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Treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: What have we learned from animal models?

Authors:
Mark Yorek

Curr Diabetes Rev 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242 . United States.

Introduction: Animal models have been widely used to investigate the etiology and potential treatments for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. What we have learned from these studies and the extent that this information has been adaptable to the human condition will be the subject of this review article.

Methods: A comprehensive search of the PubMed database was performed, and relevant articles on the topic were included in this review. Read More

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Leveraging clinical epigenetics in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a call for individualized therapies.

Eur Heart J 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Molecular Cardiology, University of Zürich, Wagistrasse 12, Schlieren CH-8952, Switzerland.

Described as the 'single largest unmet need in cardiovascular medicine', heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains an untreatable disease currently representing 65% of new heart failure diagnoses. HFpEF is more frequent among women and associates with a poor prognosis and unsustainable healthcare costs. Moreover, the variability in HFpEF phenotypes amplifies complexity and difficulties in the approach. Read More

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A thermo-responsive collagen-nanocellulose hydrogel for the growth of intestinal organoids.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 24;124:112051. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Bioresource Processing Research Institute of Australia (BioPRIA), Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Australia. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems include bioengineered microenvironments that mimic the complexity of human tissues and organs in vitro. Robust biological models, like organoids and spheroids, rely on biomaterials to emulate the biochemical and biomechanical properties found in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Collagen (COL) is the main protein component of the ECM and has been used to generate fibrous matrices for 3D cell culture. Read More

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Personalized Models of Heterogenous 3D Epithelial Tumor Microenvironments: Ovarian Cancer as a Model.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.; Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.; Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.; Precision Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Electronic address:

Intractable human diseases such as cancers, are context dependent, unique to both the individual patient and to the specific tumor microenvironment. However, conventional cancer treatments are often nonspecific, targeting global similarities rather than unique drivers. This limits treatment efficacy across heterogeneous patient populations and even at different tumor locations within the same patient. Read More

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Identification of low health and cancer literacy in oncology patients: a cross-sectional survey.

Support Care Cancer 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, 305 Grattan Street Parkville, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objective: Health literacy is a significant public health concern, particularly given the increased complexity of chronic disease health management and health system navigation, and documented associations between low health literacy and poor health outcomes. This study therefore aimed to identify the proportion and characteristics of outpatients visiting a specialist cancer hospital who report low health literacy and/or low cancer health literacy.

Method: This study used a cross-sectional survey administered verbally with patients attending a specialist cancer hospital located in Melbourne, Australia over a two-week period. Read More

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Public Health Expenditures and Clinical and Social Complexity of Tuberculosis Cases-Alameda County, California, July-December 2017.

J Public Health Manag Pract 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Tuberculosis Control Section, Division of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Alameda County Public Health Department, San Leandro, California (Ms Shiau and Dr Chitnis); and Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of California San Francisco Benioff Children's Hospital of Oakland, Oakland, California (Dr Holmen).

Context: Alameda County, California, is a high tuberculosis (TB) burden county that reported a TB incidence rate of 8.1 per 100 000 during 2017. It is the only high TB burden California county that does not have a public health-funded TB clinic. Read More

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Poor anaerobic threshold and VO max recorded during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) prior to cytoreductive surgery in advanced (stage 3/4) ovarian cancer (AOC) is associated with suboptimal cytoreduction but does not preclude maximum effort cytoreduction.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 May 2:1-7. Epub 2021 May 2.

Derby Gynaecological Cancer Centre, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton, Derby, UK.

This study assessed Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) in predicting oncological outcomes, post-operative recovery and complications in advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) cytoreductive surgery. We reviewed all patients who had CPET prior to AOC cytoreductive surgery with evidence of upper abdominal disease on preoperative imaging at the University Hospitals of Derby and Burton (UHDB) between August 2016 and July 2019. Patients were stratified by AT and maximum VO levels. Read More

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We're Lost, But We are Making Good Time: Navigating Complex Pathways in a Patient-Order Management Task.

AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2020 25;2020:402-411. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, AZ, US.

Patient order management (POM) is a mission-critical task for perioperative workflow. Interface complexity within different EHR systems result in poor usability, increasing documentation burden. POM interfaces were compared across two systems prior to (Cerner SurgiNet) and subsequent to an EHR conversion (Epic). Read More

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January 2021

Baseline Plasma Inflammatory Profile Is Associated With Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

J Immunother 2021 Jun;44(5):185-192

Departments of Surgery.

Despite its increased application in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), complete response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is rare. Given the critical role of host immunity in regulating cancer, we sought to correlate baseline inflammatory profiles to significant response to NAT. PDAC patients receiving NAT were classified as responders (R) or nonresponders (NR) by carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response, pathologic tumor size, and lymph node status in the resected specimen. Read More

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Influence of foods and nutrients on COVID-19 recovery: A multivariate analysis of data from 170 countries using a generalized linear model.

Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: COVID-19 is an emergency public health problem of global importance. This study aimed to investigate the effect of foods and nutrients as complementary approaches on the recovery from COVID-19 in 170 countries, especially considering the complexity of the disease and the current scarcity of active treatments.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed using the Kaggle database, which links the consumption of various foods with recovery from COVID-19 in 170 countries, using multivariate analysis based on a generalized linear model. Read More

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Five-year microevolution of a multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain within a patient with inadequate compliance to treatment.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 29;21(1):394. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas-ANLIS Carlos Malbrán, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Whole-genome sequencing has shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection process can be more heterogeneous than previously thought. Compartmentalized infections, exogenous reinfections, and microevolution are manifestations of this clonal complexity. The analysis of the mechanisms causing the microevolution -the genetic variability of M. Read More

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Combining Mass Spectrometry-Based Phosphoproteomics with a Network-Based Approach to Reveal FLT3-Dependent Mechanisms of Chemoresistance.

Proteomes 2021 Apr 27;9(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via delle Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

FLT3 mutations are the most frequently identified genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with poor clinical outcome, relapse and chemotherapeutic resistance. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying FLT3-dependent pathogenesis and drug resistance is a crucial goal of biomedical research. Given the complexity and intricacy of protein signaling networks, deciphering the molecular basis of FLT3-driven drug resistance requires a systems approach. Read More

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The Effects of Internal Attention on Knee Biomechanics in Volleyball Spike Jump through Augmented Video Feedback.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 25;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Faculty of Sport Science, Research Academy of Grand Health, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Poor knee biomechanics in a volleyball spike jump generally result in a higher knee injury risk, which can be altered by an internal focus of attention (FOA). The constrained action hypothesis (CAH) purports that the FOA inhibits sports performance whereas no ecologically valid evidence has been found in previous studies. The purpose of this research is to explore the effect of video feedback on knee biomechanics in a volleyball spike jump including landing and take-off phases. Read More

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Microsurgical Anatomy of the Anterior Circulation of the Brain Adjusted to the Neurosurgeon's Daily Practice.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 19;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Asenjo Neurosurgical Institute, Santiago 7500691, Chile.

The study of cerebrovascular anatomy can be difficult and may take time due to its intrinsic complexity. However, it can also be difficult for the following reasons: the excessive description of neuroanatomy making articles hard to read, the unclear clinical application of what is written, the use of simplified or intricate schematic drawings that are not always appropriate for effective teaching, the poor quality of neuroanatomy dissections and the use of unusual views of figures that are not strictly related to the most frequent neuroimages to be interpreted in daily practice. Because of this, we designed an article that incorporates original and accurate anatomical dissections in an attempt to improve its comprehensibility. Read More

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Advax-CpG Adjuvant Provides Antigen Dose-Sparing and Enhanced Immunogenicity for Inactivated Poliomyelitis Virus Vaccines.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Vaxine Pty Ltd., Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, Australia.

Global immunization campaigns have resulted in a major decline in the global incidence of polio cases, with wild-type poliovirus remaining endemic in only two countries. Live oral polio vaccine (OPV) played a role in the reduction in polio case numbers; however, the risk of OPV developing into circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus makes it unsuitable for eradication programs. Trivalent inactivated polio virus (TIPV) vaccines which contain formalin-inactivated antigens produced from virulent types 1, 2 and 3 reference polio strains grown in Vero monkey kidney cells have been advocated as a replacement for OPV; however, TIPVs have weak immunogenicity and multiple boosts are required before peak neutralizing titers are reached. Read More

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Delta-Procalcitonin and Vitamin D Can Predict Mortality of Internal Medicine Patients with Microbiological Identified Sepsis.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 1;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

: The management of septic patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine wards represents a challenge due to their complexity and heterogeneity, and a high mortality rate. Among the available prognostic tools, procalcitonin (PCT) is considered a marker of bacterial infection. Furthermore, an association between vitamin D deficiency and poor sepsis-related outcomes has been described. Read More

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Understanding the Complexity, Underlying Processes, and Influencing Factors for Optimal Multidisciplinary Teamwork in Hospital-Based Cancer Teams: A Systematic Integrative Review.

Cancer Nurs 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Author Affiliations: Department of Public Health, Research Group OPIH (Organisation, Policy and Social Inequalities in Health Care), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium (Drs Horlait and Leys and Ms Baes); and Department of Marketing, Innovation and Organisation, Ghent University (Dr De Regge); and Strategic Policy Cell, Ghent University Hospital (Dr De Regge), Belgium.

Background: Multidisciplinary teamwork has become the standard in care for oncological patients and their treatment trajectory when comprehensive, holistic, and high-quality cancer care is needed. Working together from a variety of perspectives is difficult to achieve and has well-known pitfalls, such as miscommunication and poor coordination.

Objective: To describe and synthesize the factors influencing and the processes underlying optimal multidisciplinary teamwork. Read More

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February 2021

The Essence of Care: Versatility as an Adaptive Response to Challenges in the Delivery of Quality Aged Care by Personal Care Attendants.

Hum Factors 2021 Apr 28:187208211010962. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

1065 Flinders University, Australia.

Objective: The strategies adopted by personal care attendants (PCAs) to deliver quality care when faced with challenges potentially impacting clinical outcomes were assessed using phenomenological methods.

Background: In Australia, recent outcry of unsatisfactory standards of care in residential facilities has instigated a national public inquiry. This study investigated how PCAs adapted to challenges in stressful and ambiguous everyday work scenarios to deliver quality care. Read More

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The Global Anatomic Staging System Does Not Predict Limb Based Patency of Tibial Endovascular Interventions.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD; Diabetic Foot and Wound Service, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Objective: Anatomic grading systems have historically been poor predictors of patency after endovascular tibial interventions. The Global Vascular Guidelines proposed a new Global Anatomic Staging System (GLASS) to estimate one-year limb-based patency (LBP). The purpose of this study was to determine the association of GLASS with LBP following endovascular tibial interventions. Read More

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A participatory research approach in community pharmacy research: The case for video-reflexive ethnography.

Res Social Adm Pharm 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Pharmacy Department, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, 100 Broadway, Chippendale, Sydney, NSW, 2008, Australia. Electronic address:

Video-reflexive ethnography (VRE) is a qualitative methodology that explores the complex nature of healthcare 'as it really is'. Its collaborative and reflexive process invites stakeholders (e.g. Read More

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"RotaTripsy: Combination of rotational atherectomy and intravascular lithotripsy in heavily calcified coronary lesions: A case series".

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Interventional Cardiology Unit, Cardiology Department, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Heavily calcified coronary lesions increase the complexity of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and represent a challenge for interventional cardiologists. They are an important cause of stent underexpansion and poor clinical outcome. Nowadays, there are different dedicated devices which enhance the chances of success. Read More

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Identification of novel prognostic biomarkers by integrating multi-omics data in gastric cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 26;21(1):460. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang, China.

Background: Gastric cancer is a fatal gastrointestinal cancer with high morbidity and poor prognosis. The dismal 5-year survival rate warrants reliable biomarkers to assess and improve the prognosis of gastric cancer. Distinguishing driver mutations that are required for the cancer phenotype from passenger mutations poses a formidable challenge for cancer genomics. Read More

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Seasonality affects function and complexity but not diversity of the rhizosphere microbiome in European temperate grassland.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 20;784:147036. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Research Group Methanotrophic Bacteria, and Environmental Genomics/Transcriptomics Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Karl-von-Frisch-Str. 10, 35043 Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Knowledge on how grassland microbiota responds on gene expression level to winter-summer change of seasons is poor. Here, we used a combination of quantitative PCR-based assays and metatranscriptomics to assess the impact of seasonality on the rhizospheric microbiota in temperate European grassland. Bacteria dominated, being at least one order of magnitude more abundant than fungi. Read More

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Extrachromosomal DNA: Redefining the pathogenesis of glioblastoma.

Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021 Apr 20;1876(1):188551. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Life Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, India. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma is an incurable most prevalent primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Surgery followed by radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy is the standard of care in patients with glioblastoma. Although, prognosis remains poor with a median survival in the range of 12-15 months. Read More

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Ultra-durable, multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers for ultrasensitive monitoring and multicomponent quantification of trace sulfa antibiotics.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr 24;9(14):3192-3199. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.

Traditional analysis methods are susceptible to interference caused by the complexity of sample matrices, and detector surface fouling arising from nonspecific adsorption of microorganisms (in biological samples) which leads in particular to a gradual loss of sensitivity. Imprinted materials can be used to effectively reduce interference originating in the matrices. However, the poor reproducibility and multicomponent quantification of trace antibiotics represent significant challenges to the detection process. Read More

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Evaluation of disease staging and chemotherapeutic response in non-small cell lung cancer from patient tumor-derived metabolomic data.

Lung Cancer 2021 Apr 15;156:20-30. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, United States; James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, United States; Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, United States; Center for Predictive Medicine, University of Louisville, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Despite extensive effort, the search for clinically-relevant metabolite biomarkers for early detection, disease monitoring, and outcome prediction in lung cancer remains unfulfilled. Although biofluid evaluation has been explored, the complexity inherent in metabolite data and the dynamic discrepancy between metabolites in biofluids vs. tumor tissue have prevented conclusive results. Read More

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Implantation of an Innovative Intracardiac Microcomputer System for Web-Based Real-Time Monitoring of Heart Failure: Usability and Patients' Attitudes.

JMIR Cardio 2021 Apr 21;5(1):e21055. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Cardiology, Vivantes Hospital Am Urban, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Heart failure (HF) management guided by the measurement of intracardiac and pulmonary pressure values obtained through innovative permanent intracardiac microsensors has been recently proposed as a valid strategy to individualize treatment and anticipate hemodynamic destabilization. These sensors have potential to reduce patient hospitalization rates and optimize quality of life.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability and patients' attitudes toward a new permanent intracardiac device implanted to remotely monitor left intra-atrial pressures (V-LAP, Vectorious Medical Technologies, Tel Aviv, Israel) in patients with chronic HF. Read More

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Optical-Switch-Enabled Microfluidics for Sensitive Multichannel Colorimetric Analysis.

Anal Chem 2021 05 20;93(17):6784-6791. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich 8093, Switzerland.

The implementation of colorimetric analysis within microfluidic environments engenders significant benefits with respect to reduced sample and reagent consumption, system miniaturization, and real-time measurement of flowing samples. That said, conventional approaches to colorimetric analysis within microfluidic channels are hampered by short optical pathlengths and single-channel configurations, which lead to poor detection sensitivities and low analytical throughputs. Although the use of multiplexed light source/photodetector modules allows for multichannel analysis, such configurations significantly increase both instrument complexity and cost. Read More

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[Current situation of children with medical complexity: An experience between primary and hospital care].

Aten Primaria 2021 Apr 16;53(6):102046. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Unidad de Patología Compleja, Servicio de Pediatría Hospitalaria, Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales, Hospital Universitario Infantil La Paz, Madrid, España.

Objective: To analyze the assessment of the care of children with medical complexity (CMC) in Primary Care (PC), from the point of view of their doctors and their families.

Design: Observational, descriptive and transversal study. SITE: PC Pediatrics and Complex Chronic Pathology Unit (UPCC) of Hospital Universitario La Paz (HULP). Read More

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Cognitive Load in Electromagnetic Navigational and Robotic Bronchoscopy for Pulmonary Nodules.

ATS Sch 2020 Dec 23;2(1):97-107. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Division Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine, Section of Interventional Pulmonology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) and robotic-assisted bronchoscopy (RB) require a high degree of decision-making and psychomotor skill. Cognitive load theory is the overall effort expended by individuals in response to a task and is closely related to the usability of devices for medical procedures. High cognitive workload leads to poor surgical outcomes and represents a bottleneck for learning that affects performance. Read More

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December 2020