315,324 results match your criteria concentrations increased


Air pollution and preterm birth: A time-stratified case-crossover study in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Public Health, School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, California, USA.

Background: Air pollution is linked to preterm birth (PTB), but existing studies are primarily focused on chronic exposures, conducted in areas with moderate pollution, and/or subject to confounding.

Objectives: We investigated short-term associations between two pollutants [particulate matter <2.5 microns (PM ) and ozone] and PTB, and estimated excess PTB cases potentially attributed to these pollutants. Read More

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December 2021

Quantile-Dependent Heritability of Glucose, Insulin, Proinsulin, Insulin Resistance, and Glycated Hemoglobin.

Authors:
Paul T Williams

Lifestyle Genom 2021 Dec 6:1-25. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Division of Molecular Biophysics & Integrated Bioimaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA.

Background: "Quantile-dependent expressivity" is a dependence of genetic effects on whether the phenotype (e.g., insulin resistance) is high or low relative to its distribution. Read More

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December 2021

Starving Your Performance? Reduced Preexercise Hunger Increases Resistance Exercise Performance.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Dec 6:1-7. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Background: Preexercise food intake enhances exercise performance due, in part, to the provision of exogenous carbohydrate. Food intake also suppresses hunger, but the specific influence of hunger on exercise performance has not been investigated. This study aimed to manipulate hunger by altering preexercise meal viscosity to examine whether hunger influences performance. Read More

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December 2021

Relationships between cytokines and cognitive function from pre- to post-chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Nov 19;362:577769. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Surgery, Supportive Care in Cancer, University of Rochester, 265 Crittenden Blvd., Rochester, NY 14642, United States.

Cancer-related cognitive decline (CRCD) is a clinically important problem and negatively affects daily functioning and quality of life. We conducted a pilot longitudinal study from pre- to post-chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer to assess changes in inflammation and cognition over time, as well as the impact of baseline cytokine level on post-chemotherapy cognitive scores. We found that concentrations of IL-6, MCP-1, sTNFRI, and sTNFRII significantly increased in patients, while IL-1β significantly decreased (p < 0. Read More

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November 2021

Copper exposure disrupts ovarian steroidogenesis in human ovarian granulosa cells via the FSHR/CYP19A1 pathway and alters methylation patterns on the SF-1 gene promoter.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Information on the effects of copper on reproduction is limited. Our previous study indicated that copper induces abnormal steroidogenesis in human ovarian granulosa cells, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, human ovarian granulosa cells were treated with multiple concentrations of copper for 24 h. Read More

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December 2021

Improved performance and microbial community dynamics in anaerobic fermentation of triticale silages at different stages.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Dec 3:126485. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, 31000, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Production of high-quality grass-based silages by microbial-mediated anaerobic fermentation is an effective strategy in livestock farms. In the present study, an ensiling process was used to preserve and enhance fermentative metabolites in triticale silages with novel inoculants of Lactobacillus rhamanosus -52 and, Lactobacillus rhamanosus-54. Triticale silages treated with LAB predominantly had lower pH values than control silages due to rapid changes of microbial counts. Read More

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December 2021

Plasma Lead Concentration and Risk of Late Kidney Allograft Failure: Findings From the TransplantLines Biobank and Cohort Studies.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Rationale & Objective: Heavy metals are known to induce kidney damage and recent studies have linked minor exposures to cadmium and arsenic with increased risk of kidney allograft failure, yet the potential association of lead (Pb) with late graft failure in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) remains unknown.

Study Design: Prospective cohort study in the Netherlands.

Setting & Participants: We studied outpatient KTR (n=670) with a functioning graft for ≥1 year recruited at a university setting (2008-2011, NCT02811835) and followed, on average, for 4. Read More

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December 2021

Characteristics and sources of Pb exposure via household dust from the urban area of Shanghai, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Dec 3:151984. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Ministry of Education-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environmental Health, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, PR China. Electronic address:

Household dust has been considered as an important pathway for children's environmental Pb exposure. Shanghai was one of the first cities in China that removed Pb from petrol and has been shown in our previous study to have the lowest childhood blood Pb levels in China. This study therefore examines household dust Pb (Pb) in Shanghai, a city that has low concentrations of environmental Pb and limited known sources, in order to determine the extent and exposure risks of Pb. Read More

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December 2021

Citrinin impairs pig oocyte maturation by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Toxicon 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Large Animal Models for Biomedicine, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Citrinin (CTN) is a polyketide mycotoxin produced by several strains of Penicillium, Monascus, and Aspergillus. While CTN poses various toxic effects on the female reproductive system in animals, its direct effects on germ cell development are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of CTN (0,20,40,80,100 μM) on porcine oocyte in vitro maturation. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of household cooking with clean energy on the risk for hypertension among women in Beijing.

Chemosphere 2021 Dec 3:133151. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, PR China. Electronic address:

Outdoor air pollution and indoor burning of biomass fuel can cause high blood pressure. However, little is known about the effects of cooking with clean energy on hypertension. We thus explored whether cooking with clean energy is associated with the risk for hypertension. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of tralopyril on histological, biochemical and molecular impacts in Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

Chemosphere 2021 Dec 3:133157. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Marine College, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong, 264209, China. Electronic address:

Recently, the toxic effects of tralopyril, as a new antifouling biocide, on aquatic organisms have aroused widespread attention about the potential toxicity. However, the mechanism of tralopyril on marine mollusks has not been elaborated clearly. In this study, the histological, biochemical and molecular impacts of tralopyril on adult Crassostrea gigas were investigated. Read More

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December 2021

The PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon behavior in indoor and outdoor environments, part II: Explainable prediction of benzo[a]pyrene levels.

Chemosphere 2021 Dec 3:133154. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Institute of Physics Belgrade, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, 118 Pregrevica Street, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia.

Among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) has been considered more relevant than other species when estimating the potential exposure-related health effects and has been recognized as a marker of carcinogenic potency of air pollutant mixture. The current understanding of the factors which govern non-linear behavior of B[a]P and associated pollutants and environmental processes is insufficient and further research has to rely on the advanced analytical approach which averts the assumptions and avoids simplifications required by linear modeling methods. For the purpose of this study, we employed eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) attribution method, and SHAP value fuzzy clustering to investigate the concentrations of inorganic gaseous pollutants, radon, PM and particle constituents including trace metals, ions, 16 US EPA priority PM-bound PAHs and 31 meteorological variables, as key factors which shape indoor and outdoor PM-bound B[a]P distribution in a university building located in the urban area of Belgrade (Serbia). Read More

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December 2021

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (ADAMTS1) increments by the renin-angiotensin system induce renal fibrosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Dec 3:174681. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Pathological Sciences, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto, Japan.

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, was recently shown to induce collagen deposition through the production of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (ADAMTS1) in the aging heart. ADAMTS1 regulates ECM turnover by degrading ECM components, and its excessive activation contributes to various pathological states, including fibrosis. The present study investigated the pathophysiological regulation and role of SPARC and ADAMTS1 in renal fibrosis using uninephrectomized rats treated with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA, 40 mg/kg/week, subcutaneously) and salt (1% in drinking water). Read More

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December 2021

Does dietary fat affect advanced glycation end products and their receptors? A systematic review of clinical trials.

Nutr Rev 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

N.P. Mendes, P.V.M. Ribeiro, and R.C.G. Alfenas are with the Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Context: Dietary fat seems to affect advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptors. This systematic review assesses studies that evaluated the effect of dietary fat on markers of glycation.

Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the effect of dietary fat on markers of glycation and to explore the mechanisms involved. Read More

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December 2021

Long-term impacts of coal mine fire-emitted PM2.5 on hospitalisation: a longitudinal analysis of the Hazelwood Health Study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Little is known about the long-term health impacts of exposures to landscape fire smoke. We aimed to evaluate the association between exposure to coal mine fire-related particulate matter 2.5 μm or less in diameter (PM2. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of increasing concentrations of rifampicin on different lineages in a Whole blood Bactericidal Activity Assay.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Dec 6:AAC0169921. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

High-dose rifampicin improved bactericidal activity and culture conversion in early-phase trials, done mainly in Africa. We performed a Whole Blood Bactericidal Activity (WBA) study to determine whether the effects of high-dose rifampicin differ across globally-relevant strains; and whether effects are similar in dormant bacilli that will be required for enhancing cure. Whole blood from healthy volunteers was spiked with rifampicin (range 0. Read More

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December 2021

CBr/SWCNT: A Highly Sensitive Medium to Detect HS via Inhomogeneous Carrier Doping.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Country Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland.

HS is a toxic and corrosive gas, whose accurate detection at sub-ppm concentrations is of high practical importance in environmental, industrial, and health safety applications. Herein, we propose a chemiresistive sensor device that applies a composite of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and brominated fullerene (CBr) as a sensing component, which is capable of detecting 50 ppb HS even at room temperature with an excellent response of 1.75% in a selective manner. Read More

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December 2021

Protective effect of astaxanthin on experimental ovarian damage in rats.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Dec 6:e22966. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey.

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of astaxanthin (AS) on 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) induced experimental ovarian damage in rats. Thirty two female Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups of eight each: control group (C); phosphate-buffered saline, AS group; AS (80 mg/kg) for 14 days, 3-NPA group; 3-NPA (6.25 mg/kg) twice a day for 7 days, 3-NPA + AS group; administered AS (80 mg/kg) for 14 days and 3-NPA (6. Read More

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December 2021

Resistance and change in a High Arctic ecosystem, NW Greenland: Differential sensitivity of ecosystem metrics to 15 years of experimental warming and wetting.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

UArctic Research Chair, Professor of Arctic Ecology & Biogeochemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Dramatic increases in air temperature and precipitation are occurring in the High Arctic (>70 °N), yet few studies have characterized the long-term responses of High Arctic ecosystems to the interactive effects of experimental warming and increased rain. Beginning in 2003, we applied a factorial summer warming and wetting experiment to a polar semidesert in northwest Greenland. In summer 2018, we assessed several metrics of ecosystem structure and function, including plant cover, greenness, ecosystem CO exchange, aboveground (leaf, stem) and belowground (litter, root, soil) carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations (%) and pools, as well as leaf and soil stable isotopes (δ C and δ N). Read More

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December 2021

Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a concentrated spent sulphite liquor waste stream for increased inhibitor resistance.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch, 7602, Republic of South Africa.

The fermentation of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) from the pulping of hardwoods is limited by the combination of xylose, the primary fermentable sugar and high concentrations of microbial inhibitors that decrease the yeast fermentation ability. The inhibitor resistance phenotypes of xylose-capable Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were therefore enhanced by combining rational engineering for multi-inhibitor tolerance, with adaptation in concentrated hardwood SSL as selective pressure. The adapted strains were assessed in fermentations with 60-80% v/v concentrated SSL under industrially relevant fermentation conditions. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of Ozone on Hippocampus BDNF and Fos Expressions in Rats with Chronic Compression of Dorsal Root Ganglia.

Biomed Res Int 2021 26;2021:5572915. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Pain Management, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong University, 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China.

The effects of ozone on hippocampal expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and c-fos protein (Fos) were evaluated in rats with chronic compression of dorsal root ganglia (CCD). Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following 4 groups ( = 12): sham operation (sham group), CCD group, CCD with 20 g/ml of ozone (CCD + AO group), and CCD with 40 g/ml of ozone (CCD + BO group). Except the sham group, unilateral L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) compression was performed on all other groups. Read More

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November 2021

Beneficial Effects of Neurotrophin-4 Supplementation During Maturation of Porcine Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes and Subsequent Embryonic Development After Parthenogenetic Activation.

Front Vet Sci 2021 12;8:779298. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology (VETEMBIO), Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, South Korea.

Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in follicular development and oocyte maturation. However, it is not yet known whether NT-4 is related to oocyte maturation and follicular development in pigs. This study aims to investigate the effects of NT-4 supplementation during maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes and subsequent embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation (PA). Read More

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November 2021

Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Amoxicillin Combined With Clavulanic Acid in Healthy and Critically Ill Dogs.

Front Vet Sci 2021 15;8:770202. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Clinical Science and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

Data regarding antimicrobial pharmacokinetics (PK) in critically ill dogs are lacking and likely differ from those of healthy dogs. The aim of this work is to describe a population PK model for intravenous (IV) amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) in both healthy and sick dogs and to simulate a range of clinical dosing scenarios to compute PK/PD cutoffs for both populations. This study used a prospective clinical trial in normal and critically ill dogs. Read More

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November 2021

Inclusion of Soluble Fiber During Gestation Regulates Gut Microbiota, Improves Bile Acid Homeostasis, and Enhances the Reproductive Performance of Sows.

Front Vet Sci 2021 17;8:756910. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Interaction between the dietary fiber and the gut microbes can regulate host bile acid metabolism. This study sought to explore the effects of guar gum combined with pregelatinized waxy maize starch (GCW) in a gestation diet on reproductive performance, gut microbiota composition, and bile acid homeostasis of sows. A total of 61 large white sows were randomly grouped into the control ( = 33) and 2% GCW ( = 28) groups during gestation. Read More

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November 2021

Animal-Based Factors Prior to Infection Predict Histological Disease Outcome in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus- and -Infected Pigs.

Front Vet Sci 2021 17;8:742877. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Wageningen Livestock Research, Department of Animal Health and Welfare, Wageningen, Netherlands.

A large variety of clinical manifestation in individual pigs occurs after infection with pathogens involved in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Some pigs are less prone to develop respiratory disease symptoms. The variation in clinical impact after infection and the recovery capacity of an individual animal are measures of its resilience. Read More

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November 2021

Food Processing and Phthalate Exposure: The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1993-1996 and 2005-2008).

Front Nutr 2021 17;8:766992. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

National Defense Medical Center, School of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan.

Phthalates esters are widely used commercially and can leach from a food container or food packaging. Few studies have been conducted in Asia regarding food processed to varying levels and human phthalate exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the association between unprocessed and ultra-processed food intake and urinary phthalate metabolite levels in the Taiwanese adult population. Read More

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November 2021

Plasma C-C Chemokine Concentrations in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 18;8:710595. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States.

To determine the relationship between plasma concentrations of the C-C chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 and intermediate age-related macular degeneration (iAMD) patients compared with control inidividuals to further define the inflammatory pathways associated with age-related macular degeneration. The concentrations of CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 were measured using multiplex assays in plasma collected from 210 patients with iAMD and 102 control individuals with no macular degeneration as defined by multi-modal imaging. Non-inflammatory data included in the analysis were: age, sex, family history of AMD, history of smoking, body mass index, presence of reticular pseudo-drusen and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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November 2021

Human Sperm Remain Motile After a Temporary Energy Restriction but do Not Undergo Capacitation-Related Events.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 12;9:777086. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

To acquire fertilization competence, mammalian sperm must undergo several biochemical and physiological modifications known as capacitation. Despite its relevance, the metabolic pathways that regulate the capacitation-related events, including the development of hyperactivated motility, are still poorly described. Previous studies from our group have shown that temporary energy restriction in mouse sperm enhanced hyperactivation, fertilization, early embryo development and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer, and it improved intracytoplasmic sperm injection results in the bovine model. Read More

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November 2021

Tyrosine-Dependent Phenotype Switching Occurs Early in Many Primary Melanoma Cultures Limiting Their Translational Value.

Front Oncol 2021 11;11:780654. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Oncology (LOCE), Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

The use of patient-derived primary cell cultures in cancer preclinical assays, including drug screens and genotoxic studies, has increased in recent years. However, their translational value is constrained by several limitations, including variability that can be caused by the culture conditions. Here, we show that the medium composition commonly used to propagate primary melanoma cultures has limited their representability of their tumor of origin and their cellular plasticity, and modified their sensitivity to therapy. Read More

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November 2021

Endotoxin Triggers Tumor Initiation Events in Nontumorigenic Breast Epithelial Cells and Enhances Invasion-Related Phenotype in Pretumorigenic and Tumorigenic Breast Epithelial Cells.

Int J Inflam 2021 26;2021:4666380. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

American University of Beirut (AUB), Department of Biology, Beirut, Lebanon.

Inflammation is associated with the development of several cancers, including breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms driving breast cancer initiation or enhancement by inflammation are yet to be deciphered. Hence, we opted to investigate the role of inflammation in initiating and enhancing tumor-like phenotypes in nontumorigenic, pretumorigenic, and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Read More

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November 2021