25,253 results match your criteria complex fluid

Biomechanical impact of the porous-fibrous tissue behaviour in the temporomandibular joint movements. An in silico approach.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 27;120:104542. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Group of Biomaterials, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

The movement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a function of its complex geometry and its interaction with the surrounding soft tissues. Owing to an increase in the prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs), many computational studies have attempted to characterize its biomechanical behaviour in the last 2 decades. However, most such studies are based on a single computational model that markedly simplifies the complex geometry and mechanical properties of the TMJ's soft tissues. Read More

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Investigation of the applicability of virtual gastroscopy based on postmortem computed tomography to detect changes in the stomach, along with reports of three rare cases.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Apr 24;52:101898. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Legal Medicine, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi 371-8511, Japan.

Postmortem computed tomography is now being used more commonly for routine forensic investigation. The use of 3D reconstruction techniques including virtual gastroscopy is effective and also improves the speed of interpretation, recognition, and description of specific clinical conditions. However, it has been unclear whether postmortem virtual endoscopy could be applicable for medicolegal autopsy or whether it could complement pathological examination at autopsy. Read More

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Automated intracellular pharmacological electrophysiology for ligand-gated ionotropic receptor and pharmacology screening.

Mol Pharmacol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, United States

Communication between neuronal cells, central to brain function, is performed by several classes of ligand-gated ionotropic receptors. The gold standard technique for measuring rapid receptor response to agonist is manual patch-clamp electrophysiology, capable of the highest temporal resolution of any current electrophysiology technique. We report an automated high-precision patch-clamp system which substantially improves the throughput of these time-consuming pharmacological experiments. Read More

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Low-soluble TREM-like transcript-1 levels early after severe burn reflect increased coagulation disorders and predict 30-day mortality.

Burns 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Burn and Trauma, Fujian Burn Institute, Fujian Burn Medical Center, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with severe burns often show systemic coagulation changes in the early stage and even develop extensive coagulopathy. Previous studies have confirmed that soluble TREM-like transcript-1 (sTLT-1) mediates a novel mechanism of haemostasis and thrombosis in inflammatory vascular injury. At present, the role of sTLT-1 in patients with severe burns is not well known. Read More

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December 2020

Autoregulation of Coronary Blood Supply in Response to Demand: JACC Review Topic of the Week.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May;77(18):2335-2345

Cardiovascular Center Aalst, OLV Clinic, Aalst, Belgium; Department of Cardiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Although our coronary circulation evolved to meet demands during marked physical exertion for "fight or flight" survival, complex and multilayered control mechanisms reduce flow during other periods. Understanding homeostasis of resting flow provides essential insights into clinical pathophysiology. Several homeostatic mechanisms (myogenic, metabolic, endothelial, and neural) maintain sufficient baseline flow regardless of driving pressure (in aggregate, "autoregulation"). Read More

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Reversible multilayered vesicle-like structures with fluid hydrophobic and interpolyelectrolyte layers.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 20;599:313-325. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Hlavova 8, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Hydrophobic blocks of amphiphilic block copolymers often form glassy micellar cores at room temperature with a rigid structure that limits their applications as nanocapsules for targeted delivery. Nevertheless, we prepared and analyzed core/shell micelles with a soft core, formed by a self-assembled block copolymer consisting of a hydrophobic block and a polycation block, poly(lauryl acrylate)-block-poly(trimethyl-aminoethyl acrylate) (PLA-QPDMAEA), in aqueous solution. By light and small-angle neutron scattering, by transmission electron microscopy and by fluorescence spectroscopy, we showed that these core/shell micelles are spherical and cylindrical with a fluid-like PLA core and a positively charged outer shell and that they can encapsulate and release hydrophobic solutes. Read More

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Effects of porosity on drug release kinetics of swellable and erodible porous pharmaceutical solid dosage forms fabricated by hot melt droplet deposition 3D printing.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 29:120626. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

3D printing has the unique ability to produce porous pharmaceutical solid dosage forms on-demand. Although using porosity to alter drug release kinetics has been proposed in the literature, the effects of porosity on the swellable and erodible porous solid dosage forms have not been explored. This study used a model formulation containing hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), polyethylene oxide (PEO) and paracetamol and a newly developed hot melt droplet deposition 3D printing method, Arburg plastic free-forming (APF), to examine the porosity effects on in vitro drug release. Read More

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Propelling microdroplets generated and sustained by liquid-liquid phase separation in confined spaces.

Soft Matter 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Alberta T6G 1H9, Canada.

Flow transport in confined spaces is ubiquitous in technological processes, ranging from separation and purification of pharmaceutical ingredients by microporous membranes and drug delivery in biomedical treatment to chemical and biomass conversion in catalyst-packed reactors and carbon dioxide sequestration. In this work, we suggest a distinct pathway for enhanced liquid transport in a confined space via propelling microdroplets. These microdroplets can form spontaneously from localized liquid-liquid phase separation as a ternary mixture is diluted by a diffusing poor solvent. Read More

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Sheathless microflow cytometer utilizing two bulk standing acoustic waves.

Cytometry A 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Biomedical Engineering(Suzhou), Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China.

In recent years, microflow cytometry has become a popular research field because of its potential to provide low-cost and disposable chips for complex cell analyses. Herein, we demonstrate a sheathless microflow cytometer which integrates a bulk standing acoustic wave based microchip capable of three dimensional cell focusing. Flow cytometry was successfully demonstrated using this system with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2. Read More

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NaHS Alleviated Cell Apoptosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Remote Lung Tissue after Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion via Nrf2 Activation-Mediated NLRP3 Pathway Inhibition.

Biomed Res Int 2021 15;2021:5598869. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Urology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Heping District Anshan Road 154, Tianjin 300052, China.

Objective: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication in critically ill patients, often caused by renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR). Previous studies have confirmed that lung injury, rather than renal injury, is one of the leading causes of AKI-induced death. The pathophysiological mechanisms of acute lung injury (ALI) resulting from AKI are very complex and remain unclear. Read More

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Repeated bouts of pulmonary tuberculosis in a hunting cat: reinfection or recrudescence?

JFMS Open Rep 2021 Jan-Jun;7(1):2055116921990292. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Roslin, UK.

Case Summary: A 7-year-old neutered male Siamese cat was referred for investigation of weight loss and hypercalcaemia (3.3 mmol/l; reference interval 2-3 mmol/l). Haematology, serum biochemistry, thoracic imaging, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), Ziehl-Neelsen staining of the BAL fluid and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) were compatible with pneumonia caused by the less pathogenic member of the complex, that is, (the 'vole bacillus'), which is common in cats in the UK. Read More

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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a patient with HIV infection: complex diagnosis using Giemsa-stained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2021 28;54:e0150 2020. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Instituto Hermes Pardini, Núcleo Técnico Operacional, Setor de Microbiologia, Vespasiano, MG, Brasil.

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Sensitivity of Uni- vs Bilateral Spike-Wave Discharges to Ethosuximide and Carbamazepine in the Fluid Percussion Injury Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurophysiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, United Statesgrid.266190.a.

Unilateral-onset spike-wave discharges (SWDs) following fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats have been used for nearly two decades as a model for complex partial seizures in human post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). This study determined if SWDs with a unilateral versus bilateral cortical onset differed. In this experiment, 2-month old rats received severe FPI (3 atm) or sham surgery, and were instrumented for chronic video-electrocorticography (ECoG) recording (up to 9 months). Read More

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Microfluidics for Microswimmers: Engineering Novel Swimmers and Constructing Swimming Lanes on the Microscale, a Tutorial Review.

Small 2021 May 5:e2007403. Epub 2021 May 5.

Chair of Physical Chemistry, TU Dresden, 01062, Dresden, Germany.

This paper provides an updated review of recent advances in microfluidics applied to artificial and biohybrid microswimmers. Sharing the common regime of low Reynolds number, the two fields have been brought together to take advantage of the fluid characteristics at the microscale, benefitting microswimmer research multifold. First, microfluidics offer simple and relatively low-cost devices for high-fidelity production of microswimmers made of organic and inorganic materials in a variety of shapes and sizes. Read More

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Tripartite Relationship Among Synaptic, Amyloid, and Tau Proteins: An In Vivo and Postmortem Study.

Neurology 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that fundamental relationships along the amyloid, tau, and neurodegeneration (A/T/N) cascade depend on synaptic integrity in older adults and postmortem.

Methods: Two independent observational, cross-sectional cohorts: 1) community-dwelling, clinically normal adults from the UCSF Memory and Aging Center completed lumbar puncture and MRI (exclusion criteria, CDR>0), and 2) postmortem decedents from the Rush Memory and Aging Project (exclusion criteria, inability to sign informed consent). measures included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) synaptic proteins (synaptotagmin-1, SNAP-25, neurogranin, and GAP-43), Aβ, ptau and MRI gray matter volume (GMV). Read More

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Implementation of the new multimodal imaging-based classification of central serous chorioretinopathy.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 May 4:11206721211013651. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Purpose: To study the implementation of the new multimodal imaging-based classification system of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR).

Methods: Ninety-three eyes with CSCR with available fundus autofluorescence (FAF), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography at presentation were included in this study. An anonymous data set was classified by two masked graders. Read More

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Main control factors affecting mechanical oil recovery efficiency in complex blocks identified using the improved k-means algorithm.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0248840. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Mechanics Science & Engineering, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing, Heilongjiang, China.

The system efficiency of pumping units in the middle and late stages of oil recovery is characterized by several factors, complex data and poor regulation. Further, the main control factors that affect system efficiency in different blocks vary greatly; therefore, it is necessary to obtain the block characteristics to effectively improve system efficiency. The k-means algorithm is simple and efficient, but it assumes that all factors have the same amount of influence on the output value. Read More

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The rheologically-complex fluid beauty of nail lacquer formulations.

Soft Matter 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60608, USA.

Nail lacquer formulations are multi-ingredient complex fluids with additives that affect color, smell, texture, evaporation rate, viscosity, stability, leveling behavior, consumer's sensory experience, and dried coating's decorative and wear performance. Optimizing and characterizing the formulation rheology is critical for achieving longer shelf-life, better control over the nail painting process and adhesion, continuous manufacturing of large product volumes, and increasing overall consumer satisfaction. Dispensing, bottle filling, brush application, and dripping, as well as perceived tackiness of nail polishes, all involve capillarity-driven pinching flows associated with strong extensional deformation fields. Read More

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Microfluidic valvular chips and a numerical lymphatic vessel model for the study of lymph transport characteristics.

Lab Chip 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.

Lymph transport inside lymphatic vessels is highly complex and not yet fully understood. So far, a consensus has not been reached among existing analytical models on how spatiotemporal coordination of contracting adjacent lymphangions affects lymph transport. To understand complex lymph transport, we created a novel microfluidic valvular chip with flexible bicuspid valves and segmental pneumatic pumps based on a microfluidic device with an inside 3D structure made of hydrogels. Read More

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Effect of a single intra-articular high molecular weight hyaluronan in a naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis model: a randomized controlled trial.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 May 3;16(1):290. Epub 2021 May 3.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lisbon (FMV/ULisboa), Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex joint disease and chronic pain source, affecting a patient's quality of life and posing a financial burden. As the dog is considered a nearly ideal species for translation research of human OA and the most used model for research, exploring spontaneous dog OA under the One Health/One Medicine concept can improve both humans and dogs' health and well-being.

Methods: In a clinical treatment experiment, forty (N=40) joints were selected and randomly assigned to a control group (CG), which received 0. Read More

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Acoustic time-dependent energy from force excited fluid loaded elastic shell/panel structures via a generalized modal radiation impulse response approach.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Apr;149(4):2865

Department of Ocean Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882, USA.

A generalized modal radiation impulse response approach is presented to evaluate the space-time surface velocity field, time-dependent force, instantaneous power, and energy transfer into a fluid resulting from the space-time force distribution of fluid loaded plate, shell, and panel structures. The basic approach utilizes the in vacuo eigenvectors of the structure to determine the in fluid response of the structure. Self-and mutual modal radiation impulse responses that couple the modal velocities of the fluid loaded structures are used to express the modal time-dependent velocities as a set of coupled convolution integral equations. Read More

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A Bisboronic Acid Sensor for Ultra-High Selective Glucose Assay by F NMR Spectroscopy.

Anal Chem 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000, People's Republic of China.

Glucose is a significant analyte both in biology and biomedical science, it is of great importance to selectively detect glucose both in body fluids and complex mixture. In this study, a simple F NMR based sensor was synthesized easily, which exhibited a high selectivity and robust anti-interference ability toward glucose detection both in a mixture containing up to 10 saccharides and human urine samples without any pretreatment. Combined with this sensor system, glucose could be well detected in human urine samples and the limit of detection was 0. Read More

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Impact of an acute heat shock during maturation on interleukin 6 and its associated receptor component transcripts in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes.

Anim Reprod 2021 Feb 16;17(4):e20200221. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Institute of Agriculture, AgResearch, Knoxville, TN, USA.

An acute heat stress event after the LH surge increased interleukin 6 (IL6) levels in the follicular fluid of the ovulatory follicle in hyperthermic cows. To examine direct consequences of a physiologically-relevant elevated temperature (41.0°C) on the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC), IL6 transcript abundance and related receptor components were evaluated throughout maturation. Read More

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February 2021

Endocrine emergencies in anesthesia.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021 Jun;34(3):326-334

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Purpose Of Review: An increasing number of patients with endocrine disorders will present to the operating rooms. In this review, we outline the common endocrine disorders that the anesthesiologist may face in the perioperative time span, review the controversies in optimal management, as well as summarize the recent literature for the management of these complex patients.

Recent Findings: Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma has been facilitated by improved medical management and the adoption of minimally invasive surgical techniques. Read More

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A rapid and sensitive method for characterization and quantification of polyglycerol esters by supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (SFC-HRMS).

Talanta 2021 Aug 24;230:122316. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, UPR 2301, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (PGEs), a very complex mixture of various isomers, are widely used as green surfactants in different industrial fields such as in cosmetic, pharmaceutic and food industries. However, no study related to the purification and the absolute quantification of these compounds has been described yet. In this study, we developed a rapid and efficient method for characterization and quantification of PGEs using Supercritical Fluid CO coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (SFC-HRMS). Read More

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Analytical Challenges Assessing Protein Aggregation and Fragmentation Under Physiologic Conditions.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Lonza Pharma and Biotech, Drug Product Services, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Therapeutic proteins are administered by injection or infusion. After administration, the physiologic environment in the desired body compartment - fluid or tissue - can impact protein stability and lead to changes in the safety and/or efficacy profile. For example, protein aggregation and fragmentation are critical quality attributes of the drug product and can occur after administration to patients. Read More

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Accuracy assessment methods for physiological model selection toward evaluation of closed-loop controlled medical devices.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0251001. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, United States Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, United States of America.

Physiological closed-loop controlled (PCLC) medical devices are complex systems integrating one or more medical devices with a patient's physiology through closed-loop control algorithms; introducing many failure modes and parameters that impact performance. These control algorithms should be tested through safety and efficacy trials to compare their performance to the standard of care and determine whether there is sufficient evidence of safety for their use in real care setting. With this aim, credible mathematical models have been constructed and used throughout the development and evaluation phases of a PCLC medical device to support the engineering design and improve safety aspects. Read More

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Amnion and Umbilical Cord-Derived Products in Sports Medicine: From Basic Science to Clinical Application.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Apr 30:3635465211010466. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Background: Birth tissue products from amnion, chorion, umbilical cord, amniotic fluid, or cord blood are frequently marketed as viable sources of stem cells and growth factors. It can be difficult for health care professionals to differentiate implied from explicit conclusions in reported product analyses.

Purpose: To provide an educational platform for health care professionals to interpret data presented in the promotion of birth tissue products. Read More

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Cluster Identification Using Modularity Optimization to Uncover Chemical Heterogeneity in Complex Solutions.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States.

Structural heterogeneity is commonly manifested in solutions and liquids that feature competition of different interparticle forces. Identifying and characterizing heterogeneity across different length scales requires multimodal experimental measurement and/or the application of new techniques for the interrogation of atomistic simulation data. Within the latter, the parsing of networks of interparticle interactions (chemical networks) has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for identifying subensembles of chemical environments. Read More

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Synchronized resistive-pulse analysis with flow visualization for single micro- and nanoscale objects driven by optical vortex in double orifice.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9323. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531, Japan.

Resistive-pulse analysis is a powerful tool for identifying micro- and nanoscale objects. For low-concentration specimens, the pulse responses are rare, and it is difficult to obtain a sufficient number of electrical waveforms to clearly characterize the targets and reduce noise. In this study, we conducted a periodic resistive-pulse analysis using an optical vortex and a double orifice, which repetitively senses a single micro- or nanoscale target particle with a diameter ranging from 700 nm to 2 [Formula: see text]m. Read More

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