6,417 results match your criteria compromised immune

The impact of aging on innate and adaptive immunity in the human female genital tract.

Aging Cell 2021 May 5:e13361. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, USA.

Mucosal tissues in the human female reproductive tract (FRT) are primary sites for both gynecological cancers and infections by a spectrum of sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), that compromise women's health. While the regulation of innate and adaptive immune protection in the FRT by hormonal cyclic changes across the menstrual cycle and pregnancy are being intensely studied, little to nothing is known about the alterations in mucosal immune protection that occur throughout the FRT as women age following menopause. The immune system in the FRT has two key functions: defense against pathogens and reproduction. Read More

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Melatonin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles endows nitric oxide synthase 2 mediated anti-inflammatory activity in inflammatory bowel disease model.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 20;124:112038. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Chemical Biology Unit, Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Knowledge City, SAS Nagar, Punjab 140306, India. Electronic address:

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a complex inflammatory condition arising due to interactions of environmental and genetic factors that lead to dysregulated immune response and inflammation in intestine. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches have been utilized to treat IBD. However, chronic inflammatory diseases are not medically curable. Read More

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Disease control with prior platinum-based chemotherapy is prognostic for survival in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer treated with atezolizumab in real-world practice.

Radiol Oncol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Atezolizumab, a programmed-death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, is a novel treatment option for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC). Clinical prognostic factors, survival outcomes, and the safety of patients with mUC treated with atezolizumab, in a real-world setting, were investigated.

Patients And Methods: 62 patients with mUC, treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana between May 8th 2018 and Dec 31st 2019, were included. Read More

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Uremia-Associated Immunological Aging and Severity of COVID-19 Infection.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 14;8:675573. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Nephrology and Transplantation, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

One year after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic it has become clear that some groups of individuals are at particular high risk of a complicated course of infection resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Two specific risk factors are most prominent, old age and the presence of co-morbidity. Recent studies have shown that patients with compromised renal function, especially those treated with renal replacement therapy or having received a kidney transplant are at a much higher risk for severe COVID infection and increased mortality. Read More

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Long-term surveillance for hepatitis E virus in an Italian two-site farrow-to-finish swine farm.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

In humans, hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for an acute enterically transmitted hepatitis, which can become chronic in immune-compromised patients. Genotypes 3 and 4 (HEV-3 and HEV-4) are zoonotic, and domestic pigs and wild boar are the main reservoirs. The occurrence of autochthonous cases in Europe, which have been increasing over the last 10 years, has been associated with food-borne zoonotic transmission of HEV-3, mainly linked to consumption of undercooked or raw pork products (sausages containing liver) and wild boar meat. Read More

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Endocrine and immunomodulatory effects of social isolation and loneliness across adulthood.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Mar 8;128:105194. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, USA.

Experimental and observational evidence agreed on two interconnected biological mechanisms responsible for the links between social isolation/loneliness and health: alterations in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and compromised functioning of the innate immune system. However, most existing studies did not consider the simultaneous impact of social isolation and loneliness on biological outcomes. Further, they only assessed one biological outcome at a time and did not test any moderation by age, despite empirical and theoretical evidence supporting the plausibility of this hypothesis. Read More

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Projected near-future ocean acidification decreases mercury toxicity in marine copepods.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 23;284:117140. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science/College of the Environment & Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361102, China.

Here, we examined the combinational effect of ocean acidification (OA) and mercury (Hg) in the planktonic copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei in cross-factored response to different pCO (400, 800 μatm) and Hg (control, 1.0 and 2.5 μg/L) exposures for three generations (F0-F2), followed by single-generation recovery (F3) under clean condition. Read More

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Distinct Foxp3 enhancer elements coordinate development, maintenance, and function of regulatory T cells.

Immunity 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Experimental Immunology, Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. Electronic address:

The transcription factor Foxp3 plays crucial roles for Treg cell development and function. Conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs) at the Foxp3 locus control Foxp3 transcription, but how they developmentally contribute to Treg cell lineage specification remains obscure. Here, we show that among Foxp3 CNSs, the promoter-upstream CNS0 and the intergenic CNS3, which bind distinct transcription factors, were activated at early stages of thymocyte differentiation prior to Foxp3 promoter activation, with sequential genomic looping bridging these regions and the promoter. Read More

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The Presence of a Marked Imbalance Between Regulatory T Cells and Effector T Cells Reveals That Tolerance Mechanisms Could Be Compromised in Heart Transplant Children.

Transplant Direct 2021 May 23;7(5):e693. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Immune-regulation, Immunology Department, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IISGM), Madrid, Spain.

Regulatory T cells (Treg) are crucial for the induction and maintenance of graft tolerance. In pediatric heart transplant procedures, the thymus is routinely excised, removing the primary source of T-cell replenishment. Consequently, thymectomy joined to the effects of immunosuppression on the T-cell compartment may have a detrimental impact on Treg values, compromising the intrinsic tolerance mechanisms and the protective role of Treg preventing graft rejection in heart transplant children. Read More

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Within-Host and Between-Host Evolution in SARS-CoV-2-New Variant's Source.

Karin Moelling

Viruses 2021 04 25;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Institute Medical Microbiology, University Zurich, Gloriastr 30, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.

Some of the newly emerging corona viral variants show high numbers of mutations. This is unexpected for a virus with a low mutation rate due to an inherent proof-reading system. Could such a variant arise under very special conditions occurring in a host where the virus replicates and mutates in a rather unlimited fashion, such as in immune compromised patients? The virus was shown to replicate in an immunosuppressed cancer patient for more than 105 days and might be a source of new variants. Read More

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Vitamin D Effects on Bone Homeostasis and Cardiovascular System in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Renal Transplant Recipients.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 25;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Poor vitamin D status is common in patients with impaired renal function and represents one main component of the complex scenario of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Therapeutic and dietary efforts to limit the consequences of uremia-associated vitamin D deficiency are a current hot topic for researchers and clinicians in the nephrology area. Evidence indicates that the low levels of vitamin D in patients with CKD stage above 4 (GFR < 15 mL/min) have a multifactorial origin, mainly related to uremic malnutrition, namely impaired gastrointestinal absorption, dietary restrictions (low-protein and low-phosphate diets), and proteinuria. Read More

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Prophylaxis and Treatment against : Current Insights on This Emerging Anti-Microbial Resistant Global Threat.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 14;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) S.r.l., via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.

(Kp) is an opportunistic pathogen and the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections, mostly affecting subjects with compromised immune systems or suffering from concurrent bacterial infections. However, the dramatic increase in hypervirulent strains and the emergence of new multidrug-resistant clones resulted in Kp occurrence among previously healthy people and in increased morbidity and mortality, including neonatal sepsis and death across low- and middle-income countries. As a consequence, carbapenem-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Kp have been prioritized as a critical anti-microbial resistance threat by the World Health Organization and this has renewed the interest of the scientific community in developing a vaccine as well as treatments alternative to the now ineffective antibiotics. Read More

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Heat Stress and Goat Welfare: Adaptation and Production Considerations.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Centre for Climate Resilient Animal Adaptation Studies, ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Hosur Road, Bangalore 560030, India.

This review attempted to collate and synthesize information on goat welfare and production constraints during heat stress exposure. Among the farm animals, goats arguably are considered the best-suited animals to survive in tropical climates. Heat stress was found to negatively influence growth, milk and meat production and compromised the immune response, thereby significantly reducing goats' welfare under extensive conditions and transportation. Read More

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Adrenergic regulation of the vasculature impairs leukocyte interstitial migration and suppresses immune responses.

Immunity 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia; The Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia. Electronic address:

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls various physiological functions via the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. Activation of the SNS in response to psychological or physical stress is frequently associated with weakened immunity. Here, we investigated how adrenoceptor signaling influences leukocyte behavior. Read More

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Compromised levels of CD6 and reduced T cell activation in the aged immune system.

Biomarkers 2021 Apr 29:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (MNNIT) Allahabad, Prayagraj, India.

The CD6 molecule, a cell surface marker, is involved in immunological synapse formation between T cells and antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocyte activation for adequate immune response. Geriatric individuals fail to mount a satisfactory immunological response against pathogens; thus, insights into the functionality of CD6 may provide information for competence building in elderly immune cells. However, limited information is available regarding the status of CD6 in geriatric individuals. Read More

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Trust in health information sources and its associations with COVID-19 disruptions to social relationships and health services among people living with HIV.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 28;21(1):817. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute for Collaborative Health Intervention and Policy, University of Connecticut, 2006 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) is potentially severe for individuals with compromised immune systems, including people living with HIV. Along with the direct health threats of COVID-19, there are disruptions to social relationships and health services resulting from mitigation efforts instituted by public health authorities. This study examined the relationship between trust in the government and trust in COVID-19 health information from the US CDC, state health departments, and social media on the experience of COVID-19 social and health services-related disruptions. Read More

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Respiratory-tract infections among geriatrics: prevalence and factors associated with the treatment outcomes.

Ther Adv Respir Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;15:1753466620971141

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pinang, Pulau Pinang 11800, Malaysia.

Background: Geriatric individuals are more susceptible to different infections, especially respiratory-tract infections (RTIs) due to their compromised immune system. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence, medication regimen complexity and factors associated with the treatment outcomes of different RTIs among geriatrics.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study (5 years) was conducted at the respiratory department, Hospital Pulau Pinang. Read More

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Autologous cervical tumor lysate pulsed dendritic cell stimulation followed by cisplatin treatment abrogates FOXP3+ cells in vitro.

J Gynecol Oncol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute (WIA), Dr. Krishnamurthy Campus, Chennai 600036, India.

Objective: Dendritic cells (DCs) are administered as immunotherapeutic adjuvants after the completion of standard treatment in most settings. However, our Phase I trial indicated that one patient out of four, who received autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (TLDC) also received cisplatin chemotherapy and experienced complete regression of her lung lesion, continuing to be disease free till date. Hence, the objective of our current study is to evaluate the sustenance or augmentation of immune responses when autologous human papillomavirus positive cervical tumor lysate pulsed DC- are combined with cisplatin, using co-culture assays in vitro. Read More

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Eicosanoid signaling as a therapeutic target in middle-aged mice with severe COVID-19.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is especially severe in aged populations . Resolution of the COVID-19 pandemic has been advanced by the recent development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, but vaccine efficacy is partly compromised by the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with enhanced transmissibility . The emergence of these variants emphasizes the need for further development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies, especially in aged populations. Read More

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Evaluation of the Role of Routine Laboratory Biomarkers in COVID-19 Patients: Perspective from a Tertiary Care Hospital in India.

Indian J Clin Biochem 2021 Apr 23:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biochemistry & Immunology, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital and Medical Research Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra India.

To evaluate the role of routine laboratory biomarkers like C Reactive Protein (CRP), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Interleukin 6 (IL6), Ferritin, Creatinine, Procalcitonin (PCT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Serum Albumin, Total Bilirubin (T Bil), High Sensitive Troponin I (hs troponin I), N Terminal-pro B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT proBNP), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Blood Gases in COVID 19 patients who are admitted with SARS CoV-2 positive test results by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT PCR) in Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital & Medical Research Institute, Mumbai, India. 100 individuals detected with COVID-19 belonging to the age group 12-83 years (median age 62 years) within the period of 1st March 2020 to 10th July 2020 were studied. The case group consisted of 72 males and 28 females. Read More

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COVID-19 Infection: Viral Clearance and Antibody Response in Dialysis Patients and Renal Transplant Recipients.

Nephron 2021 Apr 26:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, AUSL Romagna Morgagni-Pierantoni Hospital, Forlì, Italy.

Background/aims: The coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19) pandemic is the major current health emergency worldwide, adding a significant burden also to the community of nephrologists for the management of their patients. Here, we analyzed the impact of COVID-19 infection in renal patients to assess the time to viral clearance, together with the production and persistence of IgG and IgM antibody response, in consideration of the altered immune capacity of this fragile population.

Methods: Viral clearance and antibody kinetics were investigated in 49 renal patients recovered from COVID-19 infection: 7 of them with chronic decompensated renal failure, 31 under dialysis treatment, and 11 kidney transplant recipients. Read More

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Caspase-9 acts as a regulator of necroptotic cell death.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Necroptosis is a regulated necrotic-like cell death modality which has come into the focus of attention since it is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and degenerative diseases as well as to tumor regulation. Based on current data, necroptosis serves as a backup mechanism when death receptor-induced apoptosis is inhibited or absent. However, the necroptotic role of the proteins involved in mitochondrial apoptosis has not been investigated. Read More

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The pathophysiological function of non-gastrointestinal farnesoid X receptor.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 22:107867. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States of America. Electronic address:

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) influences bile acid homeostasis and the progression of various diseases. While the roles of hepatic and intestinal FXR in enterohepatic transport of bile acids and metabolic diseases were reviewed previously, the physiological and pathophysiological functions of FXR in non-gastrointestinal FXR have received little attention. Thus, the roles of FXR in the liver, immune system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, kidney, and pancreas beyond the gastrointestinal system are reviewed herein. Read More

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COVID-19, social isolation, and the mental health of older adults: A digital catch-22.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, CA.

Unstructured: One of the most at-risk groups during the COVID-19 crisis are older adults, especially those who live in congregate living, seniors' care facilities, are immune-compromised, and/or have other underlying illnesses. Measures used to contain the spread of the virus are far-reaching and older adults were amongst the first groups to have restrictions on face-to-face contact. Whilst reducing viral transmission is critical, there are significant negative psychosocial implications of social distancing, particularly for older adults, such as increased rates of depression and anxiety . Read More

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Clinical implication of ICG test in major hepatectomy for biliary tract cancer.

Minerva Surg 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Major hepatectomy with bile duct resection (BDR) is associated with severe postoperative complications; therefore, evaluation of preoperative liver function is important. However, little is known about mechanisms of increased severe complications in patients with poor liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ICG-R15 is useful for predicting the risk of severe postoperative complications in this operation, and to reveal the mechanisms of increasing severe complications by focusing on immune function and liver regeneration after hepatectomy. Read More

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Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Dialysis.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Background: Patients receiving maintenance dialysis represent a high risk, immune-compromised population with 15-25% COVID mortality rate who were unrepresented in clinical trials evaluated for mRNA vaccines' emergency use authorization.

Method: All patients receiving maintenance dialysis that received two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines with antibody test results drawn ≥14 days after the second dose, as documented in the electronic health record through March 18, 2021 were included. We report seroresponse based on levels of immunoglobulin-G against the receptor binding domain of the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen (seropositive ≥2) using FDA-approved semi-quantitative chemiluminescent assay (ADVIA Centaur® XP/XPT COV2G). Read More

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Disruption of the blood-brain barrier in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

Brain 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Neuroimmune dysregulation is implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As the blood-brain barrier is the immunological interface between the brain and the periphery, we investigated whether this vascular phenotype is intrinsically compromised in the most common genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS). Read More

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Scavenging of soluble and immobilized CCL21 by ACKR4 regulates peripheral dendritic cell emigration.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Chemokine Biology Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Biomedical Science, School of Biological Science, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia;

Leukocyte homing driven by the chemokine CCL21 is pivotal for adaptive immunity because it controls dendritic cell (DC) and T cell migration through CCR7. ACKR4 scavenges CCL21 and has been shown to play an essential role in DC trafficking at the steady state and during immune responses to tumors and cutaneous inflammation. However, the mechanism by which ACKR4 regulates peripheral DC migration is unknown, and the extent to which it regulates CCL21 in steady-state skin and lymph nodes (LNs) is contested. Read More

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Damage to cardiac vasculature may be associated with breast cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity.

Cardiooncology 2021 Apr 19;7(1):15. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. Effective therapies including doxorubicin and trastuzumab have improved survival, but are associated with a substantial risk of cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms underlying cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity (CTC) are poorly understood and have largely focused on cardiomyocyte damage, although other cellular populations in the heart such as the cardiac endothelium, may play an important role in cardiac damage. Read More

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tricuspid valve endocarditis.

IDCases 2021 24;24:e01083. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Infection Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

is an uncommon cause of infective endocarditis (IE) and mainly affects persons with compromised immune-systems who have been in contact with dogs. We describe a case of tricuspid valve IE in a 70 year-old dog-owner where diagnosis and treatment were delayed. The reason for the delayed diagnosis in this case was likely due to that initial blood cultures were negative due to preceding antibiotic treatment, discrepancies between echocardiographic investigations, and a thymoma and colonic polyps which were thought to explain the symptoms. Read More

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