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Environmental Characterization of Underwater Munitions Constituents at a Former Military Training Range.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Naval Information Warfare Center (NIWC) Pacific, San Diego, California, USA.

As a result of military activities, unexploded ordnance and discarded military munitions are present in underwater environments, which has resulted in the release of munitions constituents including the high explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), along with their primary degradation products, to the water column and adjacent sediments. The present study focused on the characterization of underwater exposure and concentrations of energetics such as TNT and RDX at the former Vieques Naval Training Range at Bahia Salina del Sur (BSS; Vieques, Puerto Rico, USA), a bay with documented high incidence of munitions. In situ passive sampling using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) was used for the detection and quantification of constituents in water at target locations approximately 15-30 cm from 15 individual potentially leaking munitions, and also at 15 unbiased locations approximately evenly spaced across the Bay. Read More

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Fracto-eutectogels: SDS fractal dendrites counterion condensation in a deep eutectic solvent.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK.

Glyceline, a deep eutectic solvent comprising glycerol and choline chloride, is a green nonaqueous solvent with potential industrial applications. Molecular mechanisms of surfactant self-assembly in deep eutectic solvents are expected to differ from those in their constituent polar components and are not well understood. Here we report the observation of self-assembled SDS fractal dendrites with dimensions up to ∼mm in glyceline at SDS concentrations as low as cSDS ∼ 0. Read More

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Characterization of emissions of condensable particulate matter under real operation conditions in cement clinker kilns using complementary experimental techniques.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 5;786:147472. Epub 2021 May 5.

Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of Seville, C/Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain.

Historically, the emission of particles from clinker kiln stacks has been one of the main environmental concerns in cement manufacturing processes. Up to now, environmental regulations have only focused on determining and controlling filterable particulate matter (FPM) in industrial emission sources. However, in recent years a growing interest in determining and analysing condensable particulate matter (CPM) has been evidenced due to the significant and established contribution of CPM to total emissions of particulate matter (PM). Read More

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Nitrogen oxides concentration and emission change detection during COVID-19 restrictions in North India.

Sci Rep 2021 05 7;11(1):9800. Epub 2021 May 7.

Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan.

COVID-19 related restrictions lowered particulate matter and trace gas concentrations across cities around the world, providing a natural opportunity to study effects of anthropogenic activities on emissions of air pollutants. In this paper, the impact of sudden suspension of human activities on air pollution was analyzed by studying the change in satellite retrieved NO concentrations and top-down NOx emission over the urban and rural areas around Delhi. NO was chosen for being the most indicative of emission intensity due to its short lifetime of the order of a few hours in the planetary boundary layer. Read More

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Respirable stone particles differ in their ability to induce cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory responses in cell models of the human airways.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2021 May 6;18(1):18. Epub 2021 May 6.

Section of Air Pollution and Noise, Department of Environmental Health, Domain of Infectious Disease Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, N-0403, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Respirable stone- and mineral particles may be a major constituent in occupational and ambient air pollution and represent a possible health hazard. However, with exception of quartz and asbestos, little is known about the toxic properties of mineral particles. In the present study, the pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic responses to six stone particle samples of different composition and with diameter below 10 μm were assessed in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC3-KT), THP-1 macrophages and a HBEC3-KT/THP-1 co-culture. Read More

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Amplification of weak magnetic field effects on oscillating reactions.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9615. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford, OX1 3QZ, UK.

We explore the possibility that chemical feedback and autocatalysis in oscillating chemical reactions could amplify weak magnetic field effects on the rate constant of one of the constituent reactions, assumed to proceed via a radical pair mechanism. Using the Brusselator model oscillator, we find that the amplitude of limit cycle oscillations in the concentrations of reaction intermediates can be extraordinarily sensitive to minute changes in the rate constant of the initiation step. The relevance of such amplification to biological effects of 50/60 Hz electromagnetic fields is discussed. Read More

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Short-Term Effects of Particle Size and Constituents on Blood Pressure in Healthy Young Adults in Guangzhou, China.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 May 4:e019063. Epub 2021 May 4.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment Department of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Public Health Sun Yat-sen University Guangzhou China.

Background Although several studies have focused on the associations between particle size and constituents and blood pressure, results have been inconsistent. Methods and Results We conducted a panel study, between December 2017 and January 2018, in 88 healthy university students in Guangzhou, China. Weekly systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured for each participant for 5 consecutive weeks, resulting in a total of 440 visits. Read More

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Thymoquinone reduces mitochondrial damage and death of cardiomyocytes induced by clozapine.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Traditional Medicine and Hydrotherapy Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

The generation of a reactive nitrenium ion by microsomal/mitochondrial cytochrome P450 (CYPs) from clozapine (CLZ) has been suggested as the main cause of cardiotoxicity by this drug. Previous studies indicated that thymoquinone (TQ) as an active constituent of Nigella sativa has pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and inhibitory effect on CYPs enzymes. Therefore, we hypothesized that TQ with these pharmacological effects can reduce CLZ-induced toxicity in isolated cardiomyocytes and mitochondria. Read More

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The Thermodynamics of Medial Vascular Calcification.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:633465. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Molecular Toxicology Group, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

Medial vascular calcification (MVC) is a degenerative process that involves the deposition of calcium in the arteries, with a high prevalence in chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and aging. Calcification is the process of precipitation largely of calcium phosphate, governed by the laws of thermodynamics that should be acknowledged in studies of this disease. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) is the key constituent of early calcifications, mainly composed of Ca and PO ions, which over time transform into hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals. Read More

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Methyl acetate, a highly volatile floral semiochemical mediating specialized plant-beetle interactions.

Naturwissenschaften 2021 May 2;108(3):21. Epub 2021 May 2.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais e Sustentabilidade Agropecuária, Universidade Católica Dom Bosco, Campo Grande, 79117-900, Brazil.

Olfactory signaling is key to the reproductive biology of entomophilous palms. Both pollinating and specialized herbivorous insects are attracted to fragrance-emitting palm inflorescences that function as reliable food sources, as well as mating and oviposition sites. In the present study, we characterized the floral scent chemistry of the acuri palm (Attalea phalerata), assessing its role in the attraction of flower-visiting insects associated with this species over its natural distribution range. Read More

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Transcriptional Changes of Cell Wall Organization Genes and Soluble Carbohydrate Alteration during Leaf Blade Development of Rice Seedlings.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea.

Plant cell walls have two constituent parts with different components and developmental stages. Much of the mystery concerning the mechanisms of synthesis, decomposition, modification, and so forth, has been resolved using omics and microscopic techniques. However, it still remains to be determined how cell wall development progresses over time after leaf emergence. Read More

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Effect of Synergistic Action of Bovine Lactoferrin with Antibiotics on Drug Resistant Bacterial Pathogens.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 2;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain P.O. Box 15551, United Arab Emirates.

: The multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogenic infection is one of the chief worldwide public health threat to humanity. The development of novel antibiotics against MDR Gram negative bacteria has reduced over the last half century. Research is in progress regarding the treatment strategies that could be engaged in combination with antibiotics to extend the duration of these life-saving antibacterial agents. Read More

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The possible role of corticosterone in regulating sodium and potassium concentrations in human milk.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolomics, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Poland.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to find the presence of corticosterone as a regular human milk constituent. We have evaluated the correlation of concentrations between the analyzed hormone and sodium and potassium in breast milk and serum.

Material And Methods: Hand expressing breast milk samples and median cubital vein blood samples had been taken from 69 healthy, lactating women in early puerperium period (between the 3rd and 10th day) twice, before and after breastfeeding. Read More

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Biopesticide Trunk Injection Into Apple Trees: A Proof of Concept for the Systemic Movement of Mint and Cinnamon Essential Oils.

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:650132. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Molecules, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux, Belgium.

The use of conventional pesticides is debated because of their multiple potential adverse effects on non-target organisms, human health, pest resistance development and environmental contaminations. In this setting, this study focused on developing alternatives, such as trunk-injected essential oil (EO)-based biopesticides. We analysed the ecophysiology of apple trees () following the injection of and nanoemulsions in the tree's vascular system. Read More

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Inhibitory effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed essential oil on Fusobacterium nucleatum L-methionine-γ-lyase (L-methioninase) activity.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2021 May;368(7)

Laboratory for Oral Health Science, 370-7 Higashikoiso Oiso-Machi, Naka-Gun, Kanagawa 255-0004, Japan.

The enzyme L-methionine-γ-lyase is commonly found in a wide range of bacteria and catalyzes the α-elimination and γ-elimination of L-methionine to produce methyl mercaptan, α-ketobutyrate and ammonia. Black cumin seed essential oil (BC oil) reportedly exhibits deodorizing activity against methyl mercaptan. Therefore, we hypothesized that BC oil may also suppress methyl mercaptan production. Read More

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An in vitro air-liquid interface inhalation platform for petroleum substances and constituents.

ALTEX 2021 04 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

VITO NV (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Unit HEALTH, Mol, Belgium.

The goal is to optimize and show the validity of an in vitro method for inhalation testing of petroleum substances and its constituents at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The approach is demonstrated in a pilot study with ethylbenzene (EB), a mono-constituent petroleum substance using a human alveolar epithelial cell line model. This included the development and validation of a generation facility to obtain EB vapors and the optimization of an exposure system for a negative control (clean air, CA), positive control (nitrogen dioxide), and EB vapors. Read More

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Investigation of in vitro odonto/osteogenic capacity of cannabidiol on human dental pulp cell.

J Dent 2021 Apr 16;109:103673. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Graduate Periodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, MI, 48208, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Vital pulp treatment (VPT) maintains tooth vitality with certain dental materials by protecting pulp from noxious stimulation and promoting repair through enhancing cell proliferation/differentiation, migration, and inducing odontogenesis. As a non-psychotropic cannabis constituent, cannabidiol (CBD) possesses the properties of analgesic, anti-inflammation, and osteogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that CBD may induce the odonto/osteogenesis of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), a critical feature using as effective pulp capping agent for VPT. Read More

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Optimization and characterization of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NY3 using waste frying oil as the sole carbon.

Biotechnol Prog 2021 Apr 19:e3155. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, China.

Yield and cost are two major factors limiting the widespread use of rhamnolipids (RLs). In the present study, waste frying oil (WFO) was used as the sole carbon source to produce environmentally friendly RLs by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NY3. The Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) methods were used to maximize the production yield of RL. Read More

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Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Tryptamines in the Poison of Incilius alvarius (Amphibia: Bufonidae).

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, Forensic Toxicology, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Rising numbers of psychoactive tryptamine derivatives have become available on the drug market over the last decade, making these naturally occurring or synthetically manufactured compounds highly relevant for forensic analysis. One of these compounds is 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), a constituent of the dried poison of Incilius alvarius (Colorado River toad) which has a history of ritual and/or recreational use. Still, comprehensive and validated qualitative as well as quantitative analytical data on the psychoactive components of this poison are scarce. Read More

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Surfactant cocamide monoethanolamide causes eye irritation by activating nociceptor TRPV1.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Department of TCM pharmacology, School of Traditional Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 211198.

Background And Purpose: Cocamide monoethanolamide (CMEA) is commonly used as a surfactant-foam booster in cosmetic formulations. Upon contact with the eye or other sensitive skin areas, CMEA elicits sting and lasting irritation. We hypothesized a specific molecular interaction with TRPV1 by which CMEA caused eye irritation. Read More

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Molecular Orientation at the Squalene/Air Interface from Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and Atomistic Modeling.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Apr 9;125(15):3932-3941. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, United States.

Human skin oils are significant scavengers of atmospheric oxidants in occupied indoor environments, and squalene is a major ozone-active constituent. Here, we present a combined spectroscopic and atomistic modeling approach to elucidate the conformational and orientational preferences of squalene at the air/oil interface and their implications for reactions with ozone. We find that squalene chains have a tendency to align with the surface normal, resulting in different concentrations of the various types of its double bonds and thus different reactivities. Read More

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Short-Term Effects of Particle Sizes and Constituents on Blood Biomarkers among Healthy Young Adults in Guangzhou, China.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 6;55(9):5636-5647. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Evidence of the effects of various particle sizes and constituents on blood biomarkers is limited. We performed a panel study with five repeated measurements in 88 healthy college students in Guangzhou, China between December 2017 and January 2018. Mass concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2. Read More

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Thymoquinone chemosensitizes human colorectal cancer cells to imatinib via uptake/efflux genes modulation.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Jun 29;48(6):911-920. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Pharmacology Unit, Department of Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Imatinib (IM) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinase enzymes that are responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades as c-Abl, c-Kit and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor. Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds. Thymoquinone benefits are attributed to its medicinal uses as antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial agent. Read More

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Dissection of haplotype-specific drug response phenotypes in multiclonal malaria isolates.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2021 Apr 21;15:152-161. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

BEI Resources, ATCC, 10801 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA, 20110-2209, USA. Electronic address:

Natural infections of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the deadliest form of human malaria, often comprise multiple parasite lineages (haplotypes). Multiclonal parasite isolates may exhibit variable phenotypes including different drug susceptibility profiles over time due to the presence of multiple haplotypes. To test this hypothesis, three P. Read More

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Linalool Alleviates A42-Induced Neurodegeneration via Suppressing ROS Production and Inflammation in Fly and Rat Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 10;2021:8887716. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.

Terpenes are vital metabolites found in various plants and animals and known to be beneficial in the treatment of various diseases. Previously, our group identified terpenes that increased the survival of Alzheimer's disease (AD) model flies expressing human amyloid (A) and identified linalool as a neuroprotective terpene against A toxicity. Linalool is a monoterpene that is commonly present as a constituent in essential oils from aromatic plants and is known to have anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihyperlipidemia, antibacterial, and neuroprotective properties. Read More

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Dioctyl Sodium Sulfosuccinate as a Potential Endocrine Disruptor of Thyroid Hormone Activity in American bullfrog, Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana, Tadpoles.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 May 28;80(4):726-734. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2, Canada.

The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T) and triiodothyronine (T), are required to regulate complex developmental processes in vertebrates and are highly sensitive to endocrine-disrupting compounds. Previous studies demonstrate that dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), a common constituent of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food products, disrupts canonical signaling of adipocyte differentiation by binding a nuclear hormone receptor in the same superfamily as thyroid hormone (TH) receptors. The present study was designed to determine whether DOSS is capable of disrupting TH signaling using the American bullfrog, Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana-a cosmopolitan frog species that undergoes TH-dependent metamorphosis to transition from an aquatic tadpole to a terrestrial juvenile frog. Read More

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Revisiting the concept of 'enzymic latch' on carbon in peatlands.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 10;779:146384. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 1760, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czechia; The Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Dukelská 135, 379 82 Třeboň, Czechia.

Peatlands are long-term sinks of atmospheric carbon (C) largely due to water-saturated soil conditions, decay-resistant plant litter, and the presence of biochemical compounds such as soluble phenolics. As phenolics are known inhibitors of microbial enzymes in soils, the concept of the 'enzymic latch' on peat C was introduced, assuming that phenolics accumulate in peat water due to protection from degradation by oxidative enzymes as a result of anoxia. However, their inhibitory role in peat has not been unambiguously confirmed. Read More

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Availability of metals to DGT devices with different configurations. The case of sequential Ni complexation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 8;779:146277. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Departament de Química, Universitat de Lleida and AGROTECNIO-CERCA, Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain. Electronic address:

The analytical technique DGT (Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films) is able to gain access to a wealth of information by carefully interpreting accumulation data from passive samplers with different configurations (i.e. different thicknesses of its constituent layers). Read More

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Phyllanthin inhibits MOLT-4 leukemic cancer cell growth and induces apoptosis through the inhibition of AKT and JNK signaling pathway.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Mar 16:e22758. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Among cancers, leukemia is a multistep progression that involves genetic modifications of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells to cancerous cells. In recent times, leukemia cases and their mortality rate have increased rapidly. Therefore, the immense need for a therapeutic approach is crucial that can control this type of cancer. Read More

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Fusogenic Effect of Cholesterol Prevails over the Inhibitory Effect of a Peptide-Based Membrane Fusion Inhibitor.

Langmuir 2021 03 9;37(11):3477-3489. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Chemistry, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla, Odisha 768 019, India.

Membrane fusion is the primary step in the entry of enveloped viruses into the host cell. Membrane composition modulates the membrane fusion by changing the organization dynamics of the fusion proteins, peptides, and membranes. The asymmetric lipid compositions of the viral envelope and the host cell influence the membrane fusion. Read More

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