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Proteinuria from an internists point of view.

Vnitr Lek 2020 ;66(3):90-92

A basal level of proteinuria is about 30-100 mg/day, the upper limit of basal proteinuria does not exceed 150 mg/day which is considered non-pathology. Albumin accounts approximately 15 % of basal protein in the urine, other plasma proteins (immunoglobulins, β-2 microglobulin, Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein) comprise the remaining 85 % of total quantity non-pathology proteinuria. Persistent proteinuria present for more than three months already meets the definition of chronic kidney disease independently of the stage of the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Read More

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November 2020

Proteinuria from an internists point of view.

Vnitr Lek 2020 ;66(3):87-89

A basal level of proteinuria is about 30-100 mg/day, the upper limit of basal proteinuria does not exceed 150 mg/day which is considered non-pathology. Albumin accounts approximately 15 % of basal protein in the urine, other plasma proteins (immunoglobulins, β-2 microglobulin, Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein) comprise the remaining 85 % of total quantity non-pathology proteinuria. Persistent proteinuria present for more than three months already meets the definition of chronic kidney disease independently of the stage of the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Read More

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November 2020

Anatomical Mapping of the External Obturator Footprint: A Study In Cadavers with Implications for Direct Anterior THA.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 02;479(2):288-294

G. Vles, A. van Eemeren, S. Ghijselings, Department of Orthopaedics - Hip Unit, Gasthuisberg, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.

Background: The external obturator footprint in the trochanteric fossa has been suggested as a potential landmark for stem depth in direct anterior THA. Its upper border can be visualized during surgical exposure of the femur. A recent study reported that the height of the tendon has little variability (6. Read More

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February 2021

Common infections, mental health problems and healthcare use in people with inflammatory bowel disease: a cohort study protocol.

Evid Based Ment Health 2021 05 17;24(2):82-87. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Introduction: People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of pneumonia and herpes zoster, yet other common infection types have not been explored. Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in IBD; however, the impact of these conditions on primary care healthcare use in IBD is not known.

Methods And Analysis: We will perform two retrospective studies using a large English population-based primary care cohort to compare the following outcomes in people with IBD and matched controls: incident infections (Study 1) and prevalent mental health problems and healthcare use, overall and in those with and without mental health problems (Study 2). Read More

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Muscle-driven and torque-driven centrodes during modeled flexion of individual lumbar spines are disparate.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 Feb 16;20(1):267-279. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Institute for Medical Engineering and Information Processing (MTI Mittelrhein), University Koblenz-Landau, Universitätsstr. 1, 56070, Koblenz, Germany.

Lumbar spine biomechanics during the forward-bending of the upper body (flexion) are well investigated by both in vivo and in vitro experiments. In both cases, the experimentally observed relative motion of vertebral bodies can be used to calculate the instantaneous center of rotation (ICR). The timely evolution of the ICR, the centrode, is widely utilized for validating computer models and is thought to serve as a criterion for distinguishing healthy and degenerative motion patterns. Read More

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February 2021

Checklist of parasites in fish from the upper Paraná River floodplain: An update.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 11;29(3):e008720. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquáticos Continentais, Universidade Estadual de Maringá - UEM, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

This study provides an updated list of parasite species and their respective hosts in the upper Paraná River floodplain. The list of parasites is structured by phylum, class, order and family, followed by a record of each host species. A total of 315 taxa of parasites were reported, of which 201 were identified at the species level. Read More

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October 2020


Harefuah 2020 Aug;159(8):545-549

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, whose prevalence has been increasing in recent decades. Early diagnosis allows removal of the tumor prior to the metastatic stage and may lead to a complete recovery.

Objectives: To compare melanoma incidence among different epidemiological groups in northern Israel, and to assess the impact of migration on the increase in incidence of the disease. Read More

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Risk prediction models for the development of oral-mucosal pressure injuries in intubated patients in intensive care units: A prospective observational study.

J Tissue Viability 2020 Nov 29;29(4):252-257. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

The Artificial Kidney Room, Busan Medical Center, Busan, South Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Oral-mucosal pressure injury (PI) is the most commonly encountered medical device-related PIs. This study was performed to identify risk factors and construct a risk prediction model for oral-mucosal PI development in intubated patients in the intensive care unit.

Methods: The study design was prospective, observational with medical record review. Read More

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November 2020

The effect of a telerehabilitation virtual reality intervention on functional upper limb activities in people with multiple sclerosis: a study protocol for the TEAMS pilot randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Aug 12;21(1):713. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Multiple Sclerosis Center, Binaghi Hospital, Department of Medical Science and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Background: Approximately 60% of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) suffer from upper limb dysfunction. Our primary goal is to implement a single-blind, randomized control trial (RCT) designed to compare the effectiveness of an 8-week home-based telerehab virtual reality (VR) program with conventional therapy in PwMS with manual dexterity difficulties. Secondary aims include (a) evaluating the impact of the programs on quality of life after the intervention and a follow-up 1 month later and (b) evaluating the impact of the programs on adherence and satisfaction. Read More

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Liquid Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Heat-Coagulated Albumin Gel: Bioassays for TGF-β Activity.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Aug 6;13(16). Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Oral Biology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Liquid platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) can be prepared by high centrifugation forces separating the blood into a platelet-poor plasma (PPP) layer and a cell-rich buffy coat layer, termed concentrated PRF (C-PRF). Heating the liquid PPP was recently introduced to prepare an albumin gel (Alb-gel) that is later mixed back with the concentrated liquid C-PRF to generate Alb-PRF. PRF is a rich source of TGF-β activity; however, the overall TGF-β activity in the PPP and the impact of heating the upper plasma layer remains unknown. Read More

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Are Epithelial Ovarian Cancers of the Mesenchymal Subtype Actually Intraperitoneal Metastases to the Ovary?

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 17;8:647. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Primary ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) has been classified into 4 molecular subtypes: Immunoreactive, Proliferative, Differentiated, and Mesenchymal (Mes), of which the Mes subtype (Mes-HGSC) is associated with the worst clinical outcomes. We propose that Mes-HGSC comprise clusters of cancer and associated stromal cells that detached from tumors in the upper abdomen/omentum and disseminated in the peritoneal cavity, including to the ovary. Using comparative analyses of multiple transcriptomic data sets, we provide the following evidence that the phenotype of Mes-HGSC matches the phenotype of tumors in the upper abdomen/omentum: (1) irrespective of the primary ovarian HGSC molecular subtype, matched upper abdominal/omental metastases were typically of the Mes subtype, (2) the Mes subtype was present at the ovarian site only in patients with concurrent upper abdominal/omental metastases and not in those with HGSC confined to the ovary, and (3) ovarian Mes-HGSC had an expression profile characteristic of stromal cells in the upper abdominal/omental metastases. Read More

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Decomposition of dinosaurian remains inferred by invertebrate traces on vertebrate bone reveal new insights into Late Jurassic ecology, decay, and climate in western Colorado.

PeerJ 2020 15;8:e9510. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Geology, Colorado Mesa University, Grand Junction, CO, USA.

A survey of 2,368 vertebrate fossils from the Upper Jurassic Mygatt-Moore Quarry (MMQ) (Morrison Formation, Brushy Basin Member) in western Colorado revealed 2,161 bone surface modifications on 884 specimens. This is the largest, site-wide bone surface modification survey of any Jurassic locality. Traces made by invertebrate actors were common in the assemblage, second in observed frequency after vertebrate bite marks. Read More

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Pyroelectrically-driven chemical reactions described by a novel thermodynamic cycle.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Aug;22(32):17781-17790

Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Leipziger Straße 23, 09596 Freiberg, Germany.

Pyroelectrocatalysis is the conversion of thermal energy directly into chemical energy. On the background of renewable energies and the need for efficient industrial processes, the conversion of waste heat into hydrogen is of special relevance. Since the reported thermodynamic cycles for pyroelectric energy harvesting do not fit the conditions encountered in a reactive medium such as water appropriately, we describe a new thermodynamic charge-voltage-cycle characterised by fixed upper and lower potentials. Read More

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New insights into the giant mustelids (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Langebaanweg fossil site (West Coast Fossil Park, South Africa, early Pliocene).

PeerJ 2020 1;8:e9221. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Research and Exhibitions, Iziko Museums of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa.

Giant mustelids are a paraphyletic group of mustelids found in the Neogene of Eurasia, Africa and North America. Most are known largely from dental remains, with their postcranial skeleton mostly unknown. Here, we describe new craniodental and postcranial remains of the large lutrine and the leopard-size gulonine aff. Read More

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[Inflammatory bowel diseases-the biopsychosocial reality in childhood and adolescence].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2020 Jul;63(7):839-845

Abteilung Pädiatrische Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Kinderklinik und Kinderpoliklinik im Dr. von Haunerschen Kinderspital, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Deutschland.

The prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in children is rising. These complex diseases typically take an unpredictable course with disease flares. This review serves to illustrate the psychosocial consequences and risks of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents against the background of the essential medical aspects. Read More

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Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Update on Diagnosis and Treatment in Pediatric Patients.

Paediatr Drugs 2020 Aug;22(4):343-356

Pediatric Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, Maternal and Child Health Department, Sapienza University of Rome, viale Regina Elena, 324-00161, Rome, Italy.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder characterized by symptomatic esophageal dysfunction and an eosinophil-predominant inflammation of the esophagus. EoE arises from interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In pediatric patients, clinical manifestations vary depending on age, from a gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-like condition to severe dysphagic symptoms. Read More

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Coexisting giant splenic artery aneurysm and non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

Pak J Med Sci 2020 May-Jun;36(4):843-845

Ali Muhtaroglu, Department of General Surgery, Sakarya University, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey.

The splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is rare clinical entity which is the third most common intra-abdominal aneurysm. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare malignancies which comprise less than 2% of all pancreatic tumors. Non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors set forth up to 90% of all PNETs. Read More

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Phase 3 trials of new antiretrovirals are not representative of the global HIV epidemic.

J Virus Erad 2020 Apr 30;6(2):70-73. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Ezintsha, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Introduction: People living with HIV (PLWH) are mainly African or Asian, the majority female. In contrast, pharmaceutical companies typically conduct phase 3 regulatory randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in high-income countries (HICs), where PLWH are mainly white males. Regulatory authorities can be conservative about including pregnant women in trials, discouraging female participation. Read More

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Respiratory viral panels and pediatric airway evaluation: The role of testing for upper respiratory infections to stratify perioperative risk.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Jul 21;134:110057. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Children admitted with stridor and respiratory distress comprise a complex patient group that requires the otolaryngologist to decide when to assess and intervene with direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy (DLB). Historically, the diagnosis of viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) can lead to postponement of surgery due to concerns of perioperative complications related to acute illness. Respiratory viral panels (RVP) are often used to confirm the presence of recent or active viral infection and can affect the differential diagnosis of upper airway obstruction. Read More

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Loss of the Polyketide Synthase StlB Results in Stalk Cell Overproduction in Polysphondylium violaceum.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 05;12(5):674-683

School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, United Kingdom.

Major phenotypic innovations in social amoeba evolution occurred at the transition between the Polysphondylia and group 4 Dictyostelia, which comprise the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, such as the formation of a new structure, the basal disk. Basal disk differentiation and robust stalk formation require the morphogen DIF-1, synthesized by the polyketide synthase StlB, the des-methyl-DIF-1 methyltransferase DmtA, and the chlorinase ChlA, which are conserved throughout Dictyostelia. To understand how the basal disk and other innovations evolved in group 4, we sequenced and annotated the Polysphondylium violaceum (Pvio) genome, performed cell type-specific transcriptomics to identify cell-type marker genes, and developed transformation and gene knock-out procedures for Pvio. Read More

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Why the Derivation of Nutrient Reference Values Should be Harmonized and How It Can be Accomplished.

Adv Nutr 2020 09;11(5):1102-1107

USDA, Davis, CA, USA.

The adoption of a panel of Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) in place of a single recommended intake allowed for assessment of nutritional adequacy and safe upper intake levels for nutrients on a population level and for individuals. The Average Requirement (AR) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) comprise 2 core NRVs needed to obtain accurate, comparable estimates of population-level nutrient intakes, which are necessary to plan and evaluate nutrition support programs globally. Harmonizing the derivation of NRVs, particularly the AR and UL, is essential to ensure inclusion of all countries, whether high-, middle-, or low-income, in the process and to improve access for all users to the tools and data needed to carry it out. Read More

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September 2020

A Case Report: Neonatal Torsional Ovarian Cyst.

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul 2019 26;53(4):430-432. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Neonatal, Istanbul Health Sciences University, Sariyer Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

The majority of abdominal masses detected in the neonatal period are benign (85%) and usually originate in the urinary tract (50%), genital system (15%), gastrointestinal system (15%), or the hepatobiliary tract (5%). Ovarian cysts comprise one-third of the masses with a genital origin. Presently described is a case of an ovarian cyst that developed during the antenatal period and transformed into a hemorrhagic cystic mass as a result of torsion. Read More

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November 2019

Drought impacts, social organization, and public policies in northeastern Brazil: a case study of the upper Paraíba River basin.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Apr 28;192(5):317. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, 58051-900, Brazil.

The upper Paraíba River basin plays a key role in controlling the flow from the Epitácio Pessoa Reservoir, a major reservoir in the semiarid region of Paraíba state. The objective of this study is to analyze historical droughts and public policies and their impacts on the social organization in the upper Paraíba River basin, which is located in the semiarid region of Brazil. In this study, the following methodological procedures were used: (a) historical survey of drought occurrence and dam construction in the semiarid region of Brazil, (b) data processing of hydrologic records (rainfall and streamflow), and (c) field visits to collect and compare data on the changes in the volume of water stored behind dams. Read More

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Cervical Spine Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in a Pediatric Patient: Embolization Considerations and Potential Pitfalls.

World Neurosurg 2020 07 16;139:163-168. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha.

Background: Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) comprise 1%-2% of all bone tumors. ABCs involving the upper cervical spine in pediatric patients complicate intervention because of an immature skeleton and nearby neurovascular elements. Treatment often consists of surgical intervention with preoperative embolization to mitigate blood loss. Read More

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Host-Microbiota Interactions in Ileum and Caecum of Pigs Divergent in Feed Efficiency Contribute to Nutrient Utilization.

Microorganisms 2020 Apr 14;8(4). Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Institute for Genome Biology, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

The composition of the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the digestion and utilization of nutrients and for gut health. Low-fiber diets stimulate digestion and absorption processes, predominantly in the upper region of the gastrointestinal tract, thereby increasing the conversion of feed into body weight. As a consequence, the chemical composition of digesta after duodenal and jejunal absorption processes and passage has a limited complexity affecting colonization and molecular profiles of enterocytes in the hind gut. Read More

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Palustrine forested wetland vegetation communities change across an elevation gradient, Washington State, USA.

Nate Hough-Snee

PeerJ 2020 1;8:e8903. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Four Peaks Environmental Science and Data Solutions, Wenatchee, WA, USA.

Background: Forested wetlands support distinct vegetation and hydrology relative to upland forests and shrub-dominated or open water wetlands. Although forested wetland plant communities comprise unique habitats, these ecosystems' community structure is not well documented in the U.S. Read More

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Allergy-A New Role for T Cell Superantigens of ?

Toxins (Basel) 2020 03 12;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Immunology, University Medicine Greifswald, 17475 Greifswald, Germany.

superantigens (SAgs) are among the most potent T cell mitogens known. They stimulate large fractions of T cells by cross-linking their T cell receptor with major histocompatibility complex class-II molecules on antigen presenting cells, resulting in T cell proliferation and massive cytokine release. To date, 26 different SAgs have been described in the species ; they comprise the toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1), as well as 25 staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) or enterotoxin-like proteins (SEls). Read More

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An abundant quiescent stem cell population in Malpighian tubules protects principal cells from kidney stones.

Elife 2020 03 16;9. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Laboratories, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Baltimore, United States.

Adult Malpighian tubules have low rates of cell turnover but are vulnerable to damage caused by stones, like their mammalian counterparts, kidneys. We show that renal stem cells (RSCs) in the ureter and lower tubules comprise a unique, unipotent regenerative compartment. RSCs respond only to loss of nearby principal cells (PCs), cells critical for maintaining ionic balance. Read More

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