9,518 results match your criteria component cognition


Distractor probability influences suppression in auditory selective attention.

Cognition 2021 Jul 28;216:104849. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, United States of America.

Auditory selective attention is thought to facilitate listening to the sound of interest (e.g., voice or music) in a noisy environment. Read More

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Dynamic brain connectome and high risk of mental problem in clinical nurses.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, the School of Mental Health and Psychological Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

With the growing population and rapid change in the social environment, nurses in China are suffering from high rates of stress; however, the neural mechanism underlying this occupation related stress is largely unknown. In this study, mental status was determined for 81 nurses and 61 controls using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) scale. A subgroup (n = 57) was further scanned by resting-state functional MRI with two sessions. Read More

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Learning-induced shifts in mice navigational strategies are unveiled by a minimal behavioral model of spatial exploration.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Donders Institute for Behaviour and Cognition, Radboud University, Postbus 9010, Nijmegen 6500GL, Netherlands

Shifts in spatial patterns produced during the execution of a navigational task can be used to track the effects of the accumulation of knowledge and the acquisition of structured information about the environment. Here we provide a quantitative analysis of mice behavior while performing a novel goal localization task in a large, modular arena, the HexMaze. To demonstrate the effects of different forms of previous knowledge we first obtain a precise statistical characterization of animals' paths with sub-trial resolution and over different phases of learning. Read More

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Integrated analysis of immune-related gene subtype and immune index for immunotherapy in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Jul 20;225:153557. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 606-8502; Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 606-8502. Electronic address:

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with high immunogenicity. Research on immune-related gene (IRG) is of great significance in ccRCC in identifying new therapeutic targets and improving patient prognosis. In this study, the IRG patterns of ccRCC were investigated and correlated these patterns with tumor microenvironment infiltrating characteristics in immunotherapy. Read More

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Exploring the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects of current drivers on a neuropsychological test battery.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Ocusweep, Turku, Finland.

Purpose: This study explores the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects on several neuropsychological tests that are often used in research and in clinical settings.

Methods: Nineteen glaucoma patients and nineteen healthy participants, which are current drivers and older than 65 years old were included. All participants completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Trail Making Test (TMT), the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), the Snellgrove Maze Task (SMT) and the Digit Span Test (DST). Read More

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Association Between Mood Disorders and Risk of COVID-19 Infection, Hospitalization, and Death: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, Poul Hansen Family Centre for Depression, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Preexisting noncommunicable diseases (eg, diabetes) increase the risk of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. Mood disorders are associated with impaired immune function and social determinants that increase the risk of COVID-19. Determining whether preexisting mood disorders represent a risk of COVID-19 would inform public health priorities. Read More

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Fatty acids and beyond: Age and Alzheimer's disease related changes in lipids reveal the neuro-nutraceutical potential of lipids in cognition.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 23:105143. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, 30 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia; School of Biosciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Lipids are essential in maintaining brain function, and lipid profiles have been reported to be altered in aged and Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains as compared to healthy mature brains. Both age and AD share common metabolic hallmarks such as increased oxidative stress and perturbed metabolic function, and age remains the most strongly correlated risk factor for AD, a neurodegenerative disease. A major accompanying pathological symptom of these conditions is cognitive impairment, which is linked with changes in lipid metabolism. Read More

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Explaining distortions in metacognition with an attractor network model of decision uncertainty.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 26;17(7):e1009201. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Max Planck University College London Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Metacognition is the ability to reflect on, and evaluate, our cognition and behaviour. Distortions in metacognition are common in mental health disorders, though the neural underpinnings of such dysfunction are unknown. One reason for this is that models of key components of metacognition, such as decision confidence, are generally specified at an algorithmic or process level. Read More

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Minimum functional length analysis of k-mer based on BP neural network.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 Jul 26;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

BP neural network (BPNN), as a multilayer feed-forward network, can realize the deep cognition to target data and high accuracy to output results. However, there were still no related research of k-mer based on BPNN yet. In present study, BPNN was used to train and test binary classification data of each classification mode respectively. Read More

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Mindfulness in Borderline Personality Disorder: Decentering Mediates the Effectiveness.

Psicothema 2021 Aug;33(3):407-414

Brain, Cognition and Behavior PhD Program, University of Barcelona.

Background: Mindfulness skills training is a core component of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) that has proven to be an effective stand-alone treatment for the general symptoms commonly present in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of mindfulness-based DBT skills training (DBT-M) to interpersonal effectiveness-based DBT skills training (DBT-IE) in reducing BPD symptoms. We also evaluated the specific mechanism of action of these therapies through two proposed mediators: decentering and emotion dysregulation. Read More

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Subjective SES is Associated with Children's Neurophysiological Response to Auditory Oddballs.

Cereb Cortex Commun 2021 4;2(1):tgaa092. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 7EF, UK.

Language and reading acquisitions are strongly associated with a child's socioeconomic status (SES). There are a number of potential explanations for this relationship. We explore one potential explanation-a child's SES is associated with how children discriminate word-like sounds (i. Read More

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December 2020

Exploring the association Between Cardiovascular Health measured with CANHEART model and early cognitive impairment in middle-aged population.

Epidemiol Health 2021 Jul 13:e2021044. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Both cardiovascular health (CVH) and inflammation associated with cognition, and inflammation also associated with cardiovascular health. However, related information in the Korean population is limited. The objective of our study was to confirm the influence of inflammation on the association between CVH and cognition in cross-sectional design. Read More

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Greater time in bed and less physical activity associate with poorer cognitive functioning performance in Huntington's disease.

Neuropsychology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Psychological Sciences, Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University.

This study aimed to investigate how sleep and physical activity habits related to cognitive functioning, in naturalistic settings, in early Huntington's disease (HD). Forty-two participants with the expanded HD repeat (20 manifest, 22 premanifest) and 29 healthy controls wore Fitbit One sleep and activity monitors for 7 days and 7 nights. They used a smartphone application to complete daily sleep and activity diaries, sleep and mood inventories, and a brief battery of cognitive tests, which were completed on Day 8 of the study. Read More

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BLANKETS: a toasty tool to improve social history documentation for our older patients.

Postgrad Med J 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Internal medicine, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.

A thorough social history is an important component of all medical clerkings and is particularly crucial when admitting an older patient. Standards exist to guide the social history content but are rarely referenced in practice. This quality improvement project conceived and implemented the novel BLANKETS (Bladder and bowels, Legal arrangements, Activities of daily living, Neurology (cognition), Kit (dentures, hearing or visual aids), EtOH and smoking, Trips, walking aids and exercise tolerance, Setup at home) tool for social history documentation, derived from existing standards, at a specialist medical inpatient hospital setting. Read More

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Proton Radiotherapy to Reduce Late Complications in Childhood Head and Neck Cancers.

Int J Part Ther 2021 25;8(1):155-167. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

In most childhood head and neck cancers, radiotherapy is an essential component of treatment; however, it can be associated with problematic long-term complications. Proton beam therapy is accepted as a preferred radiation modality in pediatric cancers to minimize the late radiation side effects. Given that childhood cancers are a rare and heterogeneous disease, the support for proton therapy comes from risk modeling and a limited number of cohort series. Read More

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Regulation of Mindfulness-Based Music Listening on Negative Emotions Related to COVID-19: An ERP Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 1;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (Ministry of Education), Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

The current study aimed to explore the behavioral and neural correlates of mindfulness-based music listening regulation of induced negative emotions related to COVID-19 using the face-word Stroop task. Eighty-five young adults visited the laboratory and were randomly assigned to three groups: a calm music group (CMG: = 28), a happy music group (HMG: = 30), and a sad music group (SMG: = 27). Negative emotions were induced in all participants using a COVID-19 video, followed by the music intervention condition. Read More

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Concurrent validity of barbell force measured from video-based barbell kinematics during the snatch in male elite weightlifters.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(7):e0254705. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Training and Movement Sciences, Research Focus Cognition Sciences, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.

This study examined the concurrent validity of an inverse dynamic (force computed from barbell acceleration [reference method]) and a work-energy (force computed from work at the barbell [alternative method]) approach to measure the mean vertical barbell force during the snatch using kinematic data from video analysis. For this purpose, the acceleration phase of the snatch was analyzed in thirty male medal winners of the 2018 weightlifting World Championships (age: 25.2±3. Read More

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Structural and functional brain abnormalities in misophonia.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Jul 14;52:62-71. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, the Netherlands; Amsterdam Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Misophonia is a newly described condition in which specific ordinary sounds provoke disproportionately strong negative affect. Since evidence for neurobiological abnormalities underlying misophonia is scarce, we tested whether misophonia patients differed from healthy controls in grey matter volumes and resting-state functional connectivity. We collected structural magnetic resonance imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 24 misophonia patients and 25 matched controls. Read More

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Characterising factors underlying praxis deficits in chronic left hemisphere stroke patients.

Cortex 2021 May 29;142:154-168. Epub 2021 May 29.

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Limb apraxia, a disorder of skilled action not consequent on primary motor or sensory deficits, has traditionally been defined according to errors patients make on neuropsychological tasks. Previous models of the disorder have failed to provide a unified account of patients' deficits, due to heterogeneity in the patients and tasks used. In this study we hypothesised that we may be able to map apraxic deficits onto principal components, some of which may be specific, whilst others may align with other cognitive disorders. Read More

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Deep sr-DDL: Deep structurally regularized dynamic dictionary learning to integrate multimodal and dynamic functional connectomics data for multidimensional clinical characterizations.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 14;241:118388. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, USA.

We propose a novel integrated framework that jointly models complementary information from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to extract biomarkers of brain connectivity predictive of behavior. Our framework couples a generative model of the connectomics data with a deep network that predicts behavioral scores. The generative component is a structurally-regularized Dynamic Dictionary Learning (sr-DDL) model that decomposes the dynamic rs-fMRI correlation matrices into a collection of shared basis networks and time varying subject-specific loadings. Read More

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Cognitive correlates of autism spectrum disorder symptoms.

Autism Res 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

New York State Psychiatric Institute and Department of Psychiatry, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Due to the diverse behavioral presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), identifying ASD subtypes using patterns of cognitive abilities has become an important point of research. Some previous studies on cognitive profiles in ASD suggest that the discrepancy between verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) is associated with ASD symptoms, while others have pointed to VIQ as the critical predictor. Given that VIQ is a component of the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy, it was unclear which was most driving these associations. Read More

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Carotenoid-Rich Brain Nutrient Pattern Is Positively Correlated With Higher Cognition and Lower Depression in the Oldest Old With No Dementia.

Front Nutr 2021 29;8:704691. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, United States.

Healthy dietary patterns are related to better cognitive health in aging populations. While levels of individual nutrients in neural tissues are individually associated with cognitive function, the investigation of nutrient patterns in human brain tissue has not been conducted. Brain tissues were acquired from frontal and temporal cortices of 47 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Read More

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Intuitive sociology.

Adv Child Dev Behav 2021 30;61:335-374. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States.

How do humans intuitively understand the structure of their society? How should psychologists study people's commonsense understanding of societal structure? The present chapter seeks to address both of these questions by describing the domain of "intuitive sociology." Drawing primarily from empirical research focused on how young children represent and reason about social groups, we propose that intuitive sociology consists of three core phenomena: social types (the identification of relevant groups and their attributes); social value (the worth of different groups); and social norms (shared expectations for how groups ought to be). After articulating each component of intuitive sociology, we end the chapter by considering both the emergence of intuitive sociology in infancy as well as transitions from intuitive to reflective representations of sociology later in life. Read More

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Forearm muscle mitochondrial capacity and resting oxygen uptake: Relationship to symptomatic fatigue in persons with multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin 2021 Apr-Jun;7(2):20552173211028875. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Program in Exercise Science, Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Whether mitochondrial alterations are a function of ambulatory dysfunction or are of a non-ambulatory systemic nature is unclear.

Objective: To compare oxidative capacity, and rest muscle oxygen consumption (mVO) in the upper limb of persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) to a control group (CON), whereby an upper limb would be comparatively independent of ambulation or deconditioning. Read More

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Effect of the Wii Sports Resort on Mobility and Health-Related Quality of Life in Moderate Stroke.

Behav Neurol 2021 28;2021:6635298. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Faculty of Psychology at University of Deusto, 48007 Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain.

Background: Stroke is a common cerebral circulatory disorder that has several sequelae that affect the daily life of patients as well as their quality of life and the lives of people close to them. Video games are being used in the rehabilitation process to address these sequelae and their benefits are shown on physical activity and in the cognition area. However, their effects on daily life activities and quality of life are not known. Read More

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Understanding the phytochemistry and molecular insights to the pharmacology of Angelica archangelica L. (garden angelica) and its bioactive components.

Phytother Res 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.

Plant-derived molecules have enduring usefulness in treating diseases, and herbal drugs have emerged as a vital component of global therapeutic demand. Angelica archangelica L. (A. Read More

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Modelling state-transition dynamics in resting-state brain signals by the hidden Markov and Gaussian mixture models.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Mathematics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Recent studies have proposed that one can summarize brain activity into dynamics among a relatively small number of hidden states and that such an approach is a promising tool for revealing brain function. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a prevalent approach to inferring such neural dynamics among discrete brain states. However, the impact of assuming Markovian structure in neural time series data has not been sufficiently examined. Read More

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The ARCA Registry: A Collaborative Global Platform for Advancing Trial Readiness in Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxias.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:677551. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Unit of Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCAs) form an ultrarare yet expanding group of neurodegenerative multisystemic diseases affecting the cerebellum and other neurological or non-neurological systems. With the advent of targeted therapies for ARCAs, disease registries have become a precious source of real-world quantitative and qualitative data complementing knowledge from preclinical studies and clinical trials. Here, we review the , a global collaborative multicenter platform (>15 countries, >30 sites) with the overarching goal to advance trial readiness in ARCAs. Read More

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Mendelian Randomization of Dyslipidemia on Cognitive Impairment Among Older Americans.

Front Neurol 2021 23;12:660212. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Altered lipid metabolism may be a risk factor for dementia, and blood cholesterol level has a strong genetic component. We tested the hypothesis that dyslipidemia (either low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or high total cholesterol) is associated with cognitive status and domains, and assessed causality using genetic predisposition to dyslipidemia as an instrumental variable. Using data from European and African genetic ancestry participants in the Health and Retirement Study, we selected observations at the first non-missing biomarker assessment (waves 2006-2012). Read More

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