16,318 results match your criteria composition terms

Mammalian Enamel: A Universal Tissue and Diverse Source of Inspiration.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA USA; Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Washington Seattle, WA USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington Seattle, WA USA. Electronic address:

The natural armors and weapons of the animal kingdom are serving as inspiration in the development of next-generation engineering materials. In this pursuit, seldom considered are the variations in properties across taxa that have evolved to meet their unique functional demands. Here, teeth from six different mammalian species were acquired and categorized according to their bite force quotient (BFQ), which accounts for the allometric scaling between bite force and body size. Read More

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September 2021

Functional diversity loss and change in nocturnal behavior of mammals under anthropogenic disturbance.

Conserv Biol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

In the Anthropocene epoch, understanding the impacts of anthropogenic influence on biodiversity and behavior of vulnerable wildlife communities is increasingly relevant to effective conservation. However, comparative studies aimed at disentangling the concurrent effect of different types of human disturbance on multifaceted biodiversity and on activity patterns of mammals are surprisingly rare. We applied a multi-region community model to separately estimate the effects of cumulative human modification (settlement, agriculture, and transportation etc. Read More

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September 2021

Development and Characterization of a Chest CT Atlas.

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 2021 15;2021. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN, USA 37235.

A major goal of lung cancer screening is to identify individuals with particular phenotypes that are associated with high risk of cancer. Identifying relevant phenotypes is complicated by the variation in body position and body composition. In the brain, standardized coordinate systems (e. Read More

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February 2021

Metagenomic insights into co-proliferation of Vibrio spp. and dinoflagellates Prorocentrum during a spring algal bloom in the coastal East China Sea.

Water Res 2021 Sep 3;204:117625. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineerimng, KAIST, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Coastal harmful algal blooms (HABs), commonly termed 'red tides', have severe undesirable consequences to the marine ecosystems and local fishery and tourism industries. Increase in nitrogen and/or phosphorus loading is often regarded as the major culprits of increasing frequency and intensity of the coastal HAB; however, fundamental understanding is lacking as to the causes and mechanism of bloom formation despite decades of intensive investigation. In this study, we interrogated the prokaryotic microbiomes of surface water samples collected at two neighboring segments of East China Sea that contrast greatly in terms of the intensity and frequency of Prorocentrum-dominated HAB. Read More

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September 2021

The efficacy of immunonutrition in improving tolerance to chemoradiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer, receiving nutritional counseling: study protocol of a randomized, open-label, parallel group, bicentric pilot study.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 11;13:17588359211025872. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Medical Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Nutritional support, including nutritional counseling and oral nutritional supplements (ONSs), has been recommended at the earliest opportunity in head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. The limited available evidence on the efficacy of immunonutrition during chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT) in H&N cancer patients is positive with regard to some secondary endpoints, but is still scanty, particularly with regard to toxicity and treatment tolerance. We hypothesize that early systematic provision of ONSs with a high-protein-high-calorie mixture containing immunonutrients (Impact) compared to standard high-calorie-high-protein nutritional blends, in addition to nutritional counseling, may be beneficial to patients with H&N cancer during CT-RT. Read More

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September 2021

Cd and Pb immobilisation with iron oxide/lignin composite and the bacterial community response in soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 26;802:149922. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Iron oxide is a natural mineral that generally exists in the form of iron oxide-organic complexes (Fe-OM) in soil. Lignin is a naturally occurring polymer that is considered to be an important part of soil carbon cycling. In this study we prepared a composite material (MGE) with iron oxide and lignin based on the Fe-OM present in the soil. Read More

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3D-Reactive printing of engineered alginate inks.

Soft Matter 2021 Sep 15;17(35):8105-8117. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta", Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Alginate is a common component of bioinks due to its well-described ionic crosslinking mechanism and tunable viscoelastic properties. Extrusion-based 3D-printing of alginate inks requires additives, such as gelatin and Pluronic, pre- or post-printing crosslinking processes and/or coextrusion with crosslinkers. In this work, we aim to develop a different printing approach for alginate-based inks, introducing 3D-reactive printing. Read More

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September 2021

Recent Advances on Bioactive Ingredients of Morchella esculenta.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Engineering Research Center of Bio-Process, School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, Anhui, China.

Morchella esculenta (M. esculenta) is a delicious edible mushroom prized for its special flavor and strong health promoting abilities. Several bioactive ingredients including polysaccharides, polyphenolic compounds, proteins, and protein hydrolysates all contribute to the biological activities of M. Read More

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September 2021

Barriers and facilitators on hand hygiene and hydro-alcoholic solutions' use: representations of health professionals and prevention perspectives.

Infect Prev Pract 2021 Dec 14;3(4):100169. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

INSERM U1219 équipe Handicap, Activité, Cognition, Santé, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, F-33000, France.

Background: Healthcare-associated infections pose a serious problem in terms of health and mortality. Their prevention is a necessity, and healthcare professionals are one of their main vectors. Thus, they must be at the centre of preventative strategies. Read More

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December 2021

Photochemical Behavior of Microbial Extracellular Polymeric Substances in the Aquatic Environment.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Microbially derived extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) occupy a large portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters, but the understanding of the photochemical behaviors of EPS is still very limited. In this study, the photochemical characteristics of EPS from different microbial sources (, , and sewage sludge flocs) were investigated in terms of the production of reactive species (RS), such as triplet intermediates (EPS*), hydroxyl radicals (OH), and singlet oxygen (O). The steady-state concentrations of OH, EPS*, and O varied in the ranges of 2. Read More

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September 2021

Insights into the local interaction mechanisms between fermenting broken maize and various binder materials for anaerobic digester structures.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 11;300:113735. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

LMDC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Concrete structures of anaerobic digestion plants face chemically aggressive conditions due to the contact with the complex liquid fraction of the fermenting biowaste. This paper aims to determine the biogeochemical dynamic interaction phenomena at play between the biowaste and cementitious matrices at the local scale, and to identify durable binders in such environments. Binder materials likely to show increased durability - slag and calcium aluminate cement, and a metakaolin-based alkali-activated geopolymer - and a reference Portland cement were inserted into sealed bioeactors during 5 cycles (245 days) of broken maize anaerobic digestion. Read More

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September 2021

Foodwork in the United Kingdom from 1983 to 2014: A compositional data analysis of repeat cross-sectional time use surveys.

Appetite 2021 Sep 11:105694. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Centre for Diet and Activity Research (CEDAR), MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Box 285, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK. Electronic address:

Background: While foodwork (tasks required to access food, including home food preparation) in the UK declined toward the end of the 20th century, it is not known whether this trend has continued into the 21st century. While evidence suggests many people feel they lack the time to cook, it is not known whether this is attributable to increasing demands on their time.

Methods: Analysis of repeat cross-sectional data from three UK time use surveys: 1983, 2000 and 2014; participants aged 19+ (N = 14,810). Read More

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September 2021

Changes in marine turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) epidermis and skin mucus composition during development from bilateral larvae to juvenile flat fish.

J Fish Biol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Functional Biology and Health Sciences. Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain.

Alike other flat fish, marine turbot has the particularity that change from larvae with bilateral symmetry to adult with asymmetry, in terms of the position of the eyes. As expected, the skin configuration of this species is also affected by the development and transformation suffered by fish during metamorphosis. In this context, changes in the epidermis of marine turbot were studied using conventional staining and histochemical techniques using 6 lectins (UEA-I, PNA, RCA-I, WGA, Con A, SBA). Read More

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September 2021

Effects of Folic Acid and Caffeic Acid on Indirect Photo-oxidation of Proteins and Their Costabilization under Irradiation.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Proteins, vitamins, and phenols are often present together in foods, but they are sensitive to environmental factors. Folic acid (FA), a synthetic form of folate, decomposes under light, leading to protein oxidation. Caffeic acid (CA), a phenolic acid, exhibits remarkable activity for scavenging reactive molecules. Read More

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September 2021

Youth Athlete Development and Nutrition.

Ben Desbrow

Sports Med 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Allied Health Sciences, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Adolescence (ages 13-18 years) is a period of significant growth and physical development that includes changes in body composition, metabolic and hormonal fluctuations, maturation of organ systems, and establishment of nutrient deposits, which all may affect future health. In terms of nutrition, adolescence is also an important time in establishing an individual's lifelong relationship with food, which is particularly important in terms of the connection between diet, exercise, and body image. The challenges of time management (e. Read More

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September 2021

Encapsulation of cinnamaldehyde: an insight on delivery systems and food applications.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 13:1-23. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Cinnamaldehyde is an essential oil extracted from the leaves, bark, roots and flowers of cinnamon plants (genus ). Cinnamaldehyde has shown biological functions such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and anti-cancer. However, poor solubility in water as well as molecular sensitivity to oxygen, light, and high temperature limit the direct application of cinnamaldehyde. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of Ethnicities and Skin Color Variations in Different Populations: A Review.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Adam-Vital Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Background: In the world scientific tradition, skin color is the primary physical characteristic used to divide humans into groups. Human skin has a wide range of tones and colors, which can be seen in a wide range of demographic populations. Many factors influence the color of people's skin, but the pigment melanin is by far the most important. Read More

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Effect of Isometric Tongue Lifting Exercise on Oral Function, Physical Function, and Body Composition in Community-Dwelling Older Individuals: A Pilot Study.

Gerontology 2021 Sep 1:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Section of Geriatric Dentistry and Perioperative Medicine in Dentistry, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Introduction: It is known that oral frailty is one of the risk factors for physical frailty. Therefore, early detection, appropriate treatment, and prevention of oral frailty are really important. Tongue lifting exercise has been identified as a well-known method for improving decreased tongue pressure, one of the factors for oral frailty. Read More

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September 2021

Phase-Property Diagrams for Multicomponent Oxide Systems toward Materials Libraries.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 12:e2102301. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.

Exploring the vast compositional space offered by multicomponent systems or high entropy materials using the traditional route of materials discovery, one experiment at a time, is prohibitive in terms of cost and required time. Consequently, the development of high-throughput experimental methods, aided by machine learning and theoretical predictions will facilitate the search for multicomponent materials in their compositional variety. In this study, high entropy oxides are fabricated and characterized using automated high-throughput techniques. Read More

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September 2021

Mineral content, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds of gluten-free tarhana formulated with different cereal and pulse flours.

J Food Sci 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Food Engineering Department, Engineering and Natural Sciences Faculty, Gümüşhane University, Gümüşhane, Turkey.

This research was intended to determine the effect of different cereal and pulse flours and commercial gluten-free flour on the mineral content, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds of the gluten-free tarhana (cereal-based fermented dry soup). In order to produce the gluten-free tarhana, white bean (BF), chickpea (CF), commercial gluten-free (GWF), yellow lentil (LF), and rice (RF) flours were used. The Mg, K, Al, and Mn contents of tarhanas obtained using different pulse and cereal flours were found to be quite high compared to tarhanas produced with commercial GWF. Read More

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September 2021

Multiphoton Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry for Revealing Metabolic Heterogeneity of Hepatocytes .

Sovrem Tekhnologii Med 2021 30;13(2):18-29. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Rector, National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russia; Senior Researcher, Research Institute of Experimental Oncology and Biomedical Technologies, Privolzhsky Research Medical University, 10/1 Minin and Pozharsky Square, Nizhny Novgorod, 603005, Russia.

was to study the possibility of revealing the heterogeneity of normal liver hepatocytes in terms of metabolic status using the modern methods of multiphoton microscopy and mass spectrometry.

Materials And Methods: Heterogeneity of hepatocytes in terms of total metabolic activity was assessed using multiphoton microscopy based on the autofluorescence intensity of intracellular cofactors NAD(P)H and FAD. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in terms of intensity of intracellular metabolic processes was determined using the fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) method based on the data about fluorescence lifetime contributions of various forms of NAD(P)H. Read More

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Genome-enabled prediction for sparse testing in multi-environmental wheat trials.

Plant Genome 2021 Sep 12:e20151. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Km. 45, Carretera México-Veracruz, El Batán, Texcoco, Edo. de México, CP, El Batan, 56130, Mexico.

Sparse testing in genome-enabled prediction in plant breeding can be emulated throughout different line allocations where some lines are observed in all environments (overlap) and others are observed in only one environment (nonoverlap). We studied three general cases of the composition of the sparse testing allocation design for genome-enabled prediction of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding: (a) completely nonoverlapping wheat lines in environments, (b) completely overlapping wheat lines in all environments, and (c) a proportion of nonoverlapping/overlapping wheat lines allocated in the environments. Read More

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September 2021

Diversity of Adenostemma lavenia, multi-potential herbs, and its kaurenoic acid composition between Japan and Taiwan.

J Nat Med 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan.

Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze (Asteraceae) is widely distributed in tropical regions of East Asia, and both A. lavenia and A. Read More

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September 2021

The burden of colorectal cancer survivors in the Netherlands: costs, utilities, and associated patient characteristics.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the societal burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivorship 2-10 years post-diagnosis in terms of (1) societal costs, and (2) quality of life/utilities, and to analyze associated patient characteristics.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional, bottom-up prevalence-based burden of disease study, conducted from a societal perspective in the Netherlands. In total, 155 CRC survivors were included. Read More

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September 2021

Skin cancer classification via convolutional neural networks: systematic review of studies involving human experts.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 8;156:202-216. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

First Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: Multiple studies have compared the performance of artificial intelligence (AI)-based models for automated skin cancer classification to human experts, thus setting the cornerstone for a successful translation of AI-based tools into clinicopathological practice.

Objective: The objective of the study was to systematically analyse the current state of research on reader studies involving melanoma and to assess their potential clinical relevance by evaluating three main aspects: test set characteristics (holdout/out-of-distribution data set, composition), test setting (experimental/clinical, inclusion of metadata) and representativeness of participating clinicians.

Methods: PubMed, Medline and ScienceDirect were screened for peer-reviewed studies published between 2017 and 2021 and dealing with AI-based skin cancer classification involving melanoma. Read More

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September 2021

GC-MS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analysis of fatty acids of Pistacia vera (Greek variety "Aegina") oils from two consecutive harvest periods and chemometric differentiation of oils quality.

Food Res Int 2021 Oct 6;148:110590. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855, Greece. Electronic address:

Pistacia vera oil is a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, whose presence is associated with high quality and nutritional value. According to the literature, fatty acid oil composition is not constant every harvest year, but varies mainly depending on climate conditions. Therefore, the knowledge of oil composition in fatty acids is necessary to assess both its quality and its nutritional value. Read More

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October 2021

Control of gene expression in engineered mammalian cells with a programmable shear-stress inducer.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zurich, Mattenstrasse 26, CH-4058, Basel, Switzerland.

In humans, cellular mechanoperception serves as the basis of touch sensation and proprioception, contributes to the proper programming of cell fate during embryonic development, and plays a pivotal role in the development of mechanosensitive tissues. Molecular mechanoreceptors can respond to their environment by mediating transient adjustments of ion homeostasis, which subsequently trigger calcium-dependent alteration of gene expression via specific signaling pathways such as the NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) pathway. Although, mechanoreceptors are potential drug targets for various diseases, current techniques to study mechanically gated processes are often based on custom tailored microfluidic systems, which require special setups or have limited throughput. Read More

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September 2021

Comparing the reliability of relative bird abundance indices from standardized surveys and community science data at finer resolutions.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0257226. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Alexander Center for Applied Population Biology, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Biodiversity loss is a global ecological crisis that is both a driver of and response to environmental change. Understanding the connections between species declines and other components of human-natural systems extends across the physical, life, and social sciences. From an analysis perspective, this requires integration of data from different scientific domains, which often have heterogeneous scales and resolutions. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and physical characteristics of locomotive syndrome stages as classified by the new criteria 2020 in older Japanese people: results from the Nagahama study.

BMC Geriatr 2021 09 9;21(1):489. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 53, Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Background: The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) proposed the concept of locomotive syndrome (LS) in 2007 for detecting high-risk individuals with mobility limitation. In 2020, the JOA revised the clinical decision limits and introduced LS stage 3, which carried the highest-risk for LS compared to the conventional stages, 1 and 2. The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence, comorbidities, and physical characteristics in each LS stage, as per the LS criteria 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Biopolymer Nanocomposite Materials Based on Poly(L-lactic Acid) and Inorganic Fullerene-like WS Nanoparticles.

Mohammed Naffakh

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 31;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (ETSII-UPM), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

In the current study, inorganic fullerene (IF)-like tungsten disulphide (WS) nanoparticles from layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) were introduced into a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) polymer matrix to generate novel bionanocomposite materials through an advantageous melt-processing route. The effectiveness of employing IF-WS on the morphology and property enhancement of the resulting hybrid nanocomposites was evaluated. The non-isothermal melt-crystallization and melting measurements revealed that the crystallization and melting temperature as well as the crystallinity of PLLA were controlled by the cooling rate and composition. Read More

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