173,136 results match your criteria compared species

Rapid population increase of the threatened Australian amphibian Litoria aurea in response to wetlands constructed as a refuge from chytrid-induced disease and introduced fish.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 4;291:112638. Epub 2021 May 4.

Conservation Science Research Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Biology Building, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.

Amphibians have declined due to multiple impacts including invasive fish and the disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Wetland restoration can be used to increase amphibian populations. However the design of created wetlands must account for threats such as Bd and introduced fish. Read More

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The fast and the tendinous? Locomotor modifications of the caudal peduncle in Gila spp. from the American Southwest.

Zoology (Jena) 2021 Mar 26;146:125924. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biological Sciences, 617 S. Beaver St., Flagstaff, AZ, 86011, United States.

In the American Southwest, the fishes within the genus Gila evolved in an environment with seasonal rainstorms that caused stochastic flooding. Some species within this genus, such as bonytail (Gila elegans), possess locomotor morphologies that are similar to those seen in high-performance swimmers such as tuna and lamnid sharks. These shared features include a shallow caudal peduncle, lunate tail, and mechanisms to transmit force from the anterior musculature to the tail fin. Read More

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Evolution of host use in fungivorous ciid beetles (Coleoptera: Ciidae): molecular phylogeny focusing on Japanese taxa.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 May 4:107197. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto 606 8502 Japan.

Consumer-resource interactions between trophic levels are ubiquitous and important factors in shaping the diversity of insects. However, dietary patterns such as host specificity and conservatism have been insufficiently examined in fungivorous insects. Here we reconstructed the evolutionary history of host use in fungivorous ciid beetles (Coleoptera: Ciidae) and tested for host conservatism. Read More

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Mitochondrial bioenergetics and enzymatic antioxidant defense differ in Paraná pine cell lines with contrasting embryogenic potential.

Free Radic Res 2021 May 7:1-12. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

is classified as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. This threat is worsened by the inefficiency of methods for conservation and propagation. In conifers, somatic embryogenesis (SE) associated with cryopreservation is an efficient method to achieve germplasm conservation and mass clonal propagation. Read More

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Comparative Genomics, from the Annotated Genome to Valuable Biological Information: A Case Study.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2242:91-112

Department of Plant Protection and Biotechnology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology University of Gdansk & Medical University of Gdansk, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, 58 Abrahama, Poland.

High availability of fast, cheap, and high-throughput next generation sequencing techniques resulted in acquisition of numerous de novo sequenced and assembled bacterial genomes. It rapidly became clear that digging out useful biological information from such a huge amount of data presents a considerable challenge. In this chapter we share our experience with utilization of several handy open source comparative genomic tools. Read More

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January 2021

Cutibacterium modestum and "Propionibacterium humerusii" represent the same species that is commonly misidentified as Cutibacterium acnes.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Clinical Bacteriology and Mycology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.

Cutibacterium spp. play an increasing role in soft tissue and implant-associated infections. We isolated a novel Cutibacterium spp. Read More

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Bacterial α-diglucoside metabolism: perspectives and potential for biotechnology and biomedicine.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland-Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA.

In a competitive microbial environment, nutrient acquisition is a major contributor to the survival of any individual bacterial species, and the ability to access uncommon energy sources can provide a fitness advantage. One set of soluble carbohydrates that have attracted increased attention for use in biotechnology and biomedicine is the α-diglucosides. Maltose is the most well-studied member of this class; however, the remaining four less common α-diglucosides (trehalose, kojibiose, nigerose, and isomaltose) are increasingly used in processed food and fermented beverages. Read More

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Optically Induced Charge Transfer in Organic Mixed-Valence Systems: Wave Packet Dynamics and Femtosecond Transient Spectroscopy.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Emil-Fischer-Strasse 42, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

We theoretically study the dynamics of charge transfer induced by femtosecond laser-pulse excitation. Models involving coupled electronic states of symmetrically bridged organic mixed-valence molecules are investigated, where the motion proceeds along two reaction coordinates. Linear absorption spectra of two species that differ in the energetical position of the bridge, relative to acceptor and donor states, are determined and compared to experimental results. Read More

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Photocuring Three-Dimensional Printing of Thermoplastic Polymers Enabled by Hydrogen Bonds.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Transportation and Civil Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350108, P. R. China.

The advent of 3D printing has led to a new era of highly customized products. Printing reprocessable thermoplastic polymers is limited to slow printing techniques such as fused deposition modeling. Photocuring 3D printing is a high-speed 3D printing technique suitable for photocurable thermosetting resins because the cross-linked 3D network could achieve rapid solid-liquid separation during printing. Read More

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To hum or not to hum: Neural transcriptome signature of male courtship vocalization in a teleost fish.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 May 7:e12740. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States.

For many animal species, vocal communication is a critical social behavior and often a necessary component of reproductive success. Additionally, vocalizations are often demanding motor acts. Wanting to know whether a specific molecular toolkit might be required for vocalization, we used RNA-sequencing to investigate neural gene expression underlying the performance of an extreme vocal behavior, the courtship hum of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). Read More

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Vertical diversity and association pattern of total, abundant and rare microbial communities in deep-sea sediments.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Marine Life Sciences, and Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China.

Microbial abundance and community composition in marine sediments have been widely explored. However, high-resolution vertical changes of benthic microbial diversity and co-occurrence patterns are poorly described. The ecological contributions of abundant and rare species in sediments also remain largely unknown. Read More

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Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections in companion animals in Spain.

Vet Rec 2021 May 28;188(9):e60. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Catalan Wildlife Service, Centre de Fauna Salvatge de Torreferrussa, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, causing urinary tract infections (UTI) in dogs and cats, represents a great therapeutic challenge and a public health concern.

Methods: Laboratory records of 4943 urinary microbiological diagnosis results and antimicrobial resistance profiles of suspected UTI cases in dogs and cats were analysed from 2016 to 2018 in Spain.

Results: This study showed a higher percentage of positive microbiological diagnoses in dogs (42%, 1368/3270) than in cats (27%, 457/1673). Read More

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High-frequency stable isotope signals in uneven-aged forests as proxy for physiological responses to climate in Central Europe.

Tree Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Forest Dynamics, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica are important tree species in Europe, and the foreseen increase in temperature and VPD could increase the vulnerability of these species. However, their physiological performance under climate change at temperate and productive sites is not yet fully understood, especially in uneven aged stands. Therefore, we investigated tree-ring width and stable isotope chronologies (δ13C/δ18O) of these two species at ten sites along a climate gradient in Central Europe. Read More

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Plasmonic elliptical nanoholes for chiroptical analysis and enantioselective optical trapping.

Nanoscale 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein Straße 9, 07745 Jena, Germany. and Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany and Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128 Sec. 2, Academia Road, 11529 Taipei, Nankang District, Taiwan and Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, 30010 Hsinchu, Taiwan.

A simple yet effective achiral platform using elliptical nanoholes for chiroptical analysis is demonstrated. Under linearly polarized excitation, an elliptical nanohole in a thin gold film can generate a localized chiral optical field for chiroptical analysis and simultaneously serve as a near-field optical trap to capture dielectric and plasmonic nanospheres. In particular, the trapping potential is enantioselective for dielectric nanospheres, i. Read More

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Metagenomic analysis of mother-infant gut microbiome reveals global distinct and shared microbial signatures.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-24

APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Emerging evidence indicates maternal microbiota as one major reservoir for pioneering microbes in infants. However, the global distinct and identical features of mother-infant gut microbiota at various taxonomic resolutions and metabolic functions across cohorts and potential of infant microbial prediction based on their paired mother's gut microbiota remain unclear. Here, we analyzed 376 mother-infant dyads (468 mother and 1024 infant samples) of eight studies from six countries and observed higher diversity at species and strain levels in maternal gut microbiota but not their metabolic functions. Read More

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[Association of glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphism with risk of male infertility in Moscow region].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):69-73

Peoples Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

About 30% of male infertility is associated with genetic abnormalities. Genetic polymorphisms increase the level of individual susceptibility to adverse environmental factors and affect human reproductive function.

Aim: To study associations of glutathione S-transferase GSTP1(Ile/Val) gene polymorphisms (A313G; rs1695) with the risk of pathospermia in men of the Moscow region. Read More

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Light microscopy proved to be useful technique for morpho-anatomical examination of four wild plant species growing sideways wastewater tunnels.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Botany, GCU Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

The present study was conducted to determine the influence of wastewater used for irrigation purposes on anatomical characters of four wild plants with the help of light microscopy (LM). The plant selected were Trianthema portulacastrum L., Amaranthes viridis L. Read More

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Two new species of Hypostomus suckermouth armored catfishes (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from Central Brazil.

J Fish Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

We describe two new endemic Hypostomus species from central Brazil, which were previously identified as genetically distinct lineages in a recent genomic study that recommended their testing and potential description based on morphological data. A machine learning classification procedure (random forest) was used to investigate morphological variation and identify putatively diagnostic characters for these candidate species, and revealed that each is morphologically distinct. The new species Hypostomus cafuringa is characterized by small size, dark spots under a light background color, deeper caudal peduncle, and shorter first ray of the pectoral-fin and base of the dorsal-fin when compared to congeneric species from the region. Read More

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Bioaccumulation of trace elements in liver and kidney of fish species from three freshwater lakes in the Ethiopian Rift Valley.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 6;193(6):329. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, CERAD Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P. O. Box 5003, 1432, Aas, Norway.

The objective of the present work was to obtain scientific information on the ecological health of three freshwater lakes (Awassa, Koka, and Ziway) situated in the Ethiopian Rift Valley by investigating possible trace element contamination accumulated in fish. Accordingly, fish liver and kidney samples were collected from three commercially important fish species (Barbus intermedius, Clarias gariepinus, and Oreochromis niloticus) in the lakes to determine the concentrations of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), using ICP-MS. Trace element concentrations were generally higher in O. Read More

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Supervised Learning Computer Vision Benchmark for Snake Species Identification From Photographs: Implications for Herpetology and Global Health.

Front Artif Intell 2021 20;4:582110. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

We trained a computer vision algorithm to identify 45 species of snakes from photos and compared its performance to that of humans. Both human and algorithm performance is substantially better than randomly guessing (null probability of guessing correctly given 45 classes = 2.2%). Read More

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Isoalantolactone Increases the Sensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cells to Cisplatin Treatment by Inducing Oxidative Stress.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:632779. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men worldwide. Platinum (II)-based chemotherapy has been used to treat a number of malignancies including prostate cancer. However, the potential of cisplatin for treating prostate cancer is restricted owing to its limited efficacy and toxic side effects. Read More

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A quantitative assessment of site-level factors in influencing Chukar () introduction outcomes.

PeerJ 2021 16;9:e11280. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States.

Chukar partridges () are popular game birds that have been introduced throughout the world. Propagules of varying magnitudes have been used to try and establish populations into novel locations, though the relationship between propagule size and species establishment remains speculative. Previous qualitative studies argue that site-level factors are of importance when determining where to release Chukar. Read More

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NGScloud2: optimized bioinformatic analysis using Amazon Web Services.

PeerJ 2021 16;9:e11237. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

GI Sistemas Naturales e Historia Forestal, Dpto. Sistemas y Recursos Naturales, ETSI Montes, Forestal y del Medio Natural, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: NGScloud was a bioinformatic system developed to perform de novo RNAseq analysis of non-model species by exploiting the cloud computing capabilities of Amazon Web Services. The rapid changes undergone in the way this cloud computing service operates, along with the continuous release of novel bioinformatic applications to analyze next generation sequencing data, have made the software obsolete. NGScloud2 is an enhanced and expanded version of NGScloud that permits the access to ad hoc cloud computing infrastructure, scaled according to the complexity of each experiment. Read More

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Fertility and mortality impacts of thermal stress from experimental heatwaves on different life stages and their recovery in a model insect.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 10;8(3):201717. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.

With climate change creating a more volatile atmosphere, heatwaves that create thermal stress for living systems will become stronger and more frequent. Using the flour beetle , we measure the impacts of thermal stress from experimental heatwaves in the laboratory on reproduction and survival across different insect life stages, and the extent and pace of any recovery. We exposed larvae, pupae, juvenile and mature adult male beetles to 5-day periods of heat stress where temperatures were maintained at either 40°C or 42°C, a few degrees above the 35°C optimum for this species' population productivity, and then measured survival and reproduction compared with controls at 30°C. Read More

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Goats show higher behavioural flexibility than sheep in a spatial detour task.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201627. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Biological and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK.

The ability to adapt to changing environments is crucial for survival and has evolved based on socio-ecological factors. Goats and sheep are closely related, with similar social structures, body sizes and domestication levels, but different feeding ecologies, i.e. Read More

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Pup ultrasonic isolation calls of six gerbil species and the relationship between acoustic traits and body size.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201558. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Behaviour and Behavioural Ecology, A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071, Russia.

Among Gerbillinae rodents, ultrasonic calls of adults of small-sized species are typically higher frequency than those of adults of large-sized species. This study investigates whether a similar relationship can be found in pups of six gerbil species (, , , , and ). We compared the average values of acoustic variables (duration, fundamental and peak frequency) of ultrasonic calls (20 calls per pup, 1200 in total) recorded from 6- to 10-day-old pups (10 pups per species, 60 in total) isolated for 2 min at 22°C and then weighed and measured for body variables. Read More

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Low desiccation and thermal tolerance constrains a terrestrial amphibian to a rare and disappearing microclimate niche.

Conserv Physiol 2021 28;9(1):coab027. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

Drier and hotter conditions caused by climate change threaten species that exist close to their physiological limits, as well as those with limited ability to move. Habitat specialists may also be particularly vulnerable if they have specific abiotic requirements. Here we assess whether thermal and hydric constraints can explain the highly restricted and declining distributions of the critically endangered terrestrial-breeding frog, . Read More

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The female effect-how female receptivity influences faecal testosterone metabolite levels, socio-positive behaviour and vocalization in male Southern white rhinoceroses.

Conserv Physiol 2021 28;9(1):coab026. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Testosterone is known to be essential for sexual maturation as well as for the display of behavioural traits linked to reproduction. At the same time, external factors such as the presence of receptive females may affect testosterone levels, stressing the hormone's substantial role in reproductive success. It is therefore of major interest to investigate the links between androgens, behaviour and the social environment especially in species that rely on a resilient reproduction rate, such as the white rhinoceros (WR). Read More

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Relationships Between Annual and Perennial Seagrass () Populations and Their Sediment Geochemical Characteristics in the Yellow River Delta.

Front Plant Sci 2021 20;12:634199. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China.

Annual and perennial populations commonly occur for the same submerged aquatic angiosperm species, yet relationships between population types and sediment characteristics are poorly understood. In the current study two habitats with annual and perennial populations were surveyed in the Yellow River Delta (YRD). Biomass and seasonal seed bank size were used to evaluate population status and potential recruitment capacity. Read More

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Population Genetic Analyses of Isolates From Michigan Vineyards Using a High-Throughput Marker System Approach.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:660874. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Small Fruit and Hop Pathology Laboratory, Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.

As sequencing costs continue to decrease, new tools are being developed for assessing pathogen diversity and population structure. Traditional marker types, such as microsatellites, are often more cost effective than single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels when working with small numbers of individuals, but may not allow for fine scale evaluation of low or moderate structure in populations. is a necrotrophic plant pathogen with high genetic variability that can infect more than 200 plant species worldwide. Read More

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