins in cell-free approaches for periradicular tissue engineering.

Tissue Eng Part B Rev 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

University of Birmingham College of Medical and Dental Sciences, 150183, School of Dentistry, Institute of Clinical Sciences, 5 Mill Pool Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, B5 7EG.

The recent discovery of mesenchymal stem cells within periapical lesions (PL-MSC) has presented novel opportunities for managing periradicular diseases in adult teeth by way of enhancing tissue regeneration. This discovery coincides with the current paradigm shift towards biologically driven treatment strategies in endodontics, which have typically been reserved for non-vital immature permanent teeth. One such approach that shows promise is utilising local endogenous non-collagenous dentine extracellular matrix components (dECM) to recruit and upregulate the intrinsic regenerative capacity of PL-MSCs in situ. Read More

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Development of a 3D Bioartificial Shoulder Joint Implant Mimetic of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

University of Western Ontario, 6221, Department of Biochemistry, London, Ontario, Canada.

Post-surgical infections of the shoulder joint involving are difficult to diagnose and manage. Despite the devastating clinical complications and costly healthcare burden of joint infections, the scarcity of joint infection models was identified as an unmet need by the 2019 International Consensus on Orthopedic Infections. In this study, we have developed a novel 3D shoulder joint implant mimetic (S-JIM) that includes a surgical metal surface and supports a co-culture of and patient-derived shoulder capsule fibroblasts. Read More

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An Electrically Conducting Li-Ion Metal-Organic Framework.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as an important, yet highly challenging class of electrochemical energy storage materials. The chemical principles for electroactive MOFs remain, however, poorly explored because precise chemical and structural control is mandatory. For instance, no anionic MOF with a lithium cation reservoir and reversible redox (like a conventional Li-ion cathode) has been synthesized to date. Read More

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Thermal-Driven Dynamic Shape Change of Bimetallic Nanoparticles Extends Hot Electron Lifetime of Pt/MoS Catalysts.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 26:7173-7179. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Theoretical & Computational Photochemistry of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China.

Using a combination of time-domain density functional theory and nonadiabatic (NA) molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that the replacement of noble Pt with cheap Sn in the Pt nanoparticles sensitized MoS greatly retards the photoexcited "hot" electron relaxation. The simulations show that Sn substitution causes significant geometry distortion associated with the Sn dopant detaching from the Pt nanoparticle base, which decreases the NA coupling and creates an isolated trap state distant from the electron donor state. Generally, smaller NA coupling delays "hot" electron relaxation. Read More

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The Action-Networks of Nanosilver: Bridging the Gap between Material and Biology.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jul 26:e2100619. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Chair of Materials Science, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, 07743, Germany.

The emergence of nanosilver (silver in nanoscale shapes and their assemblies) benefits the landscape of modern healthcare; however, this brings about concerns over its safety issues associated with an ultrasmall size and high mobility. By reviewing previous reporting details about the synthesis and characterization of nanosilver and its biological responses, a gap between materials synthesis and their biomedical uses is characterized by the insufficient understanding of the interacting and interplaying nanoscale actions of silver. To improve reporting quality and advance clinical translations, it is suggested that researchers have a comprehensive recognition of the "Indications for use" before designing innovative nanosilver-based materials and an "Action-network" concept addressing the acting range and strength of those nanoscale actions is implemented. Read More

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In silico process characterization for biopharmaceutical development following the Quality by Design concept.

Biotechnol Prog 2021 Jul 26:e3196. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Engineering in Life Sciences, Section IV: Biomolecular Separation Engineering, Karlsruhe, Germany.

With the Quality by Design (QbD) initiative, regulatory authorities demand a consistent drug quality originating from a well-understood manufacturing process. This study demonstrates the application of a previously published mechanistic chromatography model to the in silico process characterization (PCS) of a monoclonal antibody polishing step. The proposed modeling workflow covered the main tasks of traditional PCS studies following the QbD principles, including criticality assessment of 11 process parameters and establishment of their proven acceptable ranges (PARs) of operation. Read More

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Mechanistic Investigation of Electrostatic Field-Enhanced Water Evaporation.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 26:e2100875. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore.

Investigations on external electrostatic field (EEF)-enhanced liquid water evaporation have been reported decades ago, which suggest that molecular alignment and polarization tuned by EEF accelerating the phase change process could be responsible for EEF-enhanced water evaporation. However, a detailed study revealing the role of EEF in altering the intermolecular and intramolecular water structure is lacking. Herein, an EEF is proved to tune water state by accelerating the thermal movement of water molecules, lowering the molecular escaping energy, and loosening the hydrogen bond structure. Read More

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Genome-environment Association Methods Comparison Supports Omnigenic Adaptation to Ecological Niche in Malaria Vector Mosquitoes.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity Institute, University of Kansas.

The concept of a fundamental ecological niche is central to questions of geographic distribution, population demography, species conservation, and evolutionary potential. But robust inference of genomic regions associated with evolutionary adaptation to particular environmental conditions remains difficult due to the myriad of potential confounding processes that can generate heterogeneous patterns of variation across the genome. Here, we interrogate the potential role of genome environment association (GEA) testing as an initial step in building an understanding of the genetic basis of ecological niche. Read More

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Dynamic Bifunctional Metasurfaces for Holography and Color Display.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 26:e2101258. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory on Tunable laser Technology, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Key Lab of Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Information System, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Metasurfaces have shown their unprecedented ability in wavefront shaping and triggered various applications with state-of-the-art performances, e.g., color nanoprinting and metaholograms. Read More

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A Novel Mechanism for the Formation and Propagation of Neural Tumors and Lesions through Neural Highways.

Authors:
Robert J Spinner

Clin Anat 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States.

By recognizing anatomic and radiologic patterns of rare and often misdiagnosed peripheral nerve tumors/lesions, we have defined mechanisms for the propagation of neural diseases. The novel concept of the nervous system serving as a complex system of "highways" driving the neural and perineural spread of these lesions is described in three examples: Intraneural dissection of joint fluid in intraneural ganglion cysts, perineural spread of cancer cells, and dissemination of unknown concentrations of neurotrophic/inhibitory factors for growth in hamartomas/choristomas of nerve. Further mapping of these pathways to identify the natural history of diseases, the spectrum of disease evolution, the role of genetic mutations, and how these neural pathways interface with the lymphatic, vascular, and cerebrospinal systems may lead advances in targeted treatments. Read More

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Membrane interaction and disulphide-bridge formation in the unconventional secretion of Tau.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Misfolded, pathological Tau protein propagates from cell to cell causing neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. The molecular mechanisms of this process have remained elusive. Unconventional secretion of Tau takes place via several different routes, including direct penetration through the plasma membrane. Read More

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