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Differences in the baseline characteristics, management and outcomes of patients with hip fractures depending on their pre-fracture place of residence: the Spanish National Hip Fracture Registry (RNFC) cohort.

Eur Geriatr Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Geriatric Service, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Paseo La Castellana 261, 28046, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: One in four hip fracture patients comes from an aged care facility. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of these subjects with their community-dwelling counterparts at baseline, during hospitalization and 1-month post-fracture.

Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of older adults admitted with hip fractures to 75 Spanish hospitals, collected prospectively in the Spanish National Hip Fracture Registry between 2016 and 2018. Read More

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Trisomy 9 mosaic syndrome: Sixteen additional patients with new and/or less commonly reported features, literature review, and suggested clinical guidelines.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine and The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Trisomy 9 mosaic syndrome (T9M) is a rare condition characterized by multiorgan system involvement including craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac, genitourinary (GU), skeletal, and central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Although more than 100 cases have been reported in the literature, a comprehensive review has not been performed nor have clinical guidelines been established. Therefore, we describe the clinical features of 16 additional patients, review features of previously reported individuals, and suggest clinical guidelines. Read More

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Differences and Similarities in the Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Orthographic Knowledge and Semantic Competence to Reading Fluency in Chinese School-Age Children With and Without Hearing Loss.

Front Psychol 2021 12;12:649375. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Compared with the large number of studies on reading of children with hearing loss (HL) in alphabetic languages, there are only a very limited number of studies on reading of Chinese-speaking children with HL. It remains unclear how phonological, orthographic, and semantic skills contribute to reading fluency of Chinese school-age children with HL. The present study explored this issue by examining the performances of children with HL on reading fluency and three linguistic skills compared with matched controls with normal hearing (NH). Read More

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Changes and Adaptations: How University Students Self-Regulate Their Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:642593. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Educational Development & Research, School of Health Professions Education (SHE), Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

During the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, universities had to shift from face-to-face to emergency remote education. Students were forced to study online, with limited access to facilities and less contact with peers and teachers, while at the same time being exposed to more autonomy. This study examined how students adapted to emergency remote learning, specifically focusing on students' resource-management strategies using an individual differences approach. Read More

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Does the narrative ability during retelling differ in 5-year-olds born with and without unilateral cleft lip and palate?

Logoped Phoniatr Vocol 2020 Oct 14:1-7. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: A previous study has indicated poorer narrative ability during retelling in 5-year-olds with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) as a group, compared to peers without UCLP.

Aim: To investigate if there are any differences between 5-year-olds with and without UCLP in narrative ability during retelling.

Methods: A total of 83 children participated, 51 with UCLP and 32 without. Read More

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October 2020

Association of food insecurity with dietary intakes and nutritional biomarkers among US children, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2016.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Food insecurity is associated with poorer nutrient intakes from food sources and lower dietary supplement use. However, its association with total usual nutrient intakes, inclusive of dietary supplements, and biomarkers of nutritional status among US children remains unknown.

Objective: The objective was to assess total usual nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) scores, and nutritional biomarkers by food security status, sex, and age among US children. Read More

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Asthma Remission Disparities among U.S. Youth by Sexual Identity and Race/Ethnicity, 2009-2017.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Evaluation, Data Integration, and Technical Assistance (EDIT) Research Program, Institute for Sexual and Gender Minority Health and Wellbeing, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL; Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: Sexual minority and racial/ethnic minority youth experience a higher burden of asthma. The frameworks of minority stress theory and intersectionality suggest sexual minority and racial/ethnic minority youth may experience disparities in non-remitting asthma.

Objective: To examine adjusted odds of non-remitting asthma by sexual identity, race/ethnicity, and their intersections, along with their relationship with traditional non-remitting asthma risk factors (weight status and smoking) and victimization (bullying, cyberbullying, and forced sex). Read More

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Self-management interventions for adolescents living with HIV: a systematic review.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 7;21(1):431. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for Evidence-based Health Care, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Self-management interventions aim to enable people living with chronic conditions to increase control over their condition in order to achieve optimal health and may be pertinent for young people with chronic illnesses such as HIV. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management interventions for improving health-related outcomes of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) and identify the components that are most effective, particularly in low-resource settings with a high HIV burden.

Methods: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs, non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) and controlled before-after (CBA) studies. Read More

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How Are Families Faring? Perceived Family Functioning Among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors in Comparison to Their Peers.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, Australia.

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors' families can face ongoing challenges into survivorship. Families' adjustment and functioning as a unit can subsequently impact AYAs' mental health and quality of life. This study examined AYA cancer survivors' perceived family functioning, compared with their peers, and investigated factors associated with family functioning. Read More

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Brief Report: Examining the Links Between Language Processes and Working Memory Impairments in Toddlers and Preschoolers with ASD.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Developmental Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, 1 Autumn Street, AU459, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Deficits in working memory have not been fully explored in toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated the relationship between language (verbal ability, verbal self-talk) and visuospatial working memory in 2- and 4-year-olds with ASD (n = 65) and typical development (TD) (n = 54). Children with ASD displayed impairments in working memory and verbal ability, but not verbal self-talk, compared to TD peers. Read More

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Relative Clause Sentence Comprehension by Japanese-Speaking Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 May 6:1-15. Epub 2021 May 6.

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Kitasato University, Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose This study investigated the auditory comprehension of Japanese sentences including relative clauses (RCs) by 52 Japanese-speaking children with typical development (TD) and 16 children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method A picture-pointing task measured RC and main clause (MC) comprehension for object and subject relatives in sentences with varying lengths. The accuracy of RC only, MC only, and combined comprehension (RC and MC) was analyzed with linear mixed-effects (logistic) models to examine accuracy and the effects of the deep gap-filler distance (structural complexity), the surface linear distance, and sentence length for the two participant groups. Read More

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The Effect of Peer Education on Management of Chemotherapy Side Effects in Patients with Cancer.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2021 Jan-Feb;26(1):81-84. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Background: Chemotherapy drugs may have numerous side effects for patients. Thus, this study was conducted with the aim to determine the effect of peer education on the management of chemotherapy side effects in patients with cancer.

Materials And Methods: This randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 80 patients with cancer in 2018. Read More

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January 2021

The compounding effect of having HIV and a disability on child mortality among mothers in South Africa.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251183. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Lurie Institute for Disability Policy, The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Previous research on the association between maternal HIV status and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa was published between 2005-2011. Findings from these studies showed a higher child mortality risk among children born to HIV-positive mothers. While the population of women with disabilities is growing in developing countries, we found no research that examined the association between maternal disability in HIV-positive mothers, and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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"The sky is the limit; I am going there": experiences of hope among young women receiving a conditional cash transfer in rural South Africa.

Cult Health Sex 2021 May 5:1-17. Epub 2021 May 5.

MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Young women in South Africa face elevated risk of HIV infection compared to male peers. Cash transfers may mitigate their risk for HIV; however, there is limited understanding of mechanisms of impact. We explored hope as one potential mechanism. Read More

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Sex, ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities and trajectories in child and adolescent mental health in Australia and the UK: findings from national prospective longitudinal studies.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Longitudinal Studies, UCL Institute of Social Research, University College London, London, UK.

Background: This study investigates the sex, ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in emotional difficulties over childhood and adolescence using longitudinal cohort studies in the UK and Australia. Estimating cross-national differences contributes to understanding of the consistency of inequalities in mental health across contexts.

Methods: Data from 19,748 participants in two contemporary representative samples in Australia (Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, n = 4,975) and UK (Millennium Cohort Study, n = 14,773) were used. Read More

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Latent Class Analysis and Predictors of Marijuana Use among Reservation-based American Indian High School Students.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2021 May 4:1-11. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

American Indian (AI) youth residing on reservations report higher rates of marijuana use compared to national youth. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify unique types of marijuana use among 2,884 AI high school students surveyed from 26 schools across six indigenous geographic regions. Predictors of class membership were then assessed using social, cultural, and individual measures relevant to adolescent substance use. Read More

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Social participation to support good mental health in neurodisability.

Child Care Health Dev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Young people with neurodisability experience lower levels of mental wellbeing and are at increased risk of mental illness compared to their non-disabled peers. Social participation is recognised as a protective factor against mental illness and a potential pathway to support better mental wellbeing in neurodisability.

Method: This co-design study involved young people, parents, and clinicians. Read More

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Diagnoses of Chronic Health Conditions and Change in Subjective Age: The Moderating Role of Chronological Age.

Gerontologist 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Gerontology, John W. McCormack Graduate School of Policy & Global Studies, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background And Objectives: Health is a predictor of subjective age, and although inconclusive, the strength of this association is not uniform across different age groups. This study investigates if new diagnoses of chronic health conditions are associated with a change in subjective age and if chronological age moderates this relationship.

Research Design And Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, residualized change regression analysis was performed for a sample of 5,158 respondents older than 50 years to examine their subjective age in 2014 relative to that reported in 2010. Read More

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Functions of parenting styles on patterns of general and serious delinquency trajectories: A mediated model of school climates and delinquent peer association.

J Adolesc 2021 Apr 30;89:114-127. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Texas A&M Univeresity, San Antonio, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study partially tests Agnew's (2005, 2011) general theory of crime and delinquency, drawing out the differential roles of parenting, constraints, and motivations when comparing general delinquency trajectories and serious delinquency trajectories.

Methods: Using data from a 7-year follow-up study of 927 South Korean male adolescents, the study incorporates a group-based trajectory modeling to identify subgroups, each having a unique pattern of trajectories, respectively.

Results: The models yielded 3 subgroups: Early onset & decreaser, Increaser & late peak, and Normative for general delinquency as well as Serious delinquent, Moderate delinquents, and Normative for serious delinquency. Read More

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White matter analysis of the extremely preterm born adult brain.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 30:118112. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Dept. Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, United Kingdom; School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, Kings College London, United Kingdom.

The preterm brain has been analysed after birth by a large body of neuroimaging studies; however, few studies have focused on white matter alterations in preterm subjects beyond infancy, especially in individuals born at extremely low gestation age - before 28 completed weeks. Neuroimaging data of extremely preterm young adults are now available to investigate the long-term structural alterations of disrupted neurodevelopment. In this work, we examined white matter hierarchical organisation and microstructure in extremely preterm young adults. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences and developmental disabilities: risks, resiliency, and policy.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Thanks to the seminal work of Robert Anda and Vincent Felitti, it is now widely accepted that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have lifelong effects on physical, behavioral, and mental health and that many adult diseases can be considered developmental disorders that began early in life. Genomics has advanced the neurobiological understanding that underpins ACEs, wellness, and disease, which are modulated through stress pathways and epigenetic modifications. While data are currently limited, children with developmental disabilities have an increased ACE risk compared to typically developing peers. Read More

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Health-Related Quality of Life in Pediatric Patients with Syndromic Autism and their Caregivers.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital, 1250 Moursund St. Suite 925, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Children with autism have a significantly lower quality of life compared with their neurotypical peers. While multiple studies have quantified the impact of autism on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through standardized surveys such as the PedsQL, none have specifically investigated the impact of syndromic autism. Here we evaluate HRQoL in children diagnosed with three genetic disorders that strongly predispose to syndromic autism: Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMD), Rett syndrome (RTT), and SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability (SYNGAP1-ID). Read More

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Social Cognition in Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:658823. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

The purpose of our study was to perform a comparative analysis of social cognition in children and adolescents with epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), specific learning disorder (SLD) and in typical development (TD) controls. The secondary aim was to relate social cognition to some clinical and demographic characteristics. Our work is a transversal observational study. Read More

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Neuromuscular mechanisms that contribute to gross motor performance in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Purpose: This study explored neuromuscular mechanisms and clinical measures that contribute to countermovement jump performance in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL CCS) compared to age- and sex-matched peers.

Methods: This exploratory cross-sectional observational study examined 12 participants, six ALL CCS and six age- and sex-matched peers (7-16 years). During a countermovement jump, rates of muscle activation of lower leg muscles were measured with electromyography, and joint torques and peak jump height with force plates and a motion capture system. Read More

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Beyond the Mini-Mental State Examination: The Use of Physical and Spatial Navigation Tests to Help to Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Spatial navigation and dual-task (DT) performance may represent a low-cost approach to the identification of the cognitive decline in older adults and may support the clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Objective: To assess the accuracy of different types of motor tasks in differentiating older persons with MCI and AD from healthy peers.

Methods: Older adults aged 60 years or over (n = 105; healthy = 39; MCI = 23; AD = 43) were evaluated by the floor maze test (FMT), the senior fitness test, and DT performance. Read More

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Inequities in children's reading skills: The role of home reading and preschool attendance.

Acad Pediatr 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Centre for Community Child Health, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Pediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds have poorer learning outcomes. These inequities are a significant public health issue, tracking forward to adverse health outcomes in adulthood. We examined the potential to reduce socioeconomic gaps in children's reading skills through increasing home reading and preschool attendance amongst disadvantaged children. Read More

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Musculoskeletal diagnoses, comorbidities, and physical and occupational therapy use among older adults with and without cerebral palsy.

Disabil Health J 2021 Apr 15:101109. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Musculoskeletal (MSK) disorder in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) is higher than in the general population. Evidence lacks about physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) service utilization among older adults (65> years) living with CP.

Objective: We compared the presence of comorbidities and patterns of PT and OT use among older adults with and without CP seeking care for MSK disorders. Read More

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Exploring the views of adolescents with type 1 diabetes on digital mental health interventions: what functionality and content do they want?

Diabet Med 2021 Apr 30:e14591. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) experience higher rates of psychological disorders compared to their healthy peers. As poor psychological health has been associated with sub-optimal glycaemic control and more frequent complications, there is an urgent need to develop more 'clinically usable' interventions. Digital mental health interventions offer unique advantages compared to in-person interventions, however, what adolescents with T1D want in terms of content and functionality is poorly understood. Read More

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