19,547 results match your criteria comprehensive mechanism

Mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: therapeutic implications of lithium.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 20:136078. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Laboratory of Neurosciences - LIM27, Departamento e Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clínicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the accumulation of abnormal tau proteins within neurons and amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma, which leads to progressive loss of neurons in the brain. While the detailed mechanism of the pathogenesis of AD is still unknown, evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction likely plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Due to the relevance of mitochondrial alterations in AD, recent works have suggested the therapeutic potential of mitochondrial-targeted lithium. Read More

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Superoxide dismutase nanozymes: an emerging star for anti-oxidation.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

CAS Engineering Laboratory for Nanozyme, Key Laboratory of Protein and Peptide Pharmaceutical, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101408, China and Nanozyme Medical Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, China.

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a group of metalloenzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals (O2˙-) into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen (O2). As the first line of defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated damage, SODs are expected to play an important role in the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases. However, the clinical applications of SODs have been severely limited by their structural instability and high cost. Read More

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Application of machine learning methods for the development of antidiabetic drugs.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, 200444, China.

Diabetes is a chronic non-communicable disease caused by several different routes, which has attracted increasing attention. In order to speed up the development of new selective drugs, machine learning (ML) technology has been applied in the process of diabetes drug development, which opens up a new blueprint for drug design. This review provides a comprehensive portrayal of the application of ML in antidiabetic drug use. Read More

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Nanocomposite synthesis strategies based on the transformation of well-tailored metal-organic frameworks.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50 UNIST-gil, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea.

Increasing the complexity of nanomaterials in terms of their structure and chemical composition has attracted significant attention, because it can yield unique scientific outcomes and considerable improvements for practical applications. Various approaches are being developed for the synthesis of nanostructured composites. Coordination polymers (CPs) emerged as new precursors in solid-state reactions for nanomaterials nearly two decades ago; the repetitively arranged inorganic and organic units can facilitate the production of nanoscale particles and porous carbon upon thermal decomposition. Read More

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Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(6):1463-1468


Objective: The aim: To study the effectiveness of correction of psycho-emotional stress in children with traumatic injuries of the tissues of the maxillofacial area.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: A comprehensive examination and treatment of 58 children aged 3 to 15 years with traumatic injuries of the maxillofacial area were conducted during the period of 5 years. This applied to soft tissue injuries in 51. Read More

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January 2021

Minoxidil: a comprehensive review.

J Dermatolog Treat 2021 Jun 23:1-45. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Mediprobe Research Inc., London, Ontario, Canada.

Topical minoxidil (5% foam, 5% solution, 2% solution) is FDA-approved for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in men and women.: Minoxidil acts through multiple pathways (vasodilator, anti-inflammatory agent, inducer of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, an antiandrogen), and may also affect the length of the anagen and telogen phases. Approximately 1. Read More

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Quercetin as a protective agent for liver diseases: A comprehensive descriptive review of the molecular mechanism.

Phytother Res 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, Ministry of Education, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Quercetin is the major representative of the flavonoid subgroup of flavones, with good pharmacological activities for the treatment of liver diseases, including liver steatosis, fatty hepatitis, liver fibrosis, and liver cancer. It can significantly influence the development of liver diseases via multiple targets and multiple pathways via antifat accumulation, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, as well as the inhibition of cellular apoptosis and proliferation. Despite extensive research on understanding the mechanism of quercetin in the treatment of liver diseases, there are still no targeted therapies available. Read More

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Telehealth Utilization Is Associated with Lower Risk of Discontinuation of Buprenorphine: a Retrospective Cohort Study of US Veterans.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Objective: Treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) may include a combination of pharmacotherapies (such as buprenorphine) with counseling services if clinically indicated. Medication management or engagement with in-person counseling services may be hindered by logistical and financial barriers. Telehealth may provide an alternative mechanism for continued engagement. Read More

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Impact of blood alcohol concentration on hematologic and serum chemistry parameters in trauma patients: Analysis of data from a high-volume level 1 trauma center.

Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2021 Jan-Mar;11(1):18-24. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Surgery, University Campus, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Alcohol (EtOH) intoxication is common among trauma patients. While providers are familiar with the clinical aspects of acute EtOH intoxication, few studies have investigated the effects that EtOH levels may have on common laboratory markers. The aim of this study was to identify hematologic and serum chemistry parameters that may be affected by the blood alcohol concentration (BAC), hypothesizing that BAC influences both comprehensive blood count (CBC) and comprehensive serum chemistry (CSC) components. Read More

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Advances in the discovery and development of melanoma drug therapies.

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Introduction: Therapeutic strategies for melanoma have evolved significantly over the last decade shifting from cytotoxic chemotherapies like dacarbazine to targeted therapies and immunotherapies including immune checkpoint inhibitors. These new drug therapies have improved overall as well as progression-free survival, lowering the mortality of this cancer for melanoma patients with advanced disease. Newer strategies incorporate combination therapies that harness synergies between mechanisms of anticancer efficacy as well as help overcome resistance issues of monotherapies, which remain a challenge. Read More

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HiAM: A Hierarchical Attention based Model for knowledge graph multi-hop reasoning.

Neural Netw 2021 Jun 9;143:261-270. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China. Electronic address:

Learning to reason in large-scale knowledge graphs has attracted much attention from research communities recently. This paper targets a practical task of multi-hop reasoning in knowledge graphs, which can be applied in various downstream tasks such as question answering, and recommender systems. A key challenge in multi-hop reasoning is to synthesize structural information (e. Read More

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Green light antinociceptive and reversal of thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity effects rely on endogenous opioid system stimulation.

J Pain 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85724 United States of America; Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85724 United States of America; Neuroscience Graduate Interdisciplinary Program, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85742, USA.. Electronic address:

Benefits of phototherapy were characterized in multiple diseases including depression, circadian rhythm disruptions, and neurodegeneration. Studies on migraine and fibromyalgia patients revealed that green light-emitting diodes (GLED) exposure provides a pragmatic and safe therapy to manage chronic pain. In rodents, GLED reversed hypersensitivity related to neuropathic pain. Read More

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Analyzing the regional economic changes in a high-tech industrial development zone using machine learning algorithms.

ErLe Du Meng Ji

PLoS One 2021 22;16(6):e0250802. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Strategic Development, Harbin Bank, Harbin, China.

The aims are to improve the efficiency in analyzing the regional economic changes in China's high-tech industrial development zones (IDZs), ensure the industrial structural integrity, and comprehensively understand the roles of capital, technology, and talents in regional economic structural changes. According to previous works, the economic efficiency and impact mechanism of China's high-tech IDZ are analyzed profoundly. The machine learning (ML)-based Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Malmquist index measurement algorithms are adopted to analyze the dynamic and static characteristics of high-tech IDZ's economic data from 2009 to 2019. Read More

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Antiviral drugs proposed for COVID-19: action mechanism and pharmacological data.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jun;25(11):4163-4173

Faculty of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: As a beta-coronavirus, Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has caused one of the most significant historical pandemics, as well as various health and medical challenges. Our purpose in this report is to collect, summarize, and articulate all essential information about antiviral drugs that may or may not be efficient for treating COVID-19. Clinical evidence about these drugs and their possible mechanisms of action are also discussed. Read More

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Anchor-Locker Binding Mechanism of the Coronavirus Spike Protein to Human ACE2: Insights from Computational Analysis.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Molecular Therapeutics & New Drug Development, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Chemical Process, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China.

COVID-19 has emerged as the most serious international pandemic in early 2020 and the lack of comprehensive knowledge in the recognition and transmission mechanisms of this virus hinders the development of suitable therapeutic strategies. The specific recognition during the binding of the spike glycoprotein (S protein) of coronavirus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the host cell is widely considered the first step of infection. However, detailed insights on the underlying mechanism of dynamic recognition and binding of these two proteins remain unknown. Read More

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Application of animal experimental models in the research of schizophrenia.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Medical Research Center, Xi'an No.3 Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Schizophrenia is a relatively common but serious mental illness that results in a heavy burden to patients, their families, and society. The disease can be triggered by multiple factors, while the specific pathogenesis remains unclear. The development of effective therapeutic drugs for schizophrenia relies on a comprehensive understanding of the basic biology and pathophysiology of the disease. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis reveals Vernalization is independent of cold acclimation in Arabidopsis.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 21;22(1):462. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Key Laboratory of Landscaping, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Biology of Ornamental Plants in East China, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Background: Through vernalization, plants achieve flowering competence by sensing prolonged cold exposure (constant exposure approximately 2-5 °C). During this process, plants initiate defense responses to endure cold conditions. Here, we conducted transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis plants subjected to prolonged cold exposure (6 weeks) to explore the physiological dynamics of vernalization and uncover the relationship between vernalization and cold stress. Read More

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NeoRAS wild-type in metastatic colorectal cancer: Myth or truth?-Case series and review of the literature.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 18;153:86-95. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Tumor Immunology, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Tumor Immunology, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Upfront KRAS and NRAS gene testing ('RAS') is the standard of care for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), to guide first-line treatment. The presence of RAS mutation (MT) is a negative predictor for the efficacy of anti-EGFR antibodies and the use of cetuximab and panitumumab is restricted to RAS wild-type (WT) mCRC. Conversion from RAS WT to RAS MT mCRC after treatment with anti-EGFR antibodies is a known and well-described acquired resistance mechanism. Read More

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Comprehensive analysis of metabolic changes in rats exposed to acrylamide.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 16;287:117591. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Jining First People's Hospital, Jining Medical University, Jining, 272000, China; Department of Clinical & Translational Medicine, Jining Life Science Center, Jining, 272000, China. Electronic address:

Acrylamide (ACR) is a widely used environmentally hazardous compound that is known to be neurotoxic, genotoxic, carcinogenic, and reproductive toxicity. It is widely present in soil, water, agents used in chemical industries, and food. It can be distributed to all organs and tissues, and can cause damage to various human systems and those of other animals. Read More

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Evaluation of Injury Recidivism Using the Electronic Medical Record.

J Surg Res 2021 Jun 18;267:217-223. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. Electronic address:

Background: Traumatic injuries remain one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Patients who survive traumatic injuries but return to the emergency department with repeat injuries are said to suffer from injury recidivism. Numerous studies have described trends in injury recidivism using trauma registry and survey data. Read More

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Modeling structural interconversion in Alzheimers' amyloid beta peptide with classical and intrinsically disordered protein force fields.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Jun 21:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

A comprehensive understanding of the aggregation mechanism in amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) peptide is imperative for developing therapeutic drugs to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease. Because of the high flexibility and lack of native tertiary structures of Aβ42, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations may help elucidate the peptide's dynamics with atomic details and collectively improve ensembles not seen in experiments. We applied microsecond-timescale MD simulations to investigate the dynamics and conformational changes of Aβ42 by using a newly developed Amber force field ( We compared the and the regular force field by examining the conformational changes of two distinct Aβ42 monomers in explicit solvent. Read More

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Mechanistic Aspects of the Photophysics of UVA Filters Based on Meldrum Derivatives.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, Av. Esc. Normandie-Niemen BJ5-D22, Marseille 13397, France.

Skin photoprotection against UVA radiation is crucial, but it is hindered by the sparsity of approved commercial UVA filters. Sinapoyl malate (SM) derivatives are promising candidates for a new class of UVA filters. They have been previously identified as an efficient photoprotective sunscreen in plants due to their fast nonradiative energy dissipation. Read More

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Biological Mechanisms Induced by Soybean Agglutinin Using an Intestinal Cell Model of Monogastric Animals.

Front Vet Sci 2021 2;8:639792. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Soybean agglutinin (SBA) has a toxic effect on most animals. The anti-nutritional mechanisms of SBA are not fully understood, in terms of cell survival activity and metabolism of intestinal cells. This study aims to investigate the effects of SBA on the cell cycle, apoptosis, and to verify the mechanism of SBA anti-nutritional characters based on proteomic-based analysis. Read More

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Roles of Melatonin in Goat Hair Follicle Stem Cell Proliferation and Pluripotency Through Regulating the Wnt Signaling Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 4;9:686805. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Emerging studies show that melatonin promotes cashmere development through hypodermic implantation. However, the impact and underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. study has previously demonstrated that melatonin induces cashmere growth by regulating the proliferation of goat secondary hair follicle stem cells (gsHFSCs), but there is limited information concerning the effects of melatonin on cell pluripotency. Read More

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Comparative Transcriptome Analyses Reveal a Transcriptional Landscape of Human Silicosis Lungs and Provide Potential Strategies for Silicosis Treatment.

Front Genet 2021 3;12:652901. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Department of Physiology, Peking Union Medical College, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Silicosis is a fatal occupational lung disease which currently has no effective clinical cure. Recent studies examining the underlying mechanism of silicosis have primarily examined experimental models, which may not perfectly reflect the nature of human silicosis progression. A comprehensive profiling of the molecular changes in human silicosis lungs is urgently needed. Read More

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Elucidation of Novel -Regulatory Elements and Promoter Structures Involved in Iron Excess Response Mechanisms in Rice Using a Bioinformatics Approach.

Front Plant Sci 2021 2;12:660303. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Akita, Japan.

Iron (Fe) excess is a major constraint on crop production in flooded acidic soils, particularly in rice cultivation. Under Fe excess, plants activate a complex mechanism and network regulating Fe exclusion by roots and isolation in various tissues. In rice, the transcription factors and -regulatory elements (CREs) that regulate Fe excess response mechanisms remain largely elusive. Read More

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Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs in breast cancer brain metastasis.

Epigenomics 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Central Laboratory, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Medical College of Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, PR China.

To delineate the transcriptomic landscape and potential molecular mechanisms of breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM). Whole-transcriptome sequencing was performed to identify long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), miRNA and mRNA expression profiles associated with BCBM. A total of 739 differentially expressed lncRNAs, 115 differentially expressed miRNAs and 5749 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified in 231-BR cells compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Read More

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Comprehensive Insight into the Mechanism, Material Selection and Performance Evaluation of Supercapatteries.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Apr 4;12(1):85. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

School for Advanced Research in Polymers, Laboratory for Advanced Research in Polymeric Materials, Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar, 751024, India.

Electrochemical energy storage devices (EESs) play a crucial role for the construction of sustainable energy storage system from the point of generation to the end user due to the intermittent nature of renewable sources. Additionally, to meet the demand for next-generation electronic applications, optimizing the energy and power densities of EESs with long cycle life is the crucial factor. Great efforts have been devoted towards the search for new materials, to augment the overall performance of the EESs. Read More

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Novel Insights into Energy Storage Mechanism of Aqueous Rechargeable Zn/MnO Batteries with Participation of Mn.

Nanomicro Lett 2019 Jun 6;11(1):49. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Shenzhen Geim Graphene Center, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055, People's Republic of China.

Aqueous rechargeable Zn/MnO zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) are reviving recently due to their low cost, non-toxicity, and natural abundance. However, their energy storage mechanism remains controversial due to their complicated electrochemical reactions. Meanwhile, to achieve satisfactory cyclic stability and rate performance of the Zn/MnO ZIBs, Mn is introduced in the electrolyte (e. Read More

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Housing Sulfur in Polymer Composite Frameworks for Li-S Batteries.

Nanomicro Lett 2019 Feb 27;11(1):17. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Centre for Clean Environment and Energy, Environmental Futures Research Institute, School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Gold Coast, QLD, 4222, Australia.

Extensive efforts have been devoted to the design of micro-, nano-, and/or molecular structures of sulfur hosts to address the challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, yet comparatively little research has been carried out on the binders in Li-S batteries. Herein, we systematically review the polymer composite frameworks that confine the sulfur within the sulfur electrode, taking the roles of sulfur hosts and functions of binders into consideration. In particular, we investigate the binding mechanism between the binder and sulfur host (such as mechanical interlocking and interfacial interactions), the chemical interactions between the polymer binder and sulfur (such as covalent bonding, electrostatic bonding, etc. Read More

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February 2019