65,235 results match your criteria compounds mechanisms


The exposome in practice: an exploratory panel study of biomarkers of air pollutant exposure in Chinese people aged 60-69 years (China BAPE Study).

Environ Int 2021 Sep 12;157:106866. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China; Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China. Electronic address:

The exposome overhauls conventional environmental health impact research paradigms and provides a novel methodological framework that comprehensively addresses the complex, highly dynamic interplays of exogenous exposures, endogenous exposures, and modifiable factors in humans. Holistic assessments of the adverse health effects and systematic elucidation of the mechanisms underlying environmental exposures are major scientific challenges with widespread societal implications. However, to date, few studies have comprehensively and simultaneously measured airborne pollutant exposures and explored the associated biomarkers in susceptible healthy elderly subjects, potentially resulting in the suboptimal assessment and management of health risks. Read More

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September 2021

Mouse organoid culture is a suitable model to study esophageal ion transport mechanisms.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, grid.9008.1University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Altered esophageal ion transport mechanisms play a key role in inflammatory and cancerous diseases of the esophagus, but epithelial ion processes have been less studied in the esophagus because of the lack of a suitable experimental model. In this study, we generated 3D esophageal organoids (EOs) from two different mouse strains and characterized the ion transport processes of the EOs. EOs form a cell-filled structure with a diameter of 250-300 µm and generated from epithelial stem cells as shown by FACS analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Theoretical insights on boron reducing agent for the reduction of carbonyl compounds.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15;23(35):19111-19119. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, NMPA Key Laboratory for Research and Evaluation of Innovative Drug, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan, 453007, China.

In this perspective, we present computational progress in the reduction of carbonyl compounds using boron reducing agents, such as L·BH, HBcat, HBpin, and 9-BBN. For the catalytic reduction reactions, establishing a catalytic mechanism will provide an important theoretical basis for the improvement of a more efficient combination of reducing agents and catalysts. Current computational studies reveal that the mechanisms of reactions are different due to the various combinations of electrophilic boron reducing agents and catalysts (transition-metal catalyst, main group metal catalysts, and metal-free frustrated Lewis pair). Read More

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September 2021

Induction of hemolysis and eryptosis by occupational pollutant nickel chloride is mediated through calcium influx and p38 MAP kinase signaling.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (College of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences).

Objectives: Nickel (Ni) is an abundant environmental hazard and an occupational pollutant. Exposure to Ni compounds is prevalent in electroplating workers and in the printing industry, among others. The toxicity of Ni manifests as dermatological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, allergic, and cardiovascular symptoms. Read More

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Structural Transformation of Heterogeneous Materials for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

Chem Rev 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM) and CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, P. R. China.

Electrochemical water splitting for hydrogen generation is a promising pathway for renewable energy conversion and storage. One of the most important issues for efficient water splitting is to develop cost-effective and highly efficient electrocatalysts to drive sluggish oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) at the anode side. Notably, structural transformation such as surface oxidation of metals or metal nonoxide compounds and surface amorphization of some metal oxides during OER have attracted growing attention in recent years. Read More

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September 2021

Studies on the application of the Paternò-Büchi reaction to the synthesis of novel fluorinated scaffolds.

Chemistry 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Hiroshima University, Department of Chemistry, JAPAN.

In the context of new scaffolds obtained by photochemical reactions, Paternò-Büchi reactions between heteroaromatic, trifluoromethylphenyl ketone and electron rich alkenes to give oxetanes are described. A comprehensive study has then been carried out on the reaction of aromatic ketones with fluorinated alkenes. Depending on the substitution pattern at the oxetane ring, a metathesis reaction is described as a minor side process to give mono fluorinated alkenes. Read More

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September 2021

Design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking of new benzofuran and indole derivatives as tubulin polymerization inhibitors.

Drug Dev Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Microtubules and the mitotic spindle have become an important target for cancer treatment due to their critical role in cell division. In this work, a novel series of benzofuran and indole derivatives were designed and synthesized, to be evaluated as tubulin polymerization inhibitors. 2-Acetylbenzofuran derivatives 1a,b and 3-acetylindole 1c were condensed with Wittig reagents 2a-d and Wittig-Horner reagents 3a-e to afford the respective 2-ethylidene derivatives 5a-j and 7a-e. Read More

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September 2021

Selective CDK9 inhibition resolves neutrophilic inflammation and enhances cardiac regeneration in larval zebrafish.

Development 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Sustained neutrophilic inflammation is detrimental for cardiac repair and associated with adverse outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI). An attractive therapeutic strategy to treat MI is to reduce or remove infiltrating neutrophils to promote downstream reparative mechanisms. CDK9 inhibitor compounds enhance the resolution of neutrophilic inflammation, however, their effects on cardiac repair/regeneration are unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Protective mechanisms of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis as determined by a network pharmacology approach.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shuguang Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.

Previous studies reported that Agrimonia pilosa (AP) Ledeb possessed diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. However, the effect of AP on ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of AP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Read More

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September 2021

Humification process and mechanisms investigated by Fenton-like reaction and laccase functional expression during composting.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Sep 8;341:125906. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China. Electronic address:

This study aims to explore the impacts of the Fenton-like reaction on hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, humic substance (HS) formation, laccase activity and microbial communities during composting to optimize composting performances. The results indicated that the activity of laccase in the presence of the Fenton-like reaction (HC) (35.92 U/g) was significantly higher than that in the control (CP) (29. Read More

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September 2021

Recent developments in antifungal lactic acid bacteria: Application, screening methods, separation, purification of antifungal compounds and antifungal mechanisms.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 15:1-15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Fungal contamination of food, which causes large economic losses and public health problems, is a global concern. Chemical methods are typically used in the food industry to inhibit the growth of spoilage fungus, but there are several drawbacks of chemical methods. Thus, the development of consumer-friendly and ecologically sustainable biological preservation technology has become a hot spot in food research. Read More

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September 2021

Hair growth-promotion effects at the cellular level and antioxidant activity of the plant-based extract Phyllotex™.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 30;7(9):e07888. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Phytor Lab for Drug Development, Hadassah Medical Center Hebrew University Biotechnology Park (JBP), Ein Kerem Campus, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.

Hair loss and predominantly female hair loss is a common dermatologic condition with serious psychosocial consequences. Effective treatments remain scarce mainly due to the multifactorial elements involved in the onset of this chronic condition. The approved drugs available are based on molecules designed towards a single pharmacological target and do not interact with the various biochemical mechanisms involved in alopecia. Read More

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September 2021

Phthalate metabolites: Characterization, toxicities, global distribution, and exposure assessment.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 4;291:118106. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China. Electronic address:

Phthalates are plasticizers in various products and regarded as endocrine disruptors due to their anti-androgen effects. Environmental occurrence and toxicities of parent phthalates have been widely reported, while the current state of knowledge on their metabolites is rarely summarized. Based on the available literature, the present review mainly aims to 1) characterize the potential metabolites of phthalates (mPAEs) using the pharmacokinetics evidences acquired via animal or human models; 2) examine the molecular and cellular mechanism involved in toxicity for mPAEs; 3) investigate the exposure levels of mPAEs in different human specimens (e. Read More

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September 2021

Crosslink between p53 and metastasis: focus on epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell, angiogenesis, autophagy, and anoikis.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(SBUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: P53, as a tumor suppressor gene, is believed to be one of the most mutated genes in cancer cells. The mutant forms of this protein often play a tumorigenic role in cancer cells. Recent evidence shows that p53 plays a critical role in the migration, metastasis, and invasion of cancer cells. Read More

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September 2021

Using Terpene Synthase Plasticity in Catalysis: On the Enzymatic Conversion of Synthetic Farnesyl Diphosphate Analogues.

Chemistry 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Universität Bonn, Kekulé-Institut für Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Gerhard-Domagk-Straße 1, 53121, Bonn, GERMANY.

Four synthetic farnesyl diphosphate analogues were enzymatically converted with three bacterial sesquiterpene synthases, including β-himachalene synthase (HcS) and ( Z )-γ-bisabolene synthase (BbS) from Cryptosporangium arvum , and germacrene A synthase (SmTS6) from Streptomyces mobaraensis . These enzyme reactions not only yielded several previously unknown compounds, showing that this approach opened the door to a new chemical space, but substrates with blocked or altered reactivities also gave interesting insights into the cyclisation mechanisms and the potential to catalyse reactions with different initial cyclisation modes. Read More

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September 2021

Organocatalytic enantioselective reactions involving prochiral carbocationic intermediates.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 14;57(73):9178-9191. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Molecular Therapeutics and New Drug Development, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, P. R. China.

Since the discovery of carbocations in 1901, the past 120 years have witnessed many marvelous advances in the chemistry of carbocations. The state-of-the-art research in this field is to overcome the intrinsic instability and high reactivity of the prochiral carbocationic intermediates to develop catalytic asymmetric reactions. Such transformations enable the facile synthesis of structurally diverse value-added products from readily available starting materials such as alkenes, alcohols, and carbonyl derivatives, and enjoy high and even perfect atom-economy in most cases. Read More

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September 2021

Structure-based virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation for the identification of sphingosine kinase-2 inhibitors as potential analgesics.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Sep 14:1-19. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Neuroscience & Pain Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Neuropathic pain is due to an injury or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, which accounts for a significant economical and health burden to society. Due to poor understanding of their underlying mechanisms, the available treatments merely provide symptomatic relief and precipitates a variety of adverse effects. This suggests that there is an unmet medical need that must be addressed with effective strategies for the development of novel therapeutics. Read More

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September 2021

Synergistic Protective Effect of Curcumin and Resveratrol against Oxidative Stress in Endothelial EAhy926 Cells.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 3;2021:2661025. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1757, Penrith, NSW, Australia.

Curcumin (C) and resveratrol (R) are two well-known nutraceuticals with strong antioxidant activity that can protect cells from oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the synergy of CR combinations in protecting human endothelial EAhy926 cells against HO-induced oxidative stress and its related mechanisms. C and R as individual compounds as well as CR combinations at different ratios were screened for their protective effects against HO (2. Read More

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September 2021

The use of biomarkers associated with leaky gut as a diagnostic tool for early intervention in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

Gut Pathog 2021 Sep 13;13(1):54. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Central Laboratory, Female Centre for Scientific and Medical Studies, King Saud University, P.O box 22452, Zip code 11495, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Innovative research highlighted the probable connection between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and gut microbiota as many autistic individuals have gastrointestinal problems as co-morbidities. This review emphasizes the role of altered gut microbiota observed frequently in autistic patients, and the mechanisms through which such alterations may trigger leaky gut.

Main Body: Different bacterial metabolite levels in the blood and urine of autistic children, such as short-chain fatty acids, lipopolysaccharides, beta-cresol, and bacterial toxins, were reviewed. Read More

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September 2021

Acanthospermum hispidum DC: An Updated Review on Phytochemistry and Biological Activities.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco. Brazil.

Background: Acanthospermum hispidum DC is a medicinal plant present in America, Africa, Australia, India, Hawaii, and Brazil. In Brazil, the species is used in the treatment of gastrointestinal, respiratory disorders and has expectorant action. In the literature there are studies on the chemical composition of the species, with reports of the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins, terpenes, and steroids. Read More

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September 2021

Chemotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Current scenario and future perspectives.

Cancer Lett 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Program of Molecular Mechanisms and Experimental Therapeutics in Oncology (ONCOBELL), Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Gran Via de L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain; Program Against Cancer Therapeutics Resistance (ProCURE), Catalan Institute of Oncology, Gran Via de L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Taxanes - docetaxel and cabazitaxel - are the most active chemotherapy drugs currently used for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, despite a good initial response and survival benefit, nearly all patients eventually develop resistance, which is an important barrier to long-term survival. Resistance to taxanes is also associated with cross-resistance to androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSIs). Read More

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September 2021

Comparative analysis of the molecular mechanism of resistance to vapendavir across a panel of picornavirus species.

Antiviral Res 2021 Sep 10:105177. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Vapendavir is a rhino/enterovirus inhibitor that targets a hydrophobic pocket in the viral capsid preventing the virus from entering the cell. We set out to study and compare the molecular mechanisms of resistance to vapendavir among clinically relevant Picornavirus species. To this end in vitro resistance selection of drug-resistant isolates was applied in rhinovirus 2 and 14, enterovirus-D68 and Poliovirus 1 Sabin. Read More

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September 2021

Alternative developmental and transcriptomic responses to host plant water limitation in a butterfly metapopulation.

Mol Ecol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Organismal & Evolutionary Biology, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Predicting how climate change affects biotic interactions poses a challenge. Plant-insect herbivore interactions are particularly sensitive to climate change, as climate-induced changes in plant quality cascade into the performance of insect herbivores. Whereas the immediate survival of herbivore individuals depends on plastic responses to climate change induced nutritional stress, long-term population persistence via evolutionary adaptation requires genetic variation for these responses. Read More

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September 2021

Functional Verification of Four Related Genes Involved in the 1-Deoxynojirimycin Biosynthetic Pathway in Mulberry Leaves.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, People's Republic of China.

The alkaloid 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is one of the major bioactive compounds in mulberry leaves ( L.). Previously, we discovered four key genes involved in the pathway from lysine to piperidine in the biosynthesis of DNJ in mulberry leaves, (MG727866), (MH205733), (MT989445), and (MT989446), which encoded lysine decarboxylase, copper amine oxidase, and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 1 and 2, respectively. Read More

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September 2021

Photochemistry of Nitrate Ion: Reduction by Formic Acid under UV Irradiation.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Research Institute of Photocatalysis, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fujian, 350108, P. R. China.

Mutual transformations of various nitrogen compounds and their reaction mechanisms have been a subject of great concern to the chemical, ecological and environmental communities. In the paper, the reactions of NO ion with small organic acids such as formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH COOH) and lactic acid (C H O ) under ultraviolet illumination were investigated systematically. It was found that NO ion is easily reduced into NO and NO and then further into N and NH (in the form of NH ) in the process. Read More

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September 2021

Chlorogenic acid and β-glucan from highland barley grain ameliorate β-cell dysfunction inhibiting apoptosis and improving cell proliferation.

Authors:
Ze-Hua Liu Bo Li

Food Funct 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.

Recent studies have reported that highland barley as a whole grain diet has anti-hyperglycemic effects, however little information is available about the active compounds that ameliorate pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and the related mechanisms. In this study, chlorogenic acid (CA) and β-glucan (BG) were identified as the active compounds that ameliorated β-cell dysfunction. CA ameliorated β-cell dysfunction by inhibiting cell apoptosis and improving glucose-stimulated insulin secretion targeting G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and regulating the phospholipase C β (PLCβ) pathway. Read More

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September 2021

New isoreticular phosphonate MOFs based on a tetratopic linker.

Dalton Trans 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Max-Eyth-Straße 2, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.

The tetratopic linker 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(4-phosphonophenyl)ethylene (HTPPE) was used to synthesize the three new porous metal-organic frameworks of composition [M(HO)(HTPPE)]·HO (M = Al, Ga, Fe), denoted as M-CAU-53 under hydrothermal reaction conditions, using the corresponding metal nitrates as starting materials. The crystal structures of the compounds were determined from powder X-ray diffraction data, revealing small structural differences. Proton conductivity measurements were carried out, indicating different conductivity mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Metabolic Profiling of Carbonyl Compounds for Unveiling Protective Mechanisms of against Diabetic Nephropathy by UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS/MS Analysis.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Key Laboratory of Digital Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica of State Administration of TCM and Engineering & Technology Research Center for Chinese Materia Medica Quality of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Carbonyl compounds play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). (PL), also known as "Kudzu", is a widely consumed functional food or nutraceutical and has shown promise in the prevention of diabetes and complications such as DN. To explore the beneficial effects and the underlying mechanisms of PL against DN, a new strategy for in-depth metabolic profiling of carbonyl compounds in DN mice plasma by chemical derivatization combined with UPLC-Q-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)/MS analysis was developed for the first time. Read More

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September 2021

Cardiotoxicity assessment using 3D vascularized cardiac tissue consisting of human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Sep 21;22:338-349. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are used for cardiac safety assessment but have limitations for the evaluation of drug-induced contractility. Three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissues are similar to native tissue and valuable for the assessment of contractility. However, a longer time and specialized equipment are required to generate 3D tissues. Read More

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September 2021

Exploration of the Potential Mechanism of Tao Hong Si Wu Decoction for the Treatment of Breast Cancer Based on Network Pharmacology and Experimental Verification.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:731522. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Chinese Medicinee, Hefei, China.

Background: Tao Hong Si Wu Decoction (THSWD) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used clinically alone or combined with drugs to treat breast cancer. However, there has been no study to date on the underlying mechanisms of its therapeutic effects.

Objectives: To explore the potential mechanism of THSWD for the treatment of breast cancer using network pharmacology and experimental research. Read More

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