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Effective HPV vaccination coverage in Australia by number of doses and two-dose spacing: what if one or two doses are sufficient?

Tumour Virus Res 2021 Apr 14:200216. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

VCS Population Health, VCS Foundation, Melbourne, Australia; Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Initially, three-dose schedules were recommended for vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV); subsequently recommendations have been updated to a schedule of two doses delivered at least six (minimum five) months apart for those aged <15 years at dose 1. We aimed to re-estimate effective HPV vaccination coverage in Australia, considering reduced-dose schedules and possible one-dose effectiveness. We also aimed to identify which of the three school visits was most commonly missed amongst two-dose only recipients, to inform optimal timing of visits. Read More

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Targeted therapy for pediatric low-grade glioma.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Pediatric low-grade gliomas are the most frequent brain tumors in children. The standard approach for symptomatic unresectable tumors is chemotherapy. Recently, key molecular alterations/pathways have been identified and targeted drugs developed and tested in clinical trials. Read More

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Backbone assignment of crystalline E. coli maltose binding protein.

Biomol NMR Assign 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre de Résonance Magnétique Nucléaire à Très Hauts champs (UMR 5082, CNRS/Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon/Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1), Université de Lyon, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100, Villeurbanne, France.

The E.coli maltose binding protein (MBP) is a 42.5 kDa molecule widely employed in many biotechnology applications. Read More

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Three species of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato infect camels on the Arabian Peninsula.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Parasitology Unit 190p, Institute of Biology, University of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Straße 34, 70599, Stuttgart, Germany.

We report on the genetic identity of 36 Echinococcus cysts that were collected during a recent slaughterhouse survey of 810 locally bred camels (dromedaries) in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Analysis of a partial nad1 gene sequence showed that the majority (n = 29) belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto, four to E. Read More

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Impact of Regular Physical Activity on Aortic Diameter Progression in Paediatric Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) have an increased risk of aortic dilation and aortic dissection or rupture. The impact of physical training on the natural course of aortopathy in BAV patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of regular physical activity on aortic diameters in a consecutive cohort of paediatric patients with BAV. Read More

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Enhanced nail delivery of voriconazole-loaded nanomicelles by thioglycolic acid pretreatment: a study of protein dynamics and disulfide bond rupture.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 13:120597. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Nanosystems and Drug Delivery Devices (NanoSYS), School of Pharmacy - Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG). Rua 240, esq. com 5ª Avenida, Setor Leste Universitário. 74605-170, Goiânia - GO Brazil. Electronic address:

This work aimed to select an effective penetration enhancer (PE) for nail pretreatment, develop voriconazole (VOR)-loaded nanomicelles, and evaluate their ability to deliver VOR to the nail. A complete analysis of nail protein dynamics, bond rupture, and microstructure was performed. Alternative methods as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and the Ellman's reagent (DTNB) assay were also evaluated. Read More

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Molecular cloning and characterization of CD63 in common carp infected with koi herpesvirus.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Apr 13:104102. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Regions on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

CD63 is a member of the four-transmembrane-domain protein superfamily and is the first characterized tetraspanin protein. In the present study, we cloned the common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) CD63 (ccCD63) sequence and found that the ccCD63 ORF contained 711 bp and encoded a protein of 236 amino acids. Homology analysis revealed that the complete ccCD63 sequence had 84. Read More

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Patient-centred outcomes and effect of disease progression on health status in patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation receiving maintenance olaparib or placebo (SOLO1): a randomised, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

Background: In the phase 3 SOLO1 trial, maintenance olaparib provided a significant progression-free survival benefit versus placebo in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation in response after platinum-based chemotherapy. We analysed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and patient-centred outcomes in SOLO1, and the effect of radiological disease progression on health status.

Methods: SOLO1 is a randomised, double-blind, international trial done in 118 centres and 15 countries. Read More

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Short report: Introduction of chikungunya virus ECSA genotype into the Brazilian Midwest and its dispersion through the Americas.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 16;15(4):e0009290. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratório de Genética Celular e Molecular, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Since introduction into Brazil in 2014, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has presented sustained transmission, although much is unknown about its circulation in the midwestern states. Here, we analyze 24 novel partial and near complete CHIKV genomes from Cuiaba, an urban metropolis located in the Brazilian midwestern state of Mato Grosso (MT). Nanopore technology was used for sequencing CHIKV complete genomes. Read More

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Annexins A1 and A2 Accumulate and Are Immobilized at Cross-Linked Membrane-Membrane Interfaces.

Biochemistry 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy (FKF), University of Southern Denmark (SDU), Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark.

Rapid membrane repair is required to ensure cell survival after rupture of the plasma membrane. The annexin family of proteins is involved in plasma membrane repair (PMR) and is activated by the influx of Ca from the extracellular medium at the site of injury. Annexins A1 and A2 (ANXA1 and ANXA2, respectively) are structurally similar and bind to negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) to induce membrane cross-linking and to promote fusion, which are both essential processes that occur during membrane repair. Read More

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Capturing the Complete Reaction Profile of a C-H Bond Activation.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States.

The activation of C-H bonds requires the generation of extremely reactive species, which hinders the study of this reaction and its key intermediates. To overcome this challenge, we synthesized an iron(III) chloride-pyridinediimine complex that generates a chlorine radical proximate to reactive C-H bonds upon irradiation with light. Transient spectroscopy confirms the formation of a Cl·|arene complex, which then activates C-H bonds on the PDI ligand to yield HCl and a carbon-centered radical as determined by photocrystallography. Read More

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State of the structure address on MET receptor activation by HGF.

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California - San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, U.S.A.

The MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and its cognate ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) comprise a signaling axis essential for development, wound healing and tissue homeostasis. Aberrant HGF/MET signaling is a driver of many cancers and contributes to drug resistance to several approved therapeutics targeting other RTKs, making MET itself an important drug target. In RTKs, homeostatic receptor signaling is dependent on autoinhibition in the absence of ligand binding and orchestrated set of conformational changes induced by ligand-mediated receptor dimerization that result in activation of the intracellular kinase domains. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection in schools in a northern French city: a retrospective serological cohort study in an area of high transmission, France, January to April 2020.

Euro Surveill 2021 04;26(15)

Direction de la recherche médicale, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

BackgroundChildren's role in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology remains unclear. We investigated an initially unnoticed SARS-CoV-2 outbreak linked to schools in northern France, beginning as early as mid-January 2020.AimsThis retrospective observational study documents the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, linked to an affected high school (n = 664 participants) and primary schools (n = 1,340 study participants), in the context of unsuspected SARS-CoV-2 circulation and limited control measures. Read More

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Computational and SAXS-based structure insights of pectin acetyl esterase (Pae12B) of family 12 carbohydrate esterase from ATCC 27405.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Apr 16:1-18. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Carbohydrate Enzyme Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Pectin is a complex form of polysaccharide and is composed of several structural components that require the concerted action of several pectinases for its complete degradation. In this study, and solution structure of a pectin acetyl esterase (Pae12B) of family 12 carbohydrate esterase (CE12) from was determined. The Pae12B modelled structure, showed a new α/β hydrolase fold, similar to the fold found in the crystal structures of its nearest homologues from CE12 family, which differed from α/β hydrolase fold found in glycoside hydrolases. Read More

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Antidepressants for people with epilepsy and depression.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 16;4:CD010682. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Health Data Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Depressive disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbidity in people with epilepsy, affecting around one-third, with a significant negative impact on quality of life. There is concern that people may not be receiving appropriate treatment for their depression because of uncertainty regarding which antidepressant or class works best, and the perceived risk of exacerbating seizures. This review aimed to address these issues, and inform clinical practice and future research. Read More

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Helicobacter Pylori Variants with ABC-Type Tyrosine Phosphorylation Motif in Gastric Biopsies of Ghanaian Patients.

Biomed Res Int 2021 30;2021:6616059. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle Bu, Accra, Ghana.

Background: pathogenicity and disease severity are determined by the tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of CagA protein. This study is aimed at detecting the presence of . and identifying the CagA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs in Ghanaian patients. Read More

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Emerging and Experimental Agents for Anal Cancer: What is New?

J Exp Pharmacol 2021 9;13:433-440. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, Oncoclínicas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is an HPV-related malignancy with rising incidence in the past few decades in the US, characterized by high rates of complete response to chemoradiotherapy with curative intent. However, in a long-term follow-up, a meaningful subgroup of patients with locally advanced disease presents disease recurrence, which demands treatments with high morbidity and important impact in the quality of life. In metastatic or unresectable disease, palliative chemotherapy is the standard of care, but it is still associated with a dismal prognosis. Read More

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Phenotypic and Clonal Stability of Antigen-Inexperienced Memory-like T Cells across the Genetic Background, Hygienic Status, and Aging.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Adaptive Immunity, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic;

Ag-inexperienced memory-like T (AIMT) cells are functionally unique T cells, representing one of the two largest subsets of murine CD8 T cells. However, differences between laboratory inbred strains, insufficient data from germ-free mice, a complete lack of data from feral mice, and an unclear relationship between AIMT cells formation during aging represent major barriers for better understanding of their biology. We performed a thorough characterization of AIMT cells from mice of different genetic background, age, and hygienic status by flow cytometry and multiomics approaches, including analyses of gene expression, TCR repertoire, and microbial colonization. Read More

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How the molecular weight affects the in vivo fate of exogenous hyaluronan delivered intravenously: A stable-isotope labelling strategy.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 17;263:117927. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Contipro a.s., Dolní Dobrouč 401, 56102, Dolní Dobrouč, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

There is inconsistent information regarding the size effects of exogenously given hyaluronan on its in vivo fate. The data are often biased by the poor quality of hyaluronan and non-ideal labelling strategies used for resolving exogenous/endogenous hyaluronan, which only monitor the label and not hyaluronan itself. To overcome these drawbacks and establish the pharmacokinetics of intravenous hyaluronan in relation to its M, C-labelled HA of five Ms from 13. Read More

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[Dasatinib combined with multi-agent chemotherapy regimen in newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective study from a single center].

Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;42(2):109-115

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020, China.

This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of dasatinib combined with a multi-agent chemotherapy regimen of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL) patients. This prospective, single-arm, and open clinical study enrolled 30 adult Ph(+) ALL patients who were newly diagnosed and treated from January 2016 to April 2018 in the center of this study. Standard induction chemotherapy was given for 4 weeks. Read More

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February 2021

Molecular risk markers related to local tumor recurrence at histological margin-free endoscopically resected early gastric cancers: A pilot study.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 5;222:153434. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pathology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, 14068, Republic of Korea.

Local recurrences in early gastric cancers (EGCs) after complete endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) remain problematic. Here, we investigated the spatially sequential molecular changes in various cancer-related proteins along the axis of the histologically clear but recurrent resection margins (TRM) to determine the appropriate tumor-free margin distance and potential molecular risk markers related to local recurrence. Five eligible patients with recurrent EGCs after complete ESD were selected from 548 EGC patients. Read More

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PEG-based thermosensitive and biodegradable hydrogels.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Shanghai Stomatological Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China; Zhuhai Fudan Innovation Institute, Zhuhai, Guangdong 51900, China.

Injectable thermosensitive hydrogels are free-flowing polymer solutions at low or room temperature, making them easy to encapsulate the therapeutic payload or cells via simply mixing. Upon injection into the body, in situ forming hydrogels triggered by body temperature can act as drug-releasing reservoirs or cell-growing scaffolds. Finally, the hydrogels are eliminated from the administration sites after their roles as depots or scaffolds are complete. Read More

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Evaluation of Pathologic Response in Lymph Nodes of Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Introduction: Major pathologic response (MPR), defined as ≤10% residual viable tumor, currently serves as a surrogate endpoint for survival for patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, the significance of pathologic response in lymph nodes harboring metastatic tumor in such patients remains uncertain. Therefore, we studied the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on resected positive lymph nodes and determined if the degree of pathologic response in the lymph nodes alone (LN-MPR) or in combination with that of the primary tumor (PT-MPR) was able to predict outcome. Read More

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Prediction of Solution Behavior via Calorimetric Measurements Allows for Detailed Elucidation of Polyoxometalate Transformation.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, United States.

The solution behavior of a polyoxometalate cluster, LiNa-UPp (LiNa[(UOO)(PO)]) that consists of 24 uranyl ions, peroxide groups, and 12 pyrophosphate linkers, was successfully predicted based on new thermodynamic results using a calorimetric method recently described for uranyl peroxide nanoclusters (UPCs), molybdenum blues, and molybdenum browns. The breakdown of LiNa-UPp and formation of U (Li[UOOOH]) was monitored via Raman spectroscopy using a custom heating apparatus. A combination of analytical techniques confirmed the simultaneous existence of UPp and U midway through the conversion process and U as the single end product. Read More

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Perspective on Emerging Mass Spectrometry Technologies for Comprehensive Lipid Structural Elucidation.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, United States.

Lipids and metabolites are of interest in many clinical and research settings because it is the metabolome that is increasingly recognized as a more dynamic and sensitive molecular measure of phenotype. The enormous diversity of lipid structures and the importance of biological structure-function relationships in a wide variety of applications makes accurate identification a challenging yet crucial area of research in the lipid community. Indeed, subtle differences in the chemical structures of lipids can have important implications in cellular metabolism and many disease pathologies. Read More

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Salvage treatment using anti-PD-1/CTLA-4 immunotherapy after failure of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in microsatellite instable gastroesophageal carcinoma.

Oncologist 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, Alfred Health, Australia.

Perioperative chemotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early high risk gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma independent of molecular subtype. Around 8 % of gastroesophageal cancers have a microsatellite instable phenotype (MSI-H) and retrospective analyses of neoadjuvant-/adjuvant chemotherapy trials suggest no survival benefit in this patient population compared to surgery alone. Patients with advanced MSI-H malignancies obtain durable responses with immunotherapy using anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade. Read More

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Protocol for measurement of calcium dysregulation in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 23;2(2):100405. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Programs, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Calcium regulation is a critical process in neurons, and Ca signaling is a major contributor to neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, combining calcium imaging with whole-cell Ca current recording, we provide a detailed protocol for measuring Ca homeostasis in dopaminergic (DA) neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This approach can be applied to investigate the role of Ca homeostasis in neuronal functionality as well as in disease processes. Read More

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Protocol for fractionation-assisted native ChIP (fanChIP) to capture protein-protein/DNA interactions on chromatin.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 23;2(2):100404. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Tsuruoka Metabolomics Laboratory, National Cancer Center, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-0052, Japan.

Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) includes many steps that need to be optimized. Here, we have described a protocol of fractionation-assisted native ChIP (fanChIP) which combines subfractionation and native ChIP to purify protein/chromatin complexes applicable for analyses of both protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions within a short period of time. fanChIP is advantageous as subcellular fractionation removes chromatin-unbound materials before immunoprecipitation, and the chromatin fragmentation by micrococcal nuclease (MNase) in a mild condition enables one-step purification of intact protein/chromatin complexes. Read More

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A protocol for transposon insertion sequencing in to identify factors that maintain heterochromatin.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 23;2(2):100392. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) is a highly effective method used with bacteria to identify genes important for growth in any condition of interest. Previously, we adapted this method to identify essential genes of the yeast . Here, we describe modifications used to identify genes necessary for the formation of centromeric heterochromatin. Read More

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The complete mitochondrial genome of long-tailed red-toothed shrew ( and implication of phylogenetic status.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 31;6(4):1308-1309. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Life Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, China.

We determined a complete mitochondrial genome of . This mitogenome is a circular molecule with 16,838 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA), and two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA). This mitochondrial genome has a base composition of 32. Read More

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