44 results match your criteria compartmentalization simian


Virus and CTL dynamics in the extrafollicular and follicular tissue compartments in SIV-infected macaques.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 10 18;14(10):e1006461. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America.

Data from SIV-infected macaques indicate that virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are mostly present in the extrafollicular (EF) compartment of the lymphoid tissue, with reduced homing to the follicular (F) site. This contributes to the majority of the virus being present in the follicle and represents a barrier to virus control. Using mathematical models, we investigate these dynamics. Read More

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October 2018

Seminal Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Chronically Infected Cynomolgus Macaques Is Dominated by Virus Originating from Multiple Genital Organs.

J Virol 2018 07 29;92(14). Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Université Rennes, Inserm, EHESP, Irset (Institut de recherche en santé, environnement et travail)-UMR_S 1085, Rennes, France

The sexual transmission of viruses is responsible for the spread of multiple infectious diseases. Although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic remains fueled by sexual contacts with infected semen, the origin of virus in semen is still unknown. In a substantial number of HIV-infected men, viral strains present in semen differ from the ones in blood, suggesting that HIV is locally produced within the genital tract. Read More

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Visualizing the Immune System: Providing Key Insights into HIV/SIV Infections.

Front Immunol 2018 2;9:423. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Tissue Analysis Core, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, United States.

Immunological inductive tissues, such as secondary lymphoid organs, are composed of distinct anatomical microenvironments for the generation of immune responses to pathogens and immunogens. These microenvironments are characterized by the compartmentalization of highly specialized immune and stromal cell populations, as well as the presence of a complex network of soluble factors and chemokines that direct the intra-tissue trafficking of naïve and effector cell populations. Imaging platforms have provided critical contextual information regarding the molecular and cellular interactions that orchestrate the spatial microanatomy of relevant cells and the development of immune responses against pathogens. Read More

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A SIV molecular clone that targets the CNS and induces neuroAIDS in rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006538. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Despite effective control of plasma viremia with the use of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART), minor cognitive and motor disorders (MCMD) persist as a significant clinical problem in HIV-infected patients. Non-human primate models are therefore required to study mechanisms of disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS). We isolated a strain of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), SIVsm804E, which induces neuroAIDS in a high proportion of rhesus macaques and identified enhanced antagonism of the host innate factor BST-2 as an important factor in the macrophage tropism and initial neuro-invasion of this isolate. Read More

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A spatio-temporal assessment of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) evolution reveals a highly dynamic process within the host.

PLoS Pathog 2017 May 25;13(5):e1006358. Epub 2017 May 25.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

The process by which drug-resistant HIV-1 arises and spreads spatially within an infected individual is poorly understood. Studies have found variable results relating how HIV-1 in the blood differs from virus sampled in tissues, offering conflicting findings about whether HIV-1 throughout the body is homogeneously distributed. However, most of these studies sample only two compartments and few have data from multiple time points. Read More

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Characterization of founder viruses in very early SIV rectal transmission.

Virology 2017 02 25;502:97-105. Epub 2016 Dec 25.

Nebraska Center for Virology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA. Electronic address:

A better understanding of HIV-1 transmission is critical for developing preventative strategies. To that end, we analyzed 524 full-length env sequences of SIVmac251 at 6 and 10 days post intrarectal infection of rhesus macaques. There was no tissue compartmentalization of founder viruses across plasma, rectal and distal lymphatic tissues for most animals; however one animal has evidence of virus tissue compartmentalization. Read More

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February 2017

Correction for Rife et al., Evolution of Neuroadaptation in the Periphery and Purifying Selection in the Brain Contribute to Compartmentalization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) in the Brains of Rhesus Macaques with SIV-Associated Encephalitis.

J Virol 2016 10 12;90(19):8947. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

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October 2016

Characterization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Variants Anatomically Compartmentalized in Plasma and Milk in Chronically Infected African Green Monkeys.

J Virol 2016 10 12;90(19):8795-808. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA

Unlabelled: Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans, African-origin, natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), sustain nonpathogenic SIV infections and rarely vertically transmit SIV to their infants. Interestingly, chronically SIV-infected AGMs have anatomically compartmentalized SIV variants in plasma and milk, whereas humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs), Asian-origin nonnatural SIV hosts, do not exhibit this compartmentalization. Thus, it is possible that AGM SIV populations in milk have unique phenotypic features that contribute to the low postnatal transmission rates observed in this natural host species. Read More

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October 2016

Evolution of Neuroadaptation in the Periphery and Purifying Selection in the Brain Contribute to Compartmentalization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) in the Brains of Rhesus Macaques with SIV-Associated Encephalitis.

J Virol 2016 07 10;90(13):6112-6126. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Unlabelled: The emergence of a distinct subpopulation of human or simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) sequences within the brain (compartmentalization) during infection is hypothesized to be linked to AIDS-related central nervous system (CNS) neuropathology. However, the exact evolutionary mechanism responsible for HIV/SIV brain compartmentalization has not been thoroughly investigated. Using extensive viral sampling from several different peripheral tissues and cell types and from three distinct regions within the brain from two well-characterized rhesus macaque models of the neurological complications of HIV infection (neuroAIDS), we have been able to perform in-depth evolutionary analyses that have been unattainable in HIV-infected subjects. Read More

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Central nervous system-specific consequences of simian immunodeficiency virus Gag escape from major histocompatibility complex class I-mediated control.

J Neurovirol 2016 08 4;22(4):498-507. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

In the fourth decade of the HIV epidemic, the relationship between host immunity and HIV central nervous system (CNS) disease remains incompletely understood. Using a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model, we examined CNS outcomes in pigtailed macaques expressing the MHC class I allele Mane-A1*084:01 which confers resistance to SIV-induced CNS disease and induces the prototypic viral escape mutation Gag K165R. Insertion of gag K165R into the neurovirulent clone SIV/17E-Fr reduced viral replication in vitro compared to SIV/17E-Fr. Read More

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Well-mixed plasma and tissue viral populations in RT-SHIV-infected macaques implies a lack of viral replication in the tissues during antiretroviral therapy.

Retrovirology 2015 Nov 11;12:93. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Determining the anatomic compartments that contribute to plasma HIV-1 is critical to understanding the sources of residual viremia during combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed viral DNA and RNA populations in the plasma and tissues from macaques infected with SIV containing HIV-1 RT (RT-SHIV) to identify possible sources of persistent viremia and to investigate the effect of ART on viral replication in tissues. Tissues were collected at necropsy from four pigtailed macaques infected for 30 weeks with a diverse population of RT-SHIV. Read More

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November 2015

Phylogenetics and Phyloanatomy of HIV/SIV Intra-Host Compartments and Reservoirs: The Key Role of the Central Nervous System.

Curr HIV Res 2016 ;14(2):110-20

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, 2055 Mowry Rd, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: The ability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to persist in anatomic compartments and cellular reservoirs is a major obstacle for eradication of replicationcompetent virus in the infected host.

Approach: We extensively review recent advancements in phylogenetic and phylogeographic techniques that provide a unique opportunity for studies of intra-host HIV-1 compartmentalization and the detection of potential reservoirs.

Conclusion: We show that infected macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) harbor viral subpopulations that play a key role in the emergence of escape variants and viral rebound following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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October 2016

Distinct Compartmentalization in the CNS of SHIVKU-1-Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaque Is Associated With Severe Neuropathology.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2015 Dec;70(5):e168-71

*ABSL-III Laboratory at the Center for Animal Experiment, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan, China; †State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China ‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA §Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY.

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December 2015

Compartmentalization of simian immunodeficiency virus replication within secondary lymphoid tissues of rhesus macaques is linked to disease stage and inversely related to localization of virus-specific CTL.

J Immunol 2014 Dec 31;193(11):5613-25. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN;

We previously demonstrated that HIV replication is concentrated in lymph node B cell follicles during chronic infection and that HIV-specific CTL fail to accumulate in large numbers at those sites. It is unknown whether these observations can be generalized to other secondary lymphoid tissues or whether virus compartmentalization occurs in the absence of CTL. We evaluated these questions in SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques by quantifying SIV RNA(+) cells and SIV-specific CTL in situ in spleen, lymph nodes, and intestinal tissues obtained at several stages of infection. Read More

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December 2014

Identification and molecular characterization of SIV Vpr R50G mutation associated with long term survival in SIV-infected morphine dependent and control macaques.

Virology 2013 Nov 28;446(1-2):144-51. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Department of Microbiology, Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ponce, PR 00716, USA.

Viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein of HIV and SIV involved in the pathogenesis of viral infection. In this study, we monitored SIV evolution in the central nervous system and other organs from morphine-dependent and control animals by sequencing vpr in an attempt to understand the relationship between drug abuse, disease progression, and compartmentalization of viral evolution. Animals in the morphine group developed accelerated disease and died within twenty weeks post-infection. Read More

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November 2013

Transient compartmentalization of simian immunodeficiency virus variants in the breast milk of african green monkeys.

J Virol 2013 Oct 7;87(20):11292-9. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Human Vaccine Institute.

Natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), African green monkeys (AGMs), rarely transmit SIV via breast-feeding. In order to examine the genetic diversity of breast milk SIV variants in this limited-transmission setting, we performed phylogenetic analysis on envelope sequences of milk and plasma SIV variants of AGMs. Low-diversity milk virus populations were compartmentalized from that in plasma. Read More

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October 2013

Laser capture microdissection assessment of virus compartmentalization in the central nervous systems of macaques infected with neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus.

J Virol 2013 Aug 29;87(16):8896-908. Epub 2013 May 29.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Nonhuman primate-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) models are powerful tools for studying the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain. Our laboratory recently isolated a neuropathogenic viral swarm, SIVsmH804E, a derivative of SIVsmE543-3, which was the result of sequential intravenous passages of viruses isolated from the brains of rhesus macaques with SIV encephalitis. Animals infected with SIVsmH804E or its precursor (SIVsmH783Br) developed SIV meningitis and/or encephalitis at high frequencies. Read More

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Genital tract sequestration of SIV following acute infection.

PLoS Pathog 2011 Feb 17;7(2):e1001293. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

We characterized the evolution of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the male genital tract by examining blood- and semen-associated virus from experimentally and sham vaccinated rhesus monkeys during primary infection. At the time of peak virus replication, SIV sequences were intermixed between the blood and semen supporting a scenario of high-level virus "spillover" into the male genital tract. However, at the time of virus set point, compartmentalization was apparent in 4 of 7 evaluated monkeys, likely as a consequence of restricted virus gene flow between anatomic compartments after the resolution of primary viremia. Read More

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February 2011

Neuropathogenic SIVsmmFGb genetic diversity and selection-induced tissue-specific compartmentalization during chronic infection and temporal evolution of viral genes in lymphoid tissues and regions of the central nervous system.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2010 Jun;26(6):663-79

Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA.

SIVsmmFGb is a lentivirus swarm that induces neuropathology in over 90% of infected pigtailed macaques and reliably models central nervous system HIV infection in people. We have previously studied SIVsmmFGb genetic diversity and compartmentalization during acute infection, but little is understood about diversity and intertissue compartmentalization during chronic infection. Tissue-specific pressure appeared to affect the diversity of Nef sequences between tissues, but changes to the Env V1 region and Int diversity were similar across all tissues. Read More

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Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques.

Retrovirology 2009 Nov 23;6:106. Epub 2009 Nov 23.

CEA, Division of Immuno-Virology, DSV/iMETI, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Background: Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Read More

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November 2009

Reduced genetic diversity in lymphoid and central nervous system tissues and selection-induced tissue-specific compartmentalization of neuropathogenic SIVsmmFGb during acute infection.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2009 Jun;25(6):583-601

Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

The simian lentivirus strain SIVsmmFGb is a viral swarm population inducing neuropathology in over 90% of infected pigtailed macaques and serves as a reliable model for HIV neuropathogenesis. However, little is understood about the genetic diversity of this virus, how said diversity influences the initial seeding of the central nervous system and lymph nodes, or whether the virus forms distinct genetic compartments between tissues during acute infection. In this study, we establish that our SIVsmmFGb stock virus contains four genetically distinct envelope V1 region groups, three distinct integrase groups, and two Nef groups. Read More

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Transcriptional profiling in pathogenic and non-pathogenic SIV infections reveals significant distinctions in kinetics and tissue compartmentalization.

PLoS Pathog 2009 Feb 13;5(2):e1000296. Epub 2009 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection leads to AIDS in experimentally infected macaques, whereas natural reservoir hosts exhibit limited disease and pathology. It is, however, unclear how natural hosts can sustain high viral loads, comparable to those observed in the pathogenic model, without developing severe disease. We performed transcriptional profiling on lymph node, blood, and colon samples from African green monkeys (natural host model) and Asian pigtailed macaques (pathogenic model) to directly compare gene expression patterns during acute pathogenic versus non-pathogenic SIV infection. Read More

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February 2009

Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from 2 conventional-progressor macaques with encephalitis.

J Infect Dis 2008 Jun;197(12):1695-700

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques may develop encephalitis, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. In this report, an analysis of 2 conventional progressors with encephalitis is described. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of both macaques demonstrated compartmentalization. Read More

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Dynamics of simian immunodeficiency virus populations in blood and cerebrospinal fluid over the full course of infection.

J Infect Dis 2007 Oct 29;196(7):1058-67. Epub 2007 Aug 29.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Unlabelled: BACKGROUND. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and compartmentalization in the central nervous system, including in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), are associated with severe neurological disease and may contribute to viral persistence during antiretroviral therapy. To understand the relationships between viral populations in multiple compartments, we performed a systematic longitudinal characterization of viral populations in blood plasma and CSF obtained at short time intervals over the full course of infection in 3 macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm strain E660). Read More

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October 2007

Subcellular localization modulates activation function 1 domain phosphorylation in the androgen receptor.

Mol Endocrinol 2007 Sep 19;21(9):2071-84. Epub 2007 Jun 19.

Center for Cell Signaling, Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

Although the steady-state distribution of the androgen receptor (AR) is predominantly nuclear in androgen-treated cells, androgen-bound AR shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the present study we have addressed how nucleocytoplasmic shuttling contributes to the regulation of AR. Nuclear transport signal fusions were used to force AR localization to the nucleus or cytoplasm of prostate cancer cells, and the effect of localization on shuttling, transcription, androgen binding, and phosphorylation was determined. Read More

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September 2007

A novel functional CTL avidity/activity compartmentalization to the site of mucosal immunization contributes to protection of macaques against simian/human immunodeficiency viral depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells.

J Immunol 2007 Jun;178(11):7211-21

Molecular Immunogenetics and Vaccine Research Section, Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The presence of high-avidity CTLs in the right compartment can greatly affect clearance of a virus infection (for example, AIDS viral infection of and dissemination from mucosa). Comparing mucosal vs systemic immunization, we observed a novel compartmentalization of CTL avidity and proportion of functionally active Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells to tissues proximal to sites of immunization. Whereas both s. Read More

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Low prevalence of SV40 in Swiss mesothelioma patients after elimination of false-positive PCR results.

Lung Cancer 2007 Sep 21;57(3):282-91. Epub 2007 May 21.

Clinic and Policlinic of Oncology, Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, University Hospital, Haeldeliweg 4, CH-8044 Zurich, Switzerland.

The association of simian virus 40 (SV40) with malignant pleural mesothelioma is currently under debate. In some malignancies of viral aetiology, viral DNA can be detected in the patients' serum or plasma. To characterize the prevalence of SV40 in Swiss mesothelioma patients, we optimized a real-time PCR for quantitative detection of SV40 DNA in plasma, and used a monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemical detection of SV40 in mesothelioma tissue microarrays. Read More

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September 2007

SIV Vpr evolution is inversely related to disease progression in a morphine-dependent rhesus macaque model of AIDS.

Virology 2007 Mar 24;359(2):397-404. Epub 2006 Oct 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, PR 00716, USA.

Three of six morphine-dependent monkeys progressed rapidly to AIDS and died by 20 weeks in our SIV/SHIV non-human primate model of drug addiction and AIDS. We studied the evolution of the SIV vpr gene in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in these rapid progressors, in their normal progressor counterparts and in infected, drug-free controls at 12 and 20 weeks post infection. Viral RNA was amplified, cloned, and sequenced to permit phylogenetic analyses of diversity and divergence of the vpr locus. Read More

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Simian immunodeficiency virus envelope compartmentalizes in brain regions independent of neuropathology.

J Neurovirol 2006 Apr;12(2):73-89

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp160s obtained from the brain are often genetically distinct from those isolated from other organs, suggesting the presence of brain-specific selective pressures or founder effects that result in the compartmentalization of viral quasi-species. Whereas HIV has also been found to compartmentalize within different regions of the brain, the extent of brain-regional compartmentalization of SIV in rhesus macaques has not been characterized. Furthermore, much is still unknown about whether phenotypic differences exist in envelopes from different brain regions. Read More

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The HIV-1 clade C promoter is particularly well adapted to replication in the gut in primary infection.

AIDS 2006 Mar;20(5):657-66

Unité de Rétrovirologie Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Objective: Coinfection of rhesus macaques with human/simian immunodeficiency virus chimeras harbouring the minimal core-promoter/enhancer elements from HIV-1 clade B, C and E viral prototypes (STR-B, STR-C and STR-E) revealed a remarkable dichotomy in terms of spatio-temporal viral replication. The clade C chimera (STR-C) predominated in primary infection. The present study was aimed at identifying the origin of STR-C plasma viraemia at this infection phase. Read More

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