91,952 results match your criteria compared placebo


Hydro-alcoholic extract of reduces fasting blood glucose and HbA1c% in diabetic patients, probably via competitive and allosteric interaction with alpha-glucosidase enzyme; a clinical trial and analysis.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Nursing, Khomein University of Medical Sciences, Khomein, Iran.

Objectives: 1-Deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ), the main active component found in () is reported to be effective in controlling diabetes. We have evaluated the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves on the fasting blood glucose (FBS) and hemoglobin A1c% (HbA1c%) in diabetic patients. Furthermore, we compared the interaction of 1-DNJ and glucose molecules with the alpha-glucosidase enzyme, which has a critical role in the lysis of glucose-based polymers in human cells. Read More

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Role of progesterone, cerclage and pessary in preventing preterm birth in twin pregnancies: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 24;261:166-177. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Fetal Medicine Unit, Saint George's University of London, London, United Kingdom; Vascular Biology Research Centre, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, United Kingdom.

Objective: To determine the role of progesterone, pessary and cervical cerclage in reducing the risk of (preterm birth) PTB in twin pregnancies and compare these interventions using pairwise and network meta-analysis.

Study Design: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were explored. The inclusion criteria were studies in which twin pregnancies were randomized to an intervention for the prevention of PTB (any type of progesterone, cervical cerclage, cervical pessary, or any combination of these) or to a control group (e. Read More

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A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of intravenous thiamine for prevention of delirium following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

J Psychosom Res 2021 Apr 27;146:110503. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Objective: To determine if high dose intravenous (IV) thiamine can prevent delirium during hospitalization following allogeneic HSCT. Secondarily, we evaluated the effects of high dose IV thiamine on thiamine levels and explored risk factors for delirium.

Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT at a U. Read More

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Combination fixed-dose beta agonist and steroid inhaler as required for adults or children with mild asthma.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 4;5:CD013518. Epub 2021 May 4.

Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Asthma affects 350 million people worldwide including 45% to 70% with mild disease. Treatment is mainly with inhalers containing beta₂-agonists, typically taken as required to relieve bronchospasm, and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as regular preventive therapy. Poor adherence to regular therapy is common and increases the risk of exacerbations, morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Communication Intervention Using Digital Technology to Improve Informed Choice at Childbirth in the Context of the Covid-19 Pandemic: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Big Data, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, BR.

Background: In Brazil, and in other low-and-middle-income countries, the excess of interventions in childbirth has been associated with an increase in preterm and early term births, contributing to stagnant morbidity and mortality of mothers and babies. The fact that women often report a negative experience in vaginal childbirth, with physical pain and feelings of unsafety, neglect or abuse, may explain the high acceptability of elective cesarean sections. The recognition of the information needs and of the right to informed choice in childbirth can contribute to change this reality. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of Major Antihypertensive Drug Classes on Erectile Function: a Network Meta-analysis.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Cardiology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Purpose: To determine the effect of major antihypertensive classes on erectile function (EF) in patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

Methods: We performed a systematic review and frequentist network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and thiazide diuretics on EF compared to each other and to placebo (PROSPERO: CRD42020189529). Similarly, we performed a network meta-analysis to explore the effect of different β-blockers on erectile function (nebivolol, other vasodilating and non-vasodilating β-blockers, placebo). Read More

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JAK inhibitors, Psoriatic Arthritis, and Axial Spondyloarthritis: a Critical Review of Clinical Trials.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Rheumatology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Introduction: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) are inflammatory arthritides associated with progressive damage, deformity and morbidity. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors block JAKs, cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases important in signal transduction and immune processes that are currently being studied as synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (tsDMARDs) in psoriatic arthritis and spondyloarthritis.

Areas Covered: This review evaluates published phase 2 and 3 clinical trial data for JAK kinase inhibitors for psoriatic arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Read More

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Does the Initiation of Fluoxetine Postacute Stroke Result in Improved Functional Recovery?: A Critically Appraised Topic.

Neurologist 2021 May 5;26(3):112-115. Epub 2021 May 5.

Departments of Neurology.

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are often prescribed following stroke due to high rates of depression. Interest in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use for poststroke motor and functional recovery was generated after the publication of the Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischemic stroke (FLAME) trial in 2011, which showed improved motor recovery in ischemic stroke patients with moderate to severe motor deficits. Read More

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Hyperammonemia in Patients With Status Epilepticus Treated With or Without Valproic Acid.

Neurologist 2021 May 5;26(3):80-82. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Hyperammonemia is a common side effect of valproic acid (VPA) and can occur after generalized seizures, but the clinical significance is unclear. The aim of this study was to better understand the clinical practice and utility of ammonia testing in status epilepticus (SE) treated with or without VPA.

Methods: Charts of adult patients with SE from St. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of 1% Progesterone Gel to the Forehead for Ocular Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Feb 14. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

There is no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD) to date, and current therapeutic options are limited. Forehead application of 1% progesterone gel provides corneal antinociception in preclinical models, suggesting it may be useful in alleviating ocular irritations. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 1% progesterone gel in treating moderate to severe symptomatic oGVHD. Read More

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February 2021

The Effect of Evening Primrose Oil Capsule on Hot Flashes and Night Sweats in Postmenopausal Women: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Menopausal Med 2021 Apr;27(1):8-14

Department of Nursing, Mother and Child Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objectives: Menopause is associated with complications that could decline women's health during this period. Therefore, some of its complications, such as hot flashes and night sweats, must be treated or alleviated.

Methods: This randomized controlled trial included postmenopausal women who were referred to health centers in Hamadan from May 2018 to April 2019. Read More

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Immediate antiepileptic drug treatment, versus placebo, deferred, or no treatment for first unprovoked seizure.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 4;5:CD007144. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratorio di Malattie Neurologiche, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano, Italy.

Background: This is an updated version of the Cochrane review previously published in 2016. There is considerable disagreement about the risk of recurrence following a first unprovoked epileptic seizure. A decision about whether to start antiepileptic drug treatment following a first seizure should be informed by information on the size of any reduction in risk of future seizures, the impact on long-term seizure remission, and the risk of adverse effects. Read More

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Safety of Baricitinib 4 mg for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis.

South Med J 2021 May;114(5):288-292

From the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis.

Objective: We evaluated the safety of baricitinib 4 mg at 24 weeks for the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: Multiple databases were searched from inception up to November 26, 2019 for randomized controlled trials comparing baricitinib 4 mg with placebo for the treatment of moderate to severe RA. The safety outcomes of interest were the incidence of serious adverse events, adverse events leading to study discontinuation, all infections, and serious infections. Read More

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Manipulating placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia by changing brain excitability.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129;

Harnessing placebo and nocebo effects has significant implications for research and medical practice. Placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia, the most well-studied placebo and nocebo effects, are thought to initiate from the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and then trigger the brain's descending pain modulatory system and other pain regulation pathways. Combining repeated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), an expectancy manipulation model, and functional MRI, we investigated the modulatory effects of anodal and cathodal tDCS at the right DLPFC on placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia using a randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled design. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness of empagliflozin versus canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or standard of care in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 May;9(1)

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany.

Introduction: Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, is approved in the USA to reduce risk of cardiovascular (CV) death in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and established CV disease, based on EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) trial results. Empagliflozin reduced major adverse CV event (MACE) by 14%, CV death by 38%, and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) by 35% vs placebo, each on top of standard of care (SoC). SGLT-2 inhibitors canagliflozin and dapagliflozin have also been compared with placebo, all on top of SoC, in CV outcome trials. Read More

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Effects of evolocumab in individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without atherogenic dyslipidemia: An analysis from BANTING and BERSON.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 Apr 30;20(1):94. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Icahn School of Medicine At Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD), characterized by increased concentrations of apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing particles, is often present in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), cholesterol transported by apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing particles), and total apoB are considered secondary goals of lipid-lowering therapy to guide treatment of residual cardiovascular risk. The BANTING and BERSON studies demonstrated that evolocumab added to statin therapy reduced atherogenic lipid and lipoproteins concentrations in patients with T2DM. Read More

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Effect of two desensitizing agents applied previous to in-office bleaching on the degree of whitening and dentin sensitivity: A randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

Am J Dent 2021 Apr;34(2):70-74

Department of Restorative Dentistry , School of Dentistry, State University of Western Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil,

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of two desensitizing agents applied before in-office bleaching, on the degree of whitening and dentin sensitivity.

Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to the groups, according to the desensitizing agent used, with n=10 for each one. The bleaching was performed with 35% hydrogen peroxide, divided according to the desensitizing agent used prior to the bleaching procedure: Placebo (PL); Desensibilize KF with potassium nitrate and 0. Read More

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The efficacy and safety of agomelatine, sertraline, and escitalopram for senile post-stroke depression: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 16;205:106651. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of General Medicine, Wu Zhongpei Memorial Hospital, Foshan 528300, China.

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of agomelatine, sertraline, and escitalopram for patients with senile post-stroke depression (SPSD, aged over 65 years).

Patients And Methods: A total of 165 patients (aged over 65 years) with post-stroke depression (PSD) were recruited. These patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups and given an anti-depressant or a placebo as follows: group A (agomelatine in combination with conventional cerebrovascular disease medication) 48 patients; group B (sertraline in combination with conventional cerebrovascular disease medication) 47 patients; group C (escitalopram in combination with conventional cerebrovascular disease medication) 50 patients; and, a control group (conventional treatment alone) 20 patients. Read More

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S-nitrosothiols, and other products of nitrate metabolism, are increased in multiple human blood compartments following ingestion of beetroot juice.

Redox Biol 2021 Apr 16;43:101974. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

University of Exeter Medical School, College of Medicine and Health, St. Luke's Campus, University of Exeter, Heavitree Road, Exeter, EX1 2LU, UK. Electronic address:

Ingested inorganic nitrate (NO⁻) has multiple effects in the human body including vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and improved skeletal muscle function. The functional effects of oral NO⁻ involve the in vivo reduction of NO⁻ to nitrite (NO⁻) and thence to nitric oxide (NO). However, the potential involvement of S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) formation is unclear. Read More

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A randomised controlled trial of the immunogenicity and safety of a formaldehyde-inactivated Coxiella burnetii vaccine in 8-week-old goats.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Apr 25;236:110253. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.

Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in individuals exposed to infected ruminants. Vaccination in 3-4-month-old goats, has been reported to result in significantly greater reduction in C. burnetii shedding compared to goats vaccinated one month before breeding, the most commonly used strategy of controlling Q fever on infected intensively-managed herds. Read More

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Low-Dose of Rocuronium During Thyroid Surgery: Effects on Intraoperative Nerve-Monitoring and Intubation.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 29;265:131-138. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, "Magna Graecia" University, Catanzaro, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring (IONM) reduces the incidence of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) injuries during thyroid surgery. To preserve nerve function, long acting neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) should be avoided. However, NMBA are necessary for laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Read More

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Does ischemic preconditioning really improve performance or it is just a placebo effect?

PLoS One 2021 3;16(5):e0250572. Epub 2021 May 3.

Physiology and Human Performance Research Group, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

This study examined the effects of a simultaneous ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and SHAM intervention to reduce the placebo effect due to a priori expectation on the performance of knee extension resistance exercise. Nine moderately trained men were tested in three different occasions. Following the baseline tests, subjects performed a first set of leg extension tests after the IPC (3 X 5 min 50 mmHg above systolic blood pressure) on right thigh and the SHAM (same as IPC, but 20 mmHg) on left thigh. Read More

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Tranexamic acid and bleeding in patients treated with non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants undergoing dental extraction: The EXTRACT-NOAC randomized clinical trial.

PLoS Med 2021 May 3;18(5):e1003601. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Oral bleeding after dental extraction in patients on non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is a frequent problem. We investigated whether 10% tranexamic acid (TXA) mouthwash decreases post-extraction bleeding in patients treated with NOACs.

Methods And Findings: The EXTRACT-NOAC study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial. Read More

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The Effects of Intraoperative Caffeine on Postoperative Opioid Consumption and Related Outcomes After Laparoscopic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Anesth Analg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

From the Department of Anesthesiology.

Background: Surgical patients are vulnerable to opioid dependency and related risks. Clinical-translational data suggest that caffeine may enhance postoperative analgesia. This trial tested the hypothesis that intraoperative caffeine would reduce postoperative opioid consumption. Read More

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Erenumab prevents the occurrence of migraine attacks and not just migraine days: Post-hoc analyses of a phase III study.

Cephalalgia 2021 May 3:3331024211010308. Epub 2021 May 3.

Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet- Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark.

Background: This post-hoc analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of erenumab on monthly migraine days, monthly migraine attacks, and attack duration in patients with episodic migraine to investigate whether erenumab actually prevents the occurrence of migraine attacks and/or shortens them.

Methods: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of the data from the STRIVE study, in 955 patients with episodic migraine. Relative changes from baseline to mean over months 4, 5 and 6 of the double-blind treatment phase in monthly migraine days, monthly migraine attacks and mean migraine attack duration were assessed. Read More

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Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Poly-L-Lactic acid for Treatment of Cellulite in the Lower Extremities.

J Drugs Dermatol 2021 May;20(5):529-533

Background: Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) is an injectable volumizer with biostimulatory properties used for volumetric structural rejuvenation in patients with facial fat volume loss but has increasingly been utilized for off-face applications.

Objective: The objectives of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled single center study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of PLLA for the treatment of lower extremity cellulite in adult women.

Methods: 31 healthy women were enrolled in the study. Read More

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The Effectiveness of Galactomyces Ferment Filtrate, Dexpanthenol, and Combination Serum in the Treatment of Post-Acne Hyperpigmentation in Subjects with Skin of Color.

Skinmed 2021 1;19(2):110-115. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Post-acne hyperpigmentation (PAH) occurs secondary to acne vulgaris and may cause significant adverse effects. Although may occur in any skin types, PAH has been found to be more common and severe in people with colored skin. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of combination serum containing galactomyces ferment filtrate (GFF), dexpanthenol, and for treating PAH. Read More

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Adverse Health-Related Quality of Life Outcome Despite Adequate Clinical Response to Treatment in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 16;8:651249. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

To determine the prevalence of adverse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes in patients with SLE who achieved an adequate clinical response after a 52-week long standard therapy plus belimumab or placebo, and identify contributing factors. We included patients who met the primary endpoint of the BLISS-52 (NCT00424476) and BLISS-76 (NCT00410384) trials, i.e. Read More

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The Effects of Valerian on Sleep Quality, Depression, and State Anxiety in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized, Double-blind, Crossover Clinical Trial.

Oman Med J 2021 Mar 31;36(2):e255. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Research Center of Physiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Objectives: Our study sought to determine the effects of valerian on sleep quality, depression, and state anxiety in hemodialysis (HD) patients.

Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted on 39 patients undergoing HD allocated into a valerian and placebo group. In the first phase of the study, group A (n = 19) received valerian and group B (n = 20) received a placebo one hour before sleep every night for a total of one month. Read More

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Emerging Disease-Modifying Therapies in Neurodegeneration With Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA) Disorders.

Front Neurol 2021 15;12:629414. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology With Friedrich Baur Institute, University Hospital of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA) is a heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by iron deposition in the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra. As of today, 15 distinct monogenetic disease entities have been identified. The four most common forms are pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6)-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN), beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) and mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN). Read More

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