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Application of Molecular Imaging in Immune Checkpoints Therapy: From Response Assessment to Prognosis Prediction.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2022 Jun 22:103746. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Breast-Thyroid-Surgery and Cancer Center, Xiang'an Hospital of Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, 2000 East Xiang'an Road, Xiamen, China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Precision Diagnosis and Treatment in Breast Cancer (Xiang'an Hospital of Xiamen University), 2000 East Xiang'an Road, Xiamen, China; Xiamen Key Laboratory for Endocrine Related Cancer Precision Medicine, Xiang'an Hospital of Xiamen University, 2000 East Xiang'an Road, Xiamen, China; Xiamen Research Center of Clinical Medicine in Breast & Thyroid Cancers, 2000 East Xiang'an Road, Xiamen, China; Cancer Research Center, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, 4221 South Xiang'an Road, Xiamen, China. Electronic address:

Recently, immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) represented by programmed cell death1 (PD-1) and its major ligands, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), has achieved significant success. Detection of PD-L1 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a classic method to guide the treatment of ICT patients. However, PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment is highly complex. Read More

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What makes somatosensory short-term memory maintenance effective? An EEG study comparing contralateral delay activity between sighted participants and participants who are blind.

Neuroimage 2022 Jun 22:119407. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Germany.

Somatosensory short-term memory is essential for object recognition, sensorimotor learning, and, especially, Braille reading for people who are blind. This study examined how visual sensory deprivation and a compensatory focus on somatosensory information influences memory processes in this domain. We measured slow cortical negativity developing during short-term tactile memory maintenance (tactile contralateral delay activity, tCDA) in frontal and somatosensory areas while a sample of 24 sighted participants and 22 participants who are blind completed a tactile change-detection task where varying loads of Braille pin patterns served as stimuli. Read More

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Ezrin gone rogue in cancer progression and metastasis: An enticing therapeutic target.

Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2022 Jun 22:188753. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Cancer Biology Division, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune, Maharashtra 411007, India. Electronic address:

Cancer metastasis is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer as it remains the most complicated, devastating, and enigmatic aspect of cancer. Several decades of extensive research have identified several key players closely associated with metastasis. Among these players, cytoskeletal linker Ezrin (the founding member of the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin)family) was identified as a critical promoter of metastasis in pediatric cancers in the early 21st century. Read More

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Targeting inflamed and non-inflamed melanomas: biological background and clinical challenges.

Semin Cancer Biol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

University of Perugia, Department of Surgery and Medicine, Unit of Medical Oncology, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated impressive antitumor activity in patients with advanced and early stage melanoma, thus improving long-term survival outcomes. However, most patients derive limited benefit from immunotherapy, due to the development of primary, adaptive, or acquired resistance mechanisms. Immunotherapy resistance is a complex phenomenon that depends on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms which, in turn, drive the interplay between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME). Read More

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Identification of the riboflavin-cofactor binding site in the Vibrio cholerae ion-pumping NQR complex: A novel structural motif in redox enzymes.

J Biol Chem 2022 Jun 22:102182. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago IL. Electronic address:

The ion-pumping NQR complex is an essential respiratory enzyme in the physiology of many pathogenic bacteria. This enzyme transfers electrons from NADH to ubiquinone through several cofactors, including riboflavin (vitamin B2). NQR is the only enzyme reported that is able to use riboflavin as a cofactor. Read More

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Cardiac Autotransplantation and Commando Operation: For Complex Multivalvular Infective Endocarditis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, The Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside Brisbane Australia.

This report describes a patient with destructive multivalvular endocarditis with multiorgan dysfunction. Intraoperatively severe unexpected adhesions due to pancarditis precluded the standard commando operation. The approach of combining autotransplantation with a commando operation was utilized to facilitate adequate debridement of infected tissues and reconstruction in a reasonable time and with satisfactory prosthetic valvular function. Read More

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A naked-eye colorimetric molecular "light switch" based on ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex [Ru(phen)ttbd] as binder and stabilizer for RNA duplex and triplex.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Binding of [Ru(phen)ttbd] (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, ttbd = 4-(6-propenylpyrido-[3,2-a]- phenzain-10-yl-benzene-1,2-diamine) to the RNA triplex poly(U-A*U) (herein "-" and "*" refer to the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen binding, respectively) and the duplex poly(A-U) have been investigated by spectral technology and viscosity method. Analysis of spectral titrations and viscosity experiments as well as melting measurements suggest that [Ru(phen)ttbd] binds to the studied RNA triplex and duplex through intercalation, while its binding constant toward the triplex is greater than the duplex. Luminescent titrations indicate that [Ru(phen)ttbd] can act as a molecular "light switch" for the two RNAs and the switch effect can be detected by the naked-eye. Read More

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High-density lipoproteins negatively regulate innate immunity and facilitate red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus entry via scavenger receptor B type 1.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266000, China. Electronic address:

Lipid metabolism plays an important role in viral infections, and it can directly or indirectly affect various stages of viral infection in cells. As an important component of lipid metabolism, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, and viral infections. Scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1), a receptor of HDL, cannot be ignored in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Read More

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Efficient degradation of norfloxacin by carbonized polydopamine-decorated g-CN activated peroxymonosulfate: Performance and mechanism.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 22:135439. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, China.

The use of metal-free graphite carbon nitride (CN) to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) has attracted extensive attention for organic pollutants degradation. In this work, we prepared carbonized polydopamine-decorated g-CN (CP-700) for activation of PMS to degrade norfloxacin (NOR). The CP-700 composite was obtained by using CN as a base material on which dopamine underwent an autopolymerization reaction to form a CN-PDA complex, followed by pyrolysis. Read More

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Percutaneous/mini-laparotomy fetoscopic repair of open spina bifida: a novel surgical technique.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

The Fetal Institute, Miami, FL; The USFetus Research Consortium, Miami, FL-Los Angeles, CA; Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wertheim School of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL.

Open spina bifida (OSB) is the most common congenital anomaly of the central nervous system compatible with life. Prenatal repair of open spina bifida via open maternal-fetal surgery has been shown to improve postnatal neurological outcomes, including reducing the need for ventriculoperitoneal shunting and improving lower neuromotor function. Fetoscopic repair of OSB minimizes the maternal risks while providing similar neurosurgical outcomes to the fetus. Read More

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Physiologically relevant curcuminoids inhibit angiogenesis via VEGFR2 in human aortic endothelial cells.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 Jun 22:113254. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Laboratory of Food and Health, Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Dept. Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, P.O. Box 164, 30100. Campus de Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.

Angiogenesis is a complex process encompassing endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. While numerous studies describe that curcumin exerts antitumor properties (e.g. Read More

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A case study in phenomenology of visual experience with retinal prosthesis versus visual-to-auditory sensory substitution.

Neuropsychologia 2022 Jun 22:108305. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

The Baruch Ivcher Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Technology, The Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Reichman University, Herzliya, Israel; The Ruth & Meir Rosenthal Brain Imaging Center, Reichman University, Herzliya, Israel.

The phenomenology of the blind has provided an age-old, unparalleled means of exploring the enigmatic link between the brain and mind. This paper delves into the unique phenomenological experience of a man who became blind in adulthood. He subsequently underwent both an Argus II retinal prosthesis implant and training, and extensive training on the EyeMusic visual to auditory sensory substitution device, thereby becoming the first reported case to date of dual proficiency with both devices. Read More

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Machine Learning Assisted Prediction of Biochar Yield and Composition via Pyrolysis of Biomass.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jun 22:127511. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. Electronic address:

Biochar production via pyrolysis of various organic waste has potential to reduce dependence on conventional energy sources and mitigate global warming potential. Existing models for predicting biochar yields and composition are computationally-demanding, complex, and have low accuracy for extrapolative scenarios. Here, two data-driven machine learning models based on Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network and Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System are developed. Read More

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Prebiotic-like cyclodextrin assisted silybin on NAFLD through restoring liver and gut homeostasis.

J Control Release 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease with no currently approved treatment. The natural compound silybin (SLN) has versatile hepatoprotective efficacy with negligible adverse effects; however, poor absorption limits its clinical applications. Gut microbiota has been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of NAFLD and targeted for disease control. Read More

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3D printing of a controlled fluoride delivery device for the prevention and treatment of tooth decay.

J Control Release 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 3, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Dental decay is a highly prevalent chronic disease affecting people from all ages. Clinically, fluoride supplementation is the primary strategy in the prevention of dental decay. However, the current existing self-application formulations such as gels or mouthwashes are rapidly cleared after administration, resulting in modest efficacy even after repeated applications. Read More

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Linking the formation of varves in a eutrophic temperate lake to meteorological conditions and water column dynamics.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 22:156787. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Despite varved sediments being widely used for paleolimnological studies, little information is available about how climate and meteorological signals are recorded in varves at sub-seasonal to annual scale. We investigate links between meteorological and limnological conditions and their influence on biochemical varve formation and preservation of sub-seasonal climate signals in the sediments. Our study site is postglacial Lake Żabińskie located in NE Poland, in which thick and complex varved sediments have been studied for the last decade. Read More

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The impact of cumulative stressor effects on uncertainty and ecological risk.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 22:156877. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Science, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New Zealand.

To enable environmental management actions to be more effectively prioritized, cumulative effects between multiple stressors need to be accounted for in risk-assessment frameworks. Ecological risk and uncertainty are generally high when multiple stressors occur. In the face of high uncertainty, transparent communication is essential to inform decision-making. Read More

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Effect of intervention delivered by lay maternal care providers to improve outcome and parenting skills among adolescents with perinatal depression in Nigeria (the RAPiD study): A cluster randomized controlled trial.

J Affect Disord 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.

Background: Perinatal depression is more common and is associated with greater negative consequences among adolescents than adults. Psychosocial interventions designed for adults may be inadequate at addressing the unique features of adolescent perinatal depression.

Methods: In a two-arm parallel cluster randomized trial conducted in thirty primary maternal care clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria (15-intervention and 15-control) we compared age-appropriate intervention consisting of problem-solving therapy, behavioral activation, parenting skills training, and parenting support from a self-identified adult to care as usual. Read More

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Mitochondrial protein import stress regulates the LC3 lipidation step of mitophagy through NLRX1 and RRBP1.

Mol Cell 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada; Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address:

Protein import into mitochondria is a highly regulated process, yet how cells clear mitochondria undergoing dysfunctional protein import remains poorly characterized. Here we showed that mitochondrial protein import stress (MPIS) triggers localized LC3 lipidation. This arm of the mitophagy pathway occurs through the Nod-like receptor (NLR) protein NLRX1 while, surprisingly, without the engagement of the canonical mitophagy protein PINK1. Read More

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Dopamine errors drive excitatory and inhibitory components of backward conditioning in an outcome-specific manner.

Curr Biol 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 91602, USA. Electronic address:

For over two decades, phasic activity in midbrain dopamine neurons was considered synonymous with the prediction error in temporal-difference reinforcement learning. Central to this proposal is the notion that reward-predictive stimuli become endowed with the scalar value of predicted rewards. When these cues are subsequently encountered, their predictive value is compared to the value of the actual reward received, allowing for the calculation of prediction errors. Read More

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Neutrophils in homeostasis and tissue repair.

Int Immunol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Neutrophils are the most abundant innate immune cell and are equipped with highly destructive molecular cargo. As such, these cells were long thought to be short-lived killer cells that unleash their full cytotoxic programs on pathogens following infection and on host bystander cells after sterile injury. However, this view of neutrophils is overly simplistic and as a result is outdated. Read More

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An antibody-free platform for multiplexed, sensitive quantification of protein biomarkers in complex biomatrices.

J Chromatogr A 2022 Jun 17;1676:463261. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

SCIEX, 1201 Radio Road, Redwood City, CA 94065, USA.

Sensitive, multiplexed protein quantification remains challenging despite recent advancements in LC-MS assays for targeted protein biomarker quantification. High-sensitivity protein biomarker measurements usually require immuno-affinity enrichment of target protein; a process which is highly dependent on capture reagent and limited in capability to measure multiple analytes. Herein, we report a novel antibody-free platform, which measures multiple biomarkers from complex matrices employing a strategically optimized solid-phase extraction cleanup and orthogonal multidimensional LC-MS. Read More

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Mass transfer of proteins in chromatographic media: Comparison of pure and crude feed solutions.

J Chromatogr A 2022 Jun 19;1676:463264. Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology, Muthgasse 18, Vienna 1190, Austria; Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Bioprocess Science and Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Muthgasse 18, Vienna 1190, Austria. Electronic address:

Elucidation of intraparticle mass transfer mechanisms in protein chromatography is essential for process design. This study investigates the differences of adsorption and diffusion parameters of basic human fibroblast factor 2 (hFGF2) in a simple (purified) and a complex (clarified homogenate) feed solution on the grafted agarose-based strong cation exchanger Capto S. Microscopic investigations using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed slower intraparticle diffusion of hFGF2 in the clarified homogenate compared to purified hFGF2. Read More

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miR-590-5p: A double-edged sword in the oncogenesis process.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2022 Jun 12;32:100593. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Department of Zoology, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, 151401, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests the critical role of miR-590-5p in various aspects of cellular homeostasis, including cancer. Furthermore, we and others have recently demonstrated that miRNA-590-5p acts as an oncogene in some cancers while it acts as a tumor-suppressor in others. However, the role of miR-590-5p in oncogenesis is more complex, like a double-edged sword. Read More

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Mangiferin, a natural glucoxilxanthone, inhibits mitochondrial dynamin-related protein 1 and relieves aberrant mitophagic proteins in mice model of Parkinson's disease.

Phytomedicine 2022 Jun 16;104:154281. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Anatomy, School of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Sunshine Southern Avenue, Fang-Shan District, Beijing 102488, China. Electronic address:

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease featured to mitochondrial dysfunction in neuronal cells. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is an important regulator of mitochondrial fission and subsequent mitophagy. Mangiferin (MGF) is a glucosyl xanthone mainly derived from Mangifera indica L. Read More

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Calycosin reduces myocardial fibrosis and improves cardiac function in post-myocardial infarction mice by suppressing TGFBR1 signaling pathways.

Phytomedicine 2022 Jun 15;104:154277. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanfang Hospital (ZengCheng Branch), Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background: Excessive myocardial fibrosis is the pathological basis of heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI). Although calycosin improves cardiac function, its effect on cardiac fibrosis and cardiac function after MI in mice and its precise mechanism remain unclear.

Purpose: Here, we firstly investigated the effects of calycosin on cardiac fibrosis and ventricular function in mice after MI and the role of transforming growth factor-beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1) signaling in the amelioration of cardiac fibrosis and ventricular function. Read More

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Rhenium(I) derivatives of aminoquinoline and imidazolopiperidine-based ligands: Synthesis, in vitro and in silico biological evaluation against Plasmodium falciparum.

J Inorg Biochem 2022 Jun 16;234:111905. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Chemistry, Fribourg University, Chemin Du Musée 9, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland. Electronic address:

A small library of aminoquinoline and imidazolopiperidine (IMP)-based ligands, containing the 1,2,3-triazole moiety, and their corresponding tricarbonyl rhenium complexes were synthesised and their inhibitory activities evaluated against the chloroquine-sensitive (CQS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains (NF54 and K1, respectively) of P. falciparum. The quinoline-based compounds (L1, L2, ReL1, and ReL2) were at least six-fold more potent than their IMP-based counterparts (L3, L4, ReL3, and ReL4) against both strains of P. Read More

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METTL3 plays a crucial function in multiple biological processes.

Acta Histochem 2022 Jun 22;124(6):151916. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, China; Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Typical Environmental Pollution and Health Hazardsa, Hengyang Medical School, University of South China, Hengyang, China. Electronic address:

The N6-methyladenosine (mA) refers to the methylation of the N6 position of adenosine of RNA adenine. The modification of mA is one of the most abundant epigenetic modifications in eukaryotic mRNA and non-coding RNA and is controlled by methyltransferases and demethylases. The biological mechanism and significance of mA have been discovered with the development of mA sequencing. Read More

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Mitigation of honokiol on fluoride-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cognitive deficits through activating AMPK/PGC-1α/Sirt3.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jun 16;437:129381. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute greatly to fluoride-induced cognitive impairment and behavioural disorders. Honokiol, a natural biphenolic compound, possesses antioxidant and mitochondrial protective properties. The present study investigated the protective actions of honokiol on NaF-elicited cognitive deficits and elucidated the possible mechanism of honokiol-mediated protection. Read More

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Carboxyl porphyrin as signal molecule for sensitive fluorescent detection of aflatoxin B via ARGET-ATRP.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 Jun 20;280:121535. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Pharmacy College, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450046, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

In this work, a novel fluorescent biosensor for sensitive detecting of aflatoxin B (AFB) was constructed through activators regenerated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET-ATRP) for the first time. The AFB antigen was immobilized on the carboxy magnetic beads (MBs) by forming a sandwich-type "aptamer-antigen-antibody" immune system. Then, acrylamid (AM) was introduced through ARGET-ATRP to provide binding sites for the signaling molecules. Read More

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