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Characterization of Strain P3M, a Foodborne Multidrug-Resistant Bacterium Isolated from in China.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

is an important foodborne opportunistic pathogen, both environmentally and clinically. The use of appropriate antibiotics has significant therapeutic effects, but has led to the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains. In this study, a strain, designated "P3M," was isolated from in Tianjin, China. Read More

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Migalastat Tissue Distribution: Extrapolation From Mice to Humans Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Comparison With Agalsidase Beta Tissue Distribution in Mice.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Amicus Therapeutics, Inc., Cranbury, New Jersey, USA.

Approved therapies for Fabry disease (FD) include migalastat, an oral pharmacological chaperone, and agalsidase beta and agalsidase alfa, 2 forms of enzyme replacement therapy. Broad tissue distribution may be beneficial for clinical efficacy in FD, which has severe manifestations in multiple organs. Here, migalastat and agalsidase beta biodistribution were assessed in mice and modeled using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) analysis, and migalastat biodistribution was subsequently extrapolated to humans. Read More

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A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo- and Positive-controlled Crossover Study of the Effects of Tebipenem Pivoxil Hydrobromide on QT/QTc Intervals in Healthy Subjects.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Spero Therapeutics, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

Tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (TBP-PI-HBr) is an orally available prodrug of TBP, a carbapenem with activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens. This study evaluated the effects of single therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of TBP-PI-HBr on the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) by assessing the concentration-QT (C-QT) relationship using exposure-response modeling. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, single dose, 4-way, crossover study. Read More

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The effect of Clofazimine Concentration on QT prolongation in patients treated for tuberculosis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Clofazimine is classified as a WHO group B drug for the treatment of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. QT prolongation, which is associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias, is caused by several anti-tubercular drugs, including clofazimine, but there are no data quantifying the effect of clofazimine concentration on QT prolongation.To describe the effect of clofazimine exposure on QT prolongationFifteen adults drug-susceptible tuberculosis patients received clofazimine mono-therapy as 300 mg daily for three days followed by 100 mg daily in one arm of a 2-week, multi-arm early bactericidal activity trial in South Africa. Read More

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Development and validation of a regression model for Listeria monocytogenes growth in roast beefs.

Food Microbiol 2021 Sep 3;98:103770. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Animalia Norwegian Meat and Poultry Centre, P. O. Box 396 Økern, 0513, Oslo, Norway.

Food business operators are responsible for food safety and assessment of shelf lives for their ready-to-eat products. For assisting them, a customized software based on predictive models, ListWare, is being developed. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive model for the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in sliced roast beef. Read More

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September 2021

Elevated CO increases biomass and tuber yield in potato even at high ozone concentrations.

New Phytol 2001 Feb;149(2):265-274

School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD, UK.

•  Changes in the growth and yield of field-grown potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Bintje) induced by season-long elevated CO and/or ozone concentrations are reported. •  Open-top chambers and unchambered field plots were used to examine crop responses to three CO (ambient, 550 and 680 µmol mol ) and two ozone (ambient and 65 nmol mol , 8 h d seasonal mean) treatments applied throughout the 105 d growing season. Read More

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February 2001

Predicting leaf gas exchange and δ C responses to the past 30000 years of global environmental change.

Authors:
D J Beerling

New Phytol 1994 Nov;128(3):425-433

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, P.O. Box 601, Sheffield S10 2UQ, UK.

Theoretical developments in our understanding of leaf gas exchange processes and carbon isotope composition (δ C) mean that it should now be possible to model their responses to global environmental change. Such a model would be of use for process-based interpretations of historical changes in leaf δ C and for understanding the global stable carbon isotope balance. This paper describes the development and validation of a model towards this aim. Read More

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November 1994

MORPHOLOGICAL PLASTICITY AND MINERAL NUTRIENT CAPTURE IN TWO HERBACEOUS SPECIES OF CONTRASTED ECOLOGY.

Authors:
J C Crick J P Grime

New Phytol 1987 Oct;107(2):403-414

Unit of Comparative Plant Ecology (NERC), Department of Botany, The University, Sheffield S10, UK.

Developmental plasticity and nitrogen capture were compared in Agrostis stolonifera and Scirpus sylvaticus grown in compartmentalized root growth arenas which allowed simulation of the spatial and temporal patchiness distinguishing the conditions of mineral nutrient supply associated with fertile and infertile soils. Despite the small root system, higher rates of nitrogen capture and dry matter production were achieved by A. stolonifera at both high and low external concentrations of mineral nutrients. Read More

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October 1987

Senescence-induced changes in apoplastic and bulk tissue ammonia concentrations of ryegrass leaves.

New Phytol 2003 Dec;160(3):489-499

Plant Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Agricultural Sciences, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.

•  Apoplastic and bulk tissue concentrations of NH and H were measured during senescence of intact (attached) and excised ryegrass (Lolium perenne) leaves differing in nitrogen and carbon status. The potential for NH emission from the senescing leaves was estimated on the basis of the ratio between [NH ] and [H ], designated the Γ-value, in apoplastic solution and bulk tissue. •  Attached leaves with visual symptoms of senescence showed two to three times higher [NH ] and 0. Read More

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December 2003

Intestinal function is impaired in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 10;40(4):2270-2277. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Gastrointestinal symptoms are prevalent extrapulmonary systemic manifestations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but have been rarely studied. We dissected the perturbations in intestinal function in human patients with COPD using comprehensive metabolic and physiological approaches.

Methods: In this observational study, small intestinal membrane integrity and active carrier-mediated glucose transport were quantified by sugar permeability test in 21 clinically stable patients with moderate to severe COPD (mean FEV, 41. Read More

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Partitioning between polyurethane foam and the gas phase: data compilation, uncertainty estimation and implications for air sampling.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaM1C 1A4.

Polyurethane foam (PUF) is frequently applied for sampling semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the gas phase. Equilibrium partition coefficients (KPUF/G) often are used to estimate the potential for breakthrough during active air sampling (AAS) and to correct for non-linear uptake during passive air sampling (PAS). KPUF/G is either determined experimentally or estimated, in both cases incurring uncertainties that can be carried over to other parameters. Read More

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Plasma interleukin-17 and alpha-fetoprotein combination effectively predicts imminent hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence in liver cirrhotic patients.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 17;21(1):177. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Liver Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan.

Background: Predicting imminent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver cirrhotic patients is an unmet medical need. We aimed to investigate circulatory biomarkers and their optimum combinations in a prospective study.

Methods: We investigated plasma interleukin 17 (IL-17) concentrations, quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for the prediction of HCC in a large cohort of 404 HCC-naïve liver cirrhotic patients regularly followed after recruitment. Read More

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Association between renin-angiotensin system and chronic lung allograft dysfunction.

Eur Respir J 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Toronto Lung Transplant Program, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada

Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the major cause of death after lung transplantation. Angiotensin II (AngII), the main effector of the renin-angiotensin (RA) system, elicits fibrosis in both kidney and lung. We identified 6 AngII-regulated proteins (RHOB, BST1, LYPA1, GLNA, TSP1, LAMB1) increased in urine of patients with kidney allograft fibrosis. Read More

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Scales of our lives: sex identification of Temminck's pangolin (Smutsia temminckii) using scales retrieved out of the illegal wildlife trade.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Apr 13:113782. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Biodiversity Research Services, National Zoological Gardens, South Africa; Department of Life and Consumer Sciences, University of South Africa, South Africa.

Pangolins are the most trafficked wild mammals, with their scales in high demand. Scales are often the only part of the animal confiscated from the trade, but they represent accessible material for forensic investigations, including for sexing. This study aimed to develop a sexing tool for Temminck's pangolin, using scales for hormone quantification. Read More

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Parabens and bisphenol A and its structural analogues in over-the-counter medicines from China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, and School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Pharmaceuticals, such as over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, may be an important source of human exposure to several endocrine disruptors, though unnoticed to date. In the present study, we investigated the presence of six parabens and nine bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues in OTC medicines manufactured in China. Parabens and bisphenols were present in more than 90% of the samples. Read More

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Target-Driven Design of a Coumarinyl Chalcone Scaffold Based Novel EF2 Kinase Inhibitor Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth .

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 30;4(2):926-940. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 422, Houston, Texas 77030, United States.

Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) is an unusual alpha kinase involved in protein synthesis through phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (EF2). eEF-2K is highly overexpressed in breast cancer, and its activity is associated with significantly shortened patient survival and proven to be a potential molecular target in breast cancer. The crystal structure of eEF-2K remains unknown, and there is no potent, safe, and effective inhibitor available for clinical applications. Read More

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Reproducibility of Glucose Fluctuations Induced by Moderate Intensity Cycling Exercise in Persons with Type 1 Diabetes.

J Diabetes Res 2021 30;2021:6640600. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Clinical Research, Nordsjællands Hospital, Denmark.

Aims: The purpose was to assess the reproducibility of glucose changes during three sessions of standardized moderate intensity continuous training of cycling on an individual level in people with type 1 diabetes.

Methods: Twelve adults (six females) with type 1 diabetes performed three test sessions on an ergometer bicycle (30 min, 67% of predicted heart rate) on three different days. The participants were 36. Read More

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Determinants of work capacity (predicted VO) in non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in rural India.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 15;21(1):735. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Health, Behavior & Society, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The negative impact of anemia on work capacity has been studied extensively in male and female workers; however, the simultaneous contributions of confounding variables such as physical activity, as well as other behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics have not been considered. The purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectionally the multivariable correlates of work capacity in non-pregnant women (n = 330) living in rural India.

Methods: The Reduction in Anemia through Normative Innovations (RANI) Project is a norms-based, clustered randomized controlled trial to reduce anemia among women (15-49 years) living in Odisha, India between 2018 and 2021. Read More

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Association between heavy metals and colon cancer: an ecological study based on geographical information systems in North-Eastern Iran.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 15;21(1):414. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Colorectal cancer has increased in Middle Eastern countries and exposure to environmental pollutants such as heavy metals has been implicated. However, data linking them to this disease are generally lacking. This study aimed to explore the spatial pattern of age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of colon cancer and its potential association with the exposure level of the amount of heavy metals existing in rice produced in north-eastern Iran. Read More

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Zn-dependent enhancement of Atrazine biodegradation by Klebsiella variicola FH-1.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 14;411:125112. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

School of Science and Technology, Georgia Gwinnett College, Lawrenceville, GA 30043, USA. Electronic address:

Degradation efficiency of Atrazine by Klebsiella variicola FH-1 is improved by the addition of Zn. Both the chromosome and plasmid genomes of strain FH-1 were sequenced and annotated to identify genes involved in the degradation of Atrazine. Four open reading frames (ORFs) 1040, 2582, 3597, and 4043 encoding Zn-dependent hydrolases were knocked out to verify their predicted functions in the degradation of Atrazine. Read More

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Relating transdermal delivery plasma pharmacokinetics with in vitro permeation test (IVPT) findings using diffusion and compartment-in-series models.

J Control Release 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Therapeutics Research Group, The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia; Therapeutics Research Centre, University of South Australia Division of Clinical and Health Sciences, Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Medical Research, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, SA 5011, Australia.

Increasing emphasis is being placed on using in vitro permeation test (IVPT) results for topical products as a surrogate for their in vivo behaviour. This study sought to relate in vivo plasma concentration - time pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles after topical application of drug products to IVPT findings with mechanistic diffusion and compartment models that are now widely used to describe permeation of solutes across the main skin transport barrier, the stratum corneum. Novel in vivo forms of the diffusion and compartment-in-series models were developed by combining their IVPT model forms with appropriate in vivo disposition functions. Read More

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Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase-Catalyzed Redox Cycling of Plasmodione Generates Both Predicted Key Drug Metabolites: Implication for Antimalarial Drug Development.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Université de Strasbourg-CNRS-UHA UMR7042, Laboratoire d'Innovation Moléculaire et Applications (LIMA), Team Bio(IN)organic and Medicinal Chemistry, European School of Chemistry, Polymers and Materials (ECPM), 25 Rue Becquerel, F-67087 Strasbourg, France.

Plasmodione (PD) is a potent antimalarial redox-active 3-benzyl-menadione acting at low nanomolar range concentrations on different malaria parasite stages. The specific bioactivation of PD was proposed to occur via a cascade of redox reactions starting from one-electron reduction and then benzylic oxidation, leading to the generation of several key metabolites including corresponding benzylic alcohol (PD-bzol, for PD benzhydrol) and 3-benzoylmenadione (PDO, for PD oxide). In this study, we showed that the benzylic oxidation of PD is closely related to the formation of a benzylic semiquinone radical, which can be produced under two conditions: UV photoirradiation or catalysis by apicoplast ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR) redox cycling in the presence of oxygen and the parent PD. Read More

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The shape of low-concentration dose-response functions for benzene: implications for human health risk assessment.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2021 Apr 15:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Concawe Division, European Petroleum Refiners Association, Brussels, Belgium.

Are dose-response relationships for benzene and health effects such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) supra-linear, with disproportionately high risks at low concentrations, e.g. below 1 ppm? To investigate this hypothesis, we apply recent mode of action (MoA) and mechanistic information and modern data science techniques to quantify air benzene-urinary metabolite relationships in a previously studied data set for Tianjin, China factory workers. Read More

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Systematic Design, Synthesis, and Biological Studies of Some Novel 1,4-Benzoquinone Derivatives for the Prospective Management of Cognitive Decline.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India.

Cholinesterases are significant biological targets for the regulation of cholinergic neurotransmission, and their inhibitors are being exploited for the management of cognitive decline in various neurological conditions. The 1,4-benzoquinone scaffold possesses antioxidant potential along with AChE inhibition activity in various neurological disorders. To design novel and potent selective 1,4-benzoquinone analogues as cholinesterase inhibitors, a ligand-based drug design strategy was followed to develop a 3D quantitative structure-selectivity relationship (QSSR) model. Read More

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MiR-495 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in HO stimulated rat spinal cord neurons through targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3).

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(6):461

Department of Orthopedics, Anting Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: MicroRNA-495 (miR-495) is a post-translational modulator that performs several functions, and it is involved in several disease states. On the other hand, the physiological functions of miR-495 in HO stimulated mouse spinal cord neuronal dysfunction have not yet been fully understood.

Methods: In this study, we speculated that miR-495 may regulate the expression of STAT3 in the processes of neuronal proliferation and apoptosis following spinal cord injury (SCI). Read More

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Uptake prediction of nine heavy metals by Eichhornia crassipes grown in irrigation canals: A biomonitoring approach.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 1;782:146887. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Botany & Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; Water and Soil Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, JORDI GIRONA 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA-CERCA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain.

The principal objective of this study is to generate mathematical regression equations that facilitate the estimation of the extent to which Eichhornia crassipes (C. Mart.) Solms, water hyacinth, absorbs heavy metals (HMs) into four plant organs (laminae, petioles, roots, and stolons). Read More

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New quinolone derivatives as neuropeptide S receptor antagonists: Design, synthesis, homology modeling, dynamic simulations and modulation of Gq/Gs signaling pathways.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Mar 10;111:104817. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ein Helwan, Cairo, P.O. Box 11795, Egypt.

In a search for new neuropeptide S receptor antagonists, we have described a new series of quinolone-pyranopyrimidine hybrid derivatives aiming to modify the inhibitory characters towards NPSR to develop new therapeutic strategies against anxiety, addiction and food disorders. We identified six potent antagonists 3, 4b, 6, 8, 9 and 10 which counteracted the stimulatory effect of NPS at both Gq and Gs pathways, at low micromolar concentrations, through modulation of Ca and cAMP signaling, respectively. Molecular docking predicted the orientation mode of the top active compounds; 10 and 4b with ΔG value of -23. Read More

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IL-26 promotes the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion by enhancing CD4 IL-22 T-cell differentiation and inhibiting CD8 T-cell cytotoxicity.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

IL-26 is a newly discovered IL-10 cytokine family member mainly secreted by Th17 cells. However, the relationship between IL-26 and lung cancer remains unclear. The present study reported that IL-26 is involved in the production and promotion of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) for the first time. Read More

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Conventional and high resolution chemical characterization to assess refinery effluent treatment performance.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 27;278:130383. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Concawe, Boulevard du Souverain 165, 1160, Brussels, Belgium.

Refinery effluents represent an emission source of hydrocarbons (HCs) and other constituents to the environment. Thus, characterisation of effluent quality in terms of concentrations of key parameters relative to permitted standards is important and for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), the specific composition of the HC mixture can affect its toxicity to aquatic organisms. Therefore, this study was designed to analyse TPH, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes (BTEX), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), (bio) chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total suspended solids and selected metals before, and after, treatment steps to demonstrate removal efficiencies across 13 refineries with variable wastewater treatment systems. Read More

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In vivo assessment of a delayed release formulation of larazotide acetate indicated for celiac disease using a porcine model.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(4):e0249179. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Comparative Medicine Institute, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States of America.

There is no FDA approved therapy for the treatment of celiac disease (CeD), aside from avoidance of dietary gluten. Larazotide acetate (LA) is a first in class oral peptide developed as a tight junction regulator, which is a lead candidate for management of CeD. A delayed release formulation was tested in vitro and predicted release in the mid duodenum and jejunum, the target site of CeD. Read More

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