Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.
Naval Information Warfare Center (NIWC) Pacific, San Diego, California, USA.
As a result of military activities, unexploded ordnance and discarded military munitions are present in underwater environments, which has resulted in the release of munitions constituents including the high explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), along with their primary degradation products, to the water column and adjacent sediments. The present study focused on the characterization of underwater exposure and concentrations of energetics such as TNT and RDX at the former Vieques Naval Training Range at Bahia Salina del Sur (BSS; Vieques, Puerto Rico, USA), a bay with documented high incidence of munitions. In situ passive sampling using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) was used for the detection and quantification of constituents in water at target locations approximately 15-30 cm from 15 individual potentially leaking munitions, and also at 15 unbiased locations approximately evenly spaced across the Bay. Read More